Carbon Capture, Sequestration & CDM Opportunities in Power Sector
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Carbon Capture, Sequestration & CDM Opportunities in Power Sector. Presented By:. Dr. V. K. Sethi. Director, UIT, RGPV & Head, E&EM, RGPV. The Major Contradictory Challenges Faced by Developing world. Quest for increased Generation capacity - Terawatt Challenge Climate Change

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Carbon capture sequestration cdm opportunities in power sector

Carbon Capture, Sequestration & CDM Opportunities in Power Sector

Presented By:

Dr. V. K. Sethi

Director, UIT, RGPV

&

Head, E&EM, RGPV


The major contradictory challenges faced by developing world

The Major Contradictory ChallengesFaced by Developing world

  • Quest for increased Generation capacity - Terawatt Challenge

  • Climate Change

    - rising GHG level

  • Continued focus on coal based generation


Government of india s national missions

Government of India’s National Missions

  • National Solar Mission 2009

  • National Renewable Energy Mission

    “A target of 10% of Renewable Energy by 2012”

  • National Mission on Combating Climate Change through Green & Clean Power

  • National Bio-diesel Mission

  • National Mission of Hydro Potential Exploitation

  • National Mission on ‘Clean Coal Technologies’ for Mega Power Generation


Carbon capture sequestration cdm opportunities in power sector

Jawahar Lal Nehru National Solar Mission

Objectives:

  • To achieve solar energy production at a scale which leads to cost reduction and rapid diffusion and deployment of solar technologies across the country.

  • For the purpose; set up enabling policy environment and regulatory framework.

Road Map:


The national solar mission

The National Solar Mission

The National Solar Mission is a major initiative of the Government of India and State Government to promote ecologically sustainable growth while addressing India’s energy security challenge.

It will also constitute a major contribution by India to the Global efforts to meet the challenges ofClimate Change


Main targets for national mission

Main targets for National mission

The objective of the National Mission is to establish India as a global leader in solar energy through:

  • 20,000MW of installed solar generation capacity by 2022.

  • Solar cost reduction to achieve grid parity by 2022.


Proposed milestones for mp

Proposed Milestones for MP

  • Phase-I

    • Year 2009-2013

      Grid Connected :75MW

      off grid:2MW

  • Phase-II

    • Year 2013-2017

      Grid Connected :150MW

      off grid:5MW

  • Phase-III

    • Year 2017-2022

      Grid Connected :750MW

      off grid:25MW


  • Carbon capture sequestration cdm opportunities in power sector

    Sustained economic growth at 8 to 9% requires that by the year 2012, we must have installed capacity at a level of over 2,00,000 MW and by 2050 at the level of 10 Lakh MW i.e. a trillion or Terra Watt – This poses a Terra watt challenges for India.


    Carbon capture sequestration cdm opportunities in power sector

    • Green House Gas level rise to a current level of 390 ppm and consequent climate change, floods and draughts has affected 260 million people between 2000 and 2004 through natural calamities, of these, 98% were in developing nations.

    • Developed countries with population of 15% of world population have the share of CO2 emissions at 50%.

    • CO2 level has risen to 390 ppm from 1975 level of 330 ppm.

    • There is so much momentum in the system that we will certainly double CO2 level by end of the century.

    • Global temperature rise by 3 to 4 0C will cause displacement of over 330 million people in developing world.


    Carbon capture sequestration cdm opportunities in power sector

    • China and India are projected to account for 30% of the world’s increase in energy consumption between 2000-2020 and 92% of increase in coal use.

    • World Green House inventory is over 29,000 Million tones per annum (MTPA) with US over 20% (India with total emission of about 1400 MTPA is only at 4.8 %.)

    • Coal is going to remain main stay for power generation in at least next Three decades for India (99,861 MW Coal based generation out of 1,56,092 MW total power installed capacity)


    Green house inventory for india for energy sector million tonnes of co 2

    Green House inventory for India for Energy Sector (Million Tonnes of CO2)

    Source: IAE: 1999


    Carbon capture sequestration cdm opportunities in power sector

    Atmospheric Concentration of GHG increasing

    • Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases have

    increased significantly since industrial revolution

    – Carbon dioxide +30%; Methane +100%;Nitrous oxide +15%

    – Greenhouse gas concentrations projected to reach

    double pre-industrial levels by about 2060

    • Many greenhouse gases remain in atmosphere for a

    longtime (decades to centuries)


    The fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel for climate change ipcc has confirmed

    The temperature of the earth’s surface has increased by 0.76˚C over the past century.

    It is very likely (more than 90˚ probability) that most of this global warming was due to increased GHGs(green house gases ), resulting from human activity.

    Eleven of the last 12 years (1995-2006) were among the 12 warmest years on the instrumental record of global surface temperature.

    Mountain glaciers are receding and snow cover has declined in both the hemispheres.

    Best estimate regarding the future changes in climate by 2099 for low scenario is 1.8” and for high scenario is 4.0”sea level rise

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) has confirmed:


    Indian power sector joins tera club by 2010

    INDIAN POWER SECTOR JOINS TERA CLUB BY 2010

    • POWER GENERATION BY UTILITIES TODAY

      1,56,092 MW …600 Billion kWh per annum

    • TARGETTED CAPACITY ADDITION IN 11TH PLAN

      • Central46,500 MW

      • State & IPP41,800 MW

      • NCES10,700 MW

      • Nuclear6,400 MW

      • Total105,400 MW

  • BY 2012 WE NEED TO GENERATE ANNULLY

    …Over 1000 Billion kWh

  • THUS WE WILL BE A TRILLION or TERA kWh (Unit)

    GENERATING POWER SECTOR BY 2010


  • Tera watt challenge for synergy in energy environment

    Tera-watt Challenge for synergy in Energy & Environment

    • A terawatt Challenge of 2012 for India

      To give over one billion people in India the minimum Electrical Energy they need by 2010, we need to generate over 0.2 terra watt (oil equivalent to over 3 million barrels of oil per day) and 1 TW by 2050,primarily through Advanced fossil fuel technologies like CCTs for limiting GHG emission levels

    • By 2020 our mix of generation would have the Peak in Thermal, certainly it would be theGreen Thermal Power:

      • Thermal326,000MW

      • Renewable & Hydro 104,000 MW

      • Nuclear 20,000 MW

      • Total450,000 MW


    Energy security indian perspective

    Energy Security – Indian Perspective

    AGENDA FOR THE ENERGY GENERATION SECTOR:

    Increased use of Advanced Fossil Fuel Technology.

    Promote CCT in countries like India & China where coal is main stay fuel for Power Generation.

    Reduce Atmospheric Pollution from Energy Generating Systems.

    Enhance productivity through Advanced Fossil Fuel Technology.

    Adoption of Renewable Energy Technologies in Rural Sector


    Energy for the earth planet non co 2 options

    Energy for the Earth Planet- Non-CO2 Options

    • World Generates 15 Terawatt of Energy (the US - about 3TW, India - 0.156 TW) today to support 10 billion world population. This is Equivalent to230 million barrels of oil /day.

    • By 2050 it is projected to need about 35 TW. The world would need about 20 TW of non-CO2 energy to stabilize CO2 in the atmosphere by mid century.

    • Among the non-CO2 options , it is possible that solar is the only one that can meet this Terawatt challenge and at the same time contribute to the reduction of climate change, with about 125,000 TW of global incident sunlight.


    Energy for the earth planet non co 2 options contd

    Energy for the Earth Planet- Non-CO2 Options…Contd.

    • Key scenario for stabilizing CO2in the atmosphere during 21st century turn on the viability of CO2 sequestration. This implies CO2 capture, storage and then pumping to aquifers, to stay for millennia.

    • In any case minimum 10 TW is needed within a decade from Breeder Nuclear , Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) and Renewables.

    • Biomass CO2 sequestration could also meet this challenge to some extent.


    Power scenario in india

    POWER SCENARIO IN INDIA

     Installed capacity in Utilities as on December 09

    …1, 56,092 MW

    • Thermal Installed Capacity…99,861 MW

      (Coal 81,605 MW, Gas 17,055 MW, Diesel 1201 MW + Others- cogen etc.)

    • Hydro Power …36, 885 MW

    • Nuclear Power … 4120 MW

    • Renewable Energy Sources …15,226 MW

    • No. of Villages Electrified… 4,98,286

    • Length of Trans. Lines… 64,97,727 kM

    • Total energy generation… 587 billion kWh

    • Per Capita Energy Consumption 606 kWh


    Carbon capture sequestration cdm opportunities in power sector

    NCES POTENTIAL AND INSTALLED CAPACITY (In MW)

    Renewable EnergySource

    All India

    MP

    Wind - Potential

    - Installed

    45,000

    5500

    3595

    159.49

    Bio Mass - Potential

    + Co-gen.

    - Installed

    19,500

    100

    750

    9.86

    Small Hydro – Potential

    - Installed

    5000

    410.13

    1705

    40

    Energy - Potential

    from Waste

    - Installed

    1700

    -

    42

    -

    Solar PV - Potential

    - Installed

    20 MW/Sq. km

    -

    264

    100 k Wp


    Indian power sector towards sustainable power development

    INDIANPOWER SECTOR - TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE POWER DEVELOPMENT

    • Total Installed Capacity … 1,56,092 MW

    • Thermal Generation … over 64 %

    • Although no GHG reduction targets for India but taken steps through adoption of Renewable Energy Technologies,Combined cycles, Co-generation, Coal beneficiation,Plant Performance optimization

    • Under Kyoto Protocol; Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) conceived to reduce cost of GHG mitigation, while promoting sustainable development as per Framework Convention on Climate change (FCCC)


    Carbon capture sequestration cdm opportunities in power sector

    FRONTALS IN ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT

    • GREEN ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES – PRIMARILY THE

      CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES

    • ZERO EMISSION TECHNOLOGIES FOR TRANSPORT, POWER PLANTS & INDUSTRIAL SECTOR

    • AFFORDABLE RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES

    • ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    • CDM OPPORTUNITIES IN ENERGY SECTOR


    Carbon capture sequestration cdm opportunities in power sector

    There are three main techniques for Capture of CO2 in Power Generation

    Post-combustion capture

    Pre-combustion capture

    Oxy-fuel combustion


    Carbon capture sequestration cdm opportunities in power sector

    Techniques for removal of CO2 from Flue Gas

    • Carbon dioxide can be removed from flue gas and waste gas streams produced from carbon usage by various methods.

    • Absorption with a solvent,

    • Membrane separation,

    • Cryogenic fractionation,

    • Adsorption using molecular sieves.

    • Capture of CO2 from absorption method is most widely used technique.


    Carbon capture sequestration cdm opportunities in power sector

    Absorption Approach Using Chemical Solvents

    • CO2 can be removed from flue gases using solvents that rely on chemical or physical absorption.

    • The most common solvents used for neutralizing CO2in chemical absorption systems are alkanol-amines such as mono-ethanol-amine (MEA), di-ethanol-amine (DEA), and methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA).

    • Chemical absorption with MEA solvent is the most common

    • capture technology, is readily available and can be integrated

    • into new plants.

    • Prior to CO2 removal, the flue gas is typically cooled, then treated to reduce particulars and other impurities. It is then passed in to absorption tower where it comes in contact with the absorption solution.


    Carbon capture sequestration cdm opportunities in power sector

    Carbon Capture & Sequestration

    • India’s position with regard to Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) is very clear. We don’t make any commitment at this stage regarding deployment of CCS technologies. India advocates very strongly the Carbon Capture & Sequestration.

    • Some of the demo pilot projects include.

  • -Pilot project on Geological CO2 sequestration in basalt rock formation. The question of adoption of CCS will depend on this technology being cost effective.

  • -Projects under DST sponsored National Program on Carbon Sequestration (NPCS)


  • Carbon capture sequestration cdm opportunities in power sector

    FLUE GAS FROM GASIFIER

    LEGEND

    STEAM

    F.G.

    CO2

    MEA

    CO

    H2

    CH4

    H2

    N2

    N2

    MEA-01

    MEA-02

    MEA-03

    CH4

    CATALYTIC CONVERTER

    METHANE

    LIGNITE

    HYDROGEN PRODUCER

    CO

    CONVERTOR

    ASH

    GAS SCRUBBER

    04

    CO2 STRIPPER

    05

    ST ST

    NaHCO3

    PURE MEA

    06

    SATURATED CO2

    MEA -07

    STEAM

    PURE H2 FOR FULE CELL

    FLUE GAS

    P2

    BOILER

    P1

    CO2 CAPTURE PILOT PLANT AT RGPV


    Carbon capture sequestration cdm opportunities in power sector

    Rated Capacity of the Capture of CO2 : 500 kg/ day

    Source of CO2

    - Boiler of capacity 100kg/hr. steam & Biomass Gasifier of 10kW

    Solvent used for capture of CO2 :

    Mono Ethanol Amine (MEA)

    SOx & NOx Removal :

    NaHCO3

    Catalytic Converters / Reduction Unit

    - For Methane.... Input CO and H2, Catalyst

    - For Hydrogen.... Input CO and Steam, Catalyst

    - For Carbon Monoxide...Fe3C & Lignite


    Co 2 mitigation options case of electricity sector

    CO2 mitigation Options: Case of Electricity Sector

    • Coal: Dominates the electricity sector today

    • Fuel switching (Coal NG)

    • Conventional Plants + Carbon Capture & Sequestration (CCS)

      (Post –Combustion CO2 Capture)

    • Gasification/ Reforming + CCS

      (Pre-Combustion CO2 Capture)

    • Oxyfuel Combustion + CCS


    Kyoto back ground

    ‘Kyoto’ Back-ground

    • 1992: United Nations Framework convention on Climate Change, adopted by most of the countries at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro

    • 1997:Kyoto Protocol was adopted

    • An important step towards stabilization of GHG concentration to prevent dangerous impacts on climate system

    • Industrialized countries are required to reduce their combined GHG emissions by at least 5.2% compared to 1990 levels by the first commitment period(2008-2012)

    • 2005:Kyoto protocol entered into force

    • Met 55 / 55%condition, after ratification by the Russian Federation

    • Is now fully operational


    Kyoto protocol mechanism

    Kyoto Protocol Mechanism

    • Joint Implementation (Article 6):

      Emission reduction arising from project investment in other developed countries (with own emission targets)

    • Clean Development Mechanism (Article 12):

      Emission reduction arising from project investments in developing countries (don't have emission targets)

    • Emission Trading (Article 17)

      Portions of developed country’s emission allowances can be bought ? Sold in international C trading market. A Supplement to domestic action.


    Strategic response

    Prevention

    - Energy Conservation

    - Green practices, change in lifestyle

    Abatement

    - GHG emission mitigation through :

    Improved energy efficiency

    Cleaner energy sources / technologies

    Preventing deforestation

    Reducing methane emission (by improved Waste management practices)

    Strategic Response


    Where is cdm applicable

    Where is CDM Applicable ?

    • Renewable Energy: Wind, Solar, Biomass, Hydel power

    • Fuel switching: Fossil fuels to green fuel

    • Energy efficiency measures related to: Boilers,pumps,turbines,cooling system etc.

    • Introduction of new, efficient power generation technologies; Reduction in technical T&D losses

    • Improved waste management practieses:e.g.Capturing landfill methane for power generation

    • Transport: Modal shift , fuel switch

    • Forestry:Afforestration


    Cdm disqualifiers

    CDM: Disqualifiers

    • Emission reduction from Nuclear facilities

    • A diversion of official development assistance (ODA) from Annex – I countries

    • Any other type of sequestration activities apart from afforestation and reforerstation!


    Cdm a win win situation

    CDM- A WIN-WIN SITUATION

    Industrialized countries (AI)

    • To assist in meeting their emission limitation commitments

    Investors

    Projectproponents

    CDM project activity

    (private business, governments, NGOs)

    (private business, governments, NGOs)

    Developing countries (Non-AI)

    • To assist in achieving

      sustainable development


    What makes a project activity a cdm project activity

    What makes a project activity a CDM project activity?

    GHG

    “What would have happened” situation (fictitious situation) = baseline

    CERs

    CDM project activity

    Start of CDM

    project activity

    time

    GHG = Greenhouse gas emissions

    CERs =certified emissions reduction


    Cdm projects status

    CDM Projects Status

    • Total projects registered by EB – 1000

    • Equivalent CERs – 340 Million

    • Projects from India – 47 (~ 30%)

    • Total Baseline Methodologies approved > 50

    • Majority of the projects: Biomass – energy

    • Majority of CERs generated: HFC oxidation


    Typical cdm projects categories in india

    Typical CDM Projects Categories in India

    • Renewable energy (e.g. solar, wind, biomass, hydro)

    • Fuel switching (e.g. oil to gas, coal to gas)

    • Energy efficiency (e.g. lighting, insulation, process optimization)

    • Waste processing (e.g. land fill gas extraction, waste incineration)

    • Waste heat recovery projects including power generation

    • Energy saving by elimination of reheating processes

    • Thermal oxidation of HFC

    • Afforestation


    Towards 2012 and beyond

    Towards2012 and Beyond

    • Continue to mobilize private sector participation in the CDM, willing to respond positively to CDM criteria

    • Encourage CDM participation of large public sector emitters (e.g. power & transport sector) possibly in sector CDM arrangements

    • Information infrastructure to support a functioning market – e.g. baseline for major sectors like Power, Cement, Iron and Steel

    • Explore opportunities for sector trading schemes (Sectoral & Programmatic CDM )

    • Integration of GHG emission reduction activities and national development programmes


    Mission energy security and energy independence

    Mission Energy Security and Energy independence

    • Climate Change – Nature’s Fury

    • Solar for irrigation

    • High Efficiency CNT Based PV Cells

    • Hydrogen as Fuel for future

    • Accelerated Program on Thorium based Nuclear Reactor

    • Clean coal Technologies like SCR, IGCC

    • Bio-fuels for Railways and Mass Transport

    • Energy Security by 2020, Energy Independence by2030

      ….Reference: Address by President of India 14th Aug 2005


    Carbon capture sequestration cdm opportunities in power sector

    Prime Clean Coal Technology Options for India for 11th & 12th Plans

    • Supercritical Power Plants

    • Integrated Gasification Combined

      Cycle (IGCC) Power Plants

    • Circulating Fluidized Bed

      Combustion (CFBC) Power Plants


    Super critical units

    SUPER CRITICAL UNITS

    • Standardized Unit Size 660 MW, 246 ata, 537 oC

    • Station Size 2x660 MW (Minimum)

    • Common Off site facility

    • FW Temperature 270 oC – 275 oC with 6 Heaters.

      Total Capacity Planned 14,560 MW *

      Number of Units22 Units

      *Includes 6x720 MW and 2x500 MW Imported sets.


    Main advantages of super critical steam cycle

    Main advantages ofSuper-Critical Steam Cycle

    • Reduced fuel cost due to improved thermal efficiency

    • Reduction of CO2 emissions by 15% per unit of Power generated compared to sub-critical

    • Very good part load efficiencies

    • Plant costs are comparable with sub-critical units


    Current state of art

    Current State-of-Art

    Super-critical Steam Power Generation Plants

    Pressure-300 bar

    Temperature-600oC

    Efficiency-45% (LHV Basis)

    Nickel based alloys allows up 650oC

    By the year 2005-620 oC

    By the year 2020-650-700 oC

    Cycle Efficiency-50-55%


    Carbon capture sequestration cdm opportunities in power sector

    IGCC TECHNOLOGY ...

    • Gasification of coal is the cleanest way of utilization of coal, while combined cycle power generation gives the highest efficiency.

    • Integration of these two technologies in IGCC power generation offers the benefits of very low emissions and efficiencies of the order of 44-48%.

    • The comparative indices show that in case of IGCC, emission of particulate, NOx and SOx are:

      7.1%, 20% and 16%, respectively, of the corresponding emissions from PC plant.

      - Three major areas of technology that will contribute to improvements in IGCC are :

      • hot gas de-sulfurisation

      • hot gas particulate removal

      • advanced turbine systems


    Carbon capture sequestration cdm opportunities in power sector

    IGCC


    Carbon capture sequestration cdm opportunities in power sector

    Circulating fluidized Bed Combustion

    • Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (CFBC) technology has selectively been applied in India for firing high sulphur refinery residues, lignite, etc.

      CFBC Technology is superior to PC Power Plant Technology:

      • Lower NOx formation and the ability to capture SO2 with limestone injection the furnace.


    Carbon capture sequestration cdm opportunities in power sector

    Circulating Fluidised Bed Boiler

    Steam to Super Heater

    Cyclone

    Back-Pass

    Coal Feed

    Hopper

    Furnace

    ESP

    External

    Heat-Exchanger

    Ash Cooler

    HP Air


    Cfbc vs other clean coal technologies

    ITEM

    CFBC

    PF+FGD/SCR

    IGCC

    Cycle Efficiency %

    34.8

    36.7

    41-42

    Relative Capital Cost/kW

    1.0

    1.03-1.19

    1.15-1.42

    Relative O&M Cost/kW

    1.0

    1.49

    0.8-0.98

    CFBC Vs Other Clean Coal Technologies

    At present pulverized fuel firing with FGD are less costly than prevailing IGCC technology. However, firing in CFB Boiler is still more economical when using high sulfur lignite and low-grade coals and rejects.


    Green energy solutions

    Green Energy solutions

    Promote CCT in countries like India & China where coal is main stay fuel for Power Generation.

    Increased use of Advanced Fossil Fuel Technology

    Energy Farming

    Energy Efficiency

    Major shift towards Green Technologies

    Adoption of Renewable Energy Technologies in Rural Sector


    Carbon capture sequestration cdm opportunities in power sector

    Coming back to CDM as applied to Energy Sector & CCTs

    Sector –wise CDM Potential is given in the Table 01 below:

    Table: 01


    Carbon capture sequestration cdm opportunities in power sector

    Weighted average emission factor, simple Operating Margin (OM), Build Margin (BM) and Combined Margin (CM) of all Indian Regional Grids in t CO2 / MWh

    OM is the average emission from all the stations excluding the low cost/ must run sources.

    BM is the average emission of the 20% (by net generation) most recent capacity addition in the grid.

    CM is a weighted average of the OM and BM (here weighted 50:50)


    Carbon capture sequestration cdm opportunities in power sector

    Table: 03

    Technology-wise expected CDM funds flow.


    Carbon capture sequestration cdm opportunities in power sector

    Table: 04

    Potential CDM Projects for India targeted to meet

    National Mitigation targets


    Carbon capture sequestration cdm opportunities in power sector

    Table: 05

    Cost of various CO2 (carbon dioxide) mitigation options in India


    Issues before the house

    Issues before the house

    • Technology break thoughts in the areas like CO2 capture and Clean Coal Technologies

    • Development of low cost solar photo voltaic cells

    • Bringing Energy Efficiency & Energy Conservation on the top of the National Agenda

    • Promotion of Carbon Trading on the strength of Energy Efficiency and Green Environment initiatives.

    • Base line methodologies for variety of Clean and Green Technologies need to be redefined.


    Rgtu initiatives

    RGTU INITIATIVES

    • Hybrid power plant of Wind, Solar & Biomass has been setup which will pave way for sustainable power supply for variety of biomass fuels & environment limitations.

    • Biomass Gasifier (10kW) & Bio-diesel Plant (100 LPD) has been commissioned

    • Green Energy Technology Center has been set up to focus on following areas:

      - Clean Coal Technology & CDM

      - Bio-fuels and bio-diesel

      - Renewable Energy devices (hybrid) targeted to produce 1 MW Power for the campus

      - Energy Conservation & Management

      - CO2 Sequestration & CO2 capture technologies

      .


    Impact green projects at rgtu

    Impact Green Projects at RGTU

    • CO2 Capture, Sequestration and Production of Multi-purpose fuels – Hydrogen, Methane and Biodiesel through Algae route

    • Production of CNG from Coal–gasification route

    • Solar, Wind & Biomass Hybrid System

    • 60 kW Solar-Wind Hybrid system at Hill top of RGTU

    • High yield Jatropha plantation and Bio-diesel production using indigenously designed Bio-diesel reactors


    Carbon capture sequestration cdm opportunities in power sector

    CO2 Sequestration Plant at Energy Park, RGPV


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