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Naming. Naming. Access point & address Location independent naming Identifier It refers to at most one entity Each entity has at most one id An id always refers to the same entity Name-to-address binding Name resolution vs message routing Flat naming Broadcasting and multicasting.

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Presentation Transcript
naming1
Naming
  • Access point & address
  • Location independent naming
  • Identifier
    • It refers to at most one entity
    • Each entity has at most one id
    • An id always refers to the same entity
  • Name-to-address binding
  • Name resolution vs message routing
  • Flat naming
    • Broadcasting and multicasting
naming versus locating entities
Naming versus Locating Entities
  • Direct, single level mapping between names and addresses.
  • T-level mapping using identities.
forwarding pointers
Forwarding Pointers
  • The principle of forwarding pointers using (proxy, skeleton) pairs.
forwarding pointers1
Forwarding Pointers
  • Redirecting a forwarding pointer, by storing a shortcut in a proxy.
home based approaches
Home-Based Approaches
  • The principle of Mobile IP.
distributed hash tables
Distributed Hash Tables
  • CHORD
    • FT_p[i] = first node in range [p+2^(i-1), p+2^i).
    • Enhance by storing r nodes in the range and during lookup use closest to query
chord
Chord

Searching for 26 from 1

Searching for 12 from 28

hierarchical approaches
Hierarchical Approaches
  • Hierarchical organization of a location service into domains, each having an associated directory node.
hierarchical approaches1
Hierarchical Approaches
  • An example of storing information of an entity having two addresses in different leaf domains.
hierarchical approaches2
Hierarchical Approaches
  • Looking up a location in a hierarchically organized location service.
hierarchical approaches3
Hierarchical Approaches
  • An insert request is forwarded to the first node that knows about entity E.
  • A chain of forwarding pointers to the leaf node is created.
pointer caches
Pointer Caches
  • Caching a reference to a directory node of the lowest-level domain in which an entity will reside most of the time.
pointer caches1
Pointer Caches
  • A cache entry that needs to be invalidated because it returns a nonlocal address, while such an address is available.
scalability issues
Scalability Issues
  • The scalability issues related to uniformly placing subnodes of a partitioned root node across the network covered by a location service.
structured name spaces
Structured Name Spaces
  • A general naming graph with a single root node.

Absolute vs relative path names

name spaces
Name Spaces
  • The general organization of the UNIX file system implementation on a logical disk of contiguous disk blocks.
linking and mounting
Linking and Mounting
  • The concept of a symbolic link vs a hard link explained in a naming graph.
linking and mounting1
Linking and Mounting
  • Mounting remote name spaces through a specific process protocol.
  • Mount point vs mounting point
linking and mounting2
Linking and Mounting
  • Organization of the DEC Global Name Service
name space distribution
Name Space Distribution
  • An example partitioning of the DNS name space, including Internet-accessible files, into three layers.
name space distribution1
Name Space Distribution
  • A comparison between name servers for implementing nodes from a large-scale name space partitioned into a global layer, as an administrational layer, and a managerial layer.
implementation of name resolution
Implementation of Name Resolution
  • The principle of iterative name resolution.
implementation of name resolution1
Implementation of Name Resolution
  • The principle of recursive name resolution.
implementation of name resolution2
Implementation of Name Resolution
  • Recursive name resolution of <nl, vu, cs, ftp>. Name servers cache intermediate results for subsequent lookups.
implementation of name resolution3
Implementation of Name Resolution
  • The comparison between recursive and iterative name resolution with respect to communication costs.
the dns name space
The DNS Name Space
  • The most important types of resource records forming the contents of nodes in the DNS name space.
dns implementation
DNS Implementation
  • An excerpt from the DNS database for the zone cs.vu.nl.
dns implementation1
DNS Implementation
  • Part of the description for the vu.nl domain which contains the cs.vu.nl domain.
attribute based naming
Attribute-based naming
  • Describe an entity via (attribute,value) pairs
    • Partial match queries in DB lingo
  • LDAP and X.500
  • Scalability issues
    • Decrentralized implementations
      • Attribute-value tree: hash-index for all paths to nodes in XML-like tree
the x 500 name space
The X.500 Name Space
  • A simple example of a X.500 directory entry using X.500 naming conventions.
the x 500 name space 2
The X.500 Name Space (2)
  • Part of the directory information tree.
the x 500 name space 3
The X.500 Name Space (3)
  • Two directory entries having Host_Name as RDN.
the problem of unreferenced objects
The Problem of Unreferenced Objects
  • An example of a graph representing objects containing references to each other.
reference counting 1
Reference Counting (1)
  • The problem of maintaining a proper reference count in the presence of unreliable communication.
reference counting 2
Reference Counting (2)
  • Copying a reference to another process and incrementing the counter too late
  • A solution.
advanced referencing counting 1
Advanced Referencing Counting (1)
  • The initial assignment of weights in weighted reference counting
  • Weight assignment when creating a new reference.
advanced referencing counting 2
Advanced Referencing Counting (2)
  • Weight assignment when copying a reference.
advanced referencing counting 3
Advanced Referencing Counting (3)
  • Creating an indirection when the partial weight of a reference has reached 1.
advanced referencing counting 4
Advanced Referencing Counting (4)
  • Creating and copying a remote reference in generation reference counting.
tracing in groups 1
Tracing in Groups (1)
  • Initial marking of skeletons.
tracing in groups 2
Tracing in Groups (2)
  • After local propagation in each process.
tracing in groups 3
Tracing in Groups (3)
  • Final marking.
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