Satellite Sensing of Greenhouse Gases
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Satellite Sensing of Greenhouse Gases. By Cael Sutherland. (http://www.moline.il.us/departments/parks/NewGreenhouse.jpg). Greenhouse Gases. Carbon dioxide Hydrofluorocarbons Ozone Sulphur Hexafluoride MethaneNitrogen Trifluoride Nitrous oxide Fluorinated Ethers

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Satellite Sensing of Greenhouse Gases

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Satellite sensing of greenhouse gases

Satellite Sensing of Greenhouse Gases

By Cael Sutherland

(http://www.moline.il.us/departments/parks/NewGreenhouse.jpg)


Satellite sensing of greenhouse gases

Greenhouse Gases

Carbon dioxideHydrofluorocarbons

OzoneSulphur Hexafluoride

MethaneNitrogen Trifluoride

Nitrous oxideFluorinated Ethers

CFCsPerfluoropolyethers

HCFCsDimethylether

Carbon TetrachlorideMethylene Chloride

Methyl Chloride

(Manning, Qin, and Solomon, 2008)


Satellite sensing of greenhouse gases

Water Vapor


Satellite sensing of greenhouse gases

ERS-2

European Remote Sensing

Altitude: 780 km

Inclination: 98.5 degrees

Repeat Cycle: 35 days

Period: 100 min

Swath Width:120-960km

(http://earth.esa.int/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=4004)

(http://msl.jpl.nasa.gov/QuickLooks/ersQL.html)

(http://www.ga.gov.au/remote-sensing/satellites-sensors/satellite-facts.jsp)


Satellite sensing of greenhouse gases

ERS-2

RARadio Altimeter

ATSRSea and Cloud Temperature

MWRWater Vapor Column

SAROcean Surface Waves

WSWind Speed at Sea Surface

PRARETracking

And…

(http://www.grdl.noaa.gov/SAT/pubs/papers/ers2_esm/fig1.jpg)

(http://earth.esa.int/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=3978)


Satellite sensing of greenhouse gases

GOME

Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment

An instrument primarily created to measure ozone levels. It operates in the visual and ultraviolet wavelengths from 240 to 790 nm. Below 290 nm, GOME measures more that we know it should, so a calibration for the instrument is mandatory. Albedo, temperature, and Rayleigh scattering are also taken into account in the algorithm.

(http://wdc.dlr.de/data_products/SERVICES/GOMENRT/ROSE/

images/current/r_o3p_ppm_HP.gif)

(Burrows, Rozanov, Tellmann, & Weber, 2003)


Satellite sensing of greenhouse gases

GOME

GOME uses the spectral band 240 to 790 nm because it contains two important ozone absorption bands, called the Hartley and Huggins bands.

Using the Neural Networks Retrieval Algorithms, the combination of the two bands produces images such as the one to the right.

(http://wdc.dlr.de/data_products/SERVICES/GOMENRT/ROSE/images/current/r_o3gmt56_SH.gif)

(Casadioet al, 2007)


Satellite sensing of greenhouse gases

ENVISAT

Altitude:799.8 km

Inclination: 98.55 degrees

Repeat Cycle: 35 days

Period: 100.59 min

Velocity: 7.45 km/s

Swath Width:1000km max

(http://envisat.esa.int/category/index.cfm?fcategoryid=61)


Satellite sensing of greenhouse gases

ENVISAT

ASAR

MERIS

AATSR

RA-2

MWR

GOMOS

MIPAS

DORIS

LRR

And…

Radar Altimetry

Solar Reflectivity

Sea Surface Temperature

High Precision Altimeter

Water Vapor Column

Atmospheric Constituents

Limb Gaseous Emmisions

Microwave Tracking

Laser Reflecter

(http://www.asc-csa.gc.ca/images/recherche/images/ENVISAT-01_hr.jpg)

(http://envisat.esa.int/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=3762)


Satellite sensing of greenhouse gases

SCIAMACHY

SCanningImaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY

Is able to measure in three different observational geometries:

Solar and Lunar

Occultation

RefractedLight Waves

Limb Scanning

All The Way

To The

Side

Nadir

Straight

Down

(Bovensmannet al, 2002)


Satellite sensing of greenhouse gases

SCIAMACHY

Sample limb scanning data for ozone

(http://www.iup.uni-bremen.de/~sciaproc/STROZONE/O3_2008.html)


Satellite sensing of greenhouse gases

(http://www.sciamachy.de/images/molscia.jpg)


Satellite sensing of greenhouse gases

Ozone

290-335nm

(Casadio et al, 2007)

(http://greenation.in/yahoo_site_admin/assets/images/ozone_formation.269181155.jpg)


Satellite sensing of greenhouse gases

(http://www.osdpd.noaa.gov/ml/air/gome.html)


Satellite sensing of greenhouse gases

SCIAMACHY

(http://www.iup.uni-bremen.de/6jahresciamachy/eng/ueberwachungderozonschicht/index.html)


Satellite sensing of greenhouse gases

Carbon Dioxide

Wavelengths:

1610 nm

2060 nm

(http://trs-new.jpl.nasa.gov/dspace/

bitstream/2014/39959/1/06-2084.pdf)

(http://benjyben.files.wordpress.com/2008/10/792px-camp_fire.jpg)


Satellite sensing of greenhouse gases

(http://www.iup.uni-bremen.de/sciamachy/NIR_NADIR_WFM_DOAS/)


Satellite sensing of greenhouse gases

(http://www.iup.uni-bremen.de/sciamachy/NIR_NADIR_WFM_DOAS/)


Satellite sensing of greenhouse gases

Methane

2265-2380nm

(Buchwitz, Dobber, Goede, & Schrijver, 1998)

(http://lilithsapothecary.files.wordpress.com/2009/08/seaweed.jpg)


Satellite sensing of greenhouse gases

(http://www.iup.uni-bremen.de/sciamachy/NIR_NADIR_WFM_DOAS/scia_ch4_nh_english.png)


Satellite sensing of greenhouse gases

http://www.iup.uni-bremen.de/sciamachy/NIR_NADIR_WFM_DOAS/xch4_v1_2003-2005.png)


Satellite sensing of greenhouse gases

Nitrogen Dioxide

425-450 nm

(http://www.iup.uni-bremen.

de/doas/no2_tropos_from_

scia.htm)

(http://powermin.nic.in/ministry_of_power/generation_plants/thermal/images/A%20View%20of%20Badarpur%20Thermal%20Power%20Station.jpg)


Satellite sensing of greenhouse gases

(http://www.temis.nl/airpollution/no2col/no2colgome2.php?Year=2009&Month=11&Day=12)


Satellite sensing of greenhouse gases

(http://www.iup.uni-bremen.de/~sciaproc/CDI/SSWF/NO2_2009.html)


Satellite sensing of greenhouse gases

References

(2009, June 26). Australian government, geoscienceaustralia: satellite facts. Retrieved from http://www.ga.gov.au/remote-sensing/satellites

sensors/satellite-facts.jsp

Bovensmann, H, Burrows, J, Goede, A, Gotwald, M, Krieg, E, Muller, C, Noel, S, & Wuttke, M. (2002). Nadir, limb, and occultation

measurements with sciamachy. Adv. Space Res., 29(11), 1819-1924.

Buchwitz, M, Dobber, M, Goede, A, & Schrijver, H. (1998). Retrieval of carbon monoxide, methane, and nitrous oxide from sciamachy

measurements. Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, 3501, 215-224.

Burrows, J, Rozanov, V, Tellmann, S, & Weber, M. (2003). Improvements in the tropical ozone profile retrieval from gome-uv/vis nadir spectra.

Advances in Space Research, 34, 739-743.

Casadio, S, Del Frate, F, Godin-Beekmann, S, Hansen, G, Iapaolo, M, Leblanc, T, McDermid, I, Meijer, Y, Petitdidier, M, Stebel, K, & Swart, D.

(2007). Gome ozone profiles retrieved by neural network techniques: a global validation with lidar measurements. Journal of

Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer, 107, 105-119.

Crisp, D, Li, Q, Miller, C, Salawitch, R, Sen, B, & Toon, G. (n.d.). Using Sciamachy and ground based fts measurements to test the ocoxco2

retrieval and validation approach. Retrieved from http://trs-new.jpl.nasa.gov/dspace/bitstream/2014/39959/1/06-2084.pdf

(2009). Esaearthnet online: envisat in depth overview. Retrieved from http://envisat.esa.int/category/index.cfm?fcategoryid=61

(2009). Esaearthnet online: envisat instruments. Retrieved from http://envisat.esa.int/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=3762

(2009). Esaearthnet online: ersintruments. Retrieved from http://earth.esa.int/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=3978

(2009). Esaearthnet online: gome in depth. Retrieved from http://earth.esa.int/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=4004

Manning, M, Qin, D, & Solomon, S. (2008). Technical summary. IPCC Report, 19-91.

(2009). Mission and spacecraft library: quick look ers 1,2. Retrieved from http://msl.jpl.nasa.gov/QuickLooks/ersQL.html)

Richter, A. (2008, August 8). University of bremeniupdoas: tropospheric no2 from sciamachy measurements. Retrieved from http://www.iup.uni

bremen.de/doas/no2_tropos_from_scia.htm


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