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Exam #3 W 12/5 at 7-8:30pm 9am class in ETC 2.108 and noon class in ECJ 1.202 Review T 12/4 at 5pm in WRW 102 Homework #4 due now. Evolution: A species’ genetic component changes as the individuals reproduce. These changes are based on how the DNA changes and who reproduces.

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Evolution: A species’ genetic component changes as the individuals reproduce. These changes are based on how the DNA changes and who reproduces.



The earth is covered in H. sapiens, but it wasn’t always.



DNA is passed from generation to generation, and therefore can tell us about relationships between individuals.


Mitochondrial dna comparisons can be used to trace ancestry

Mitochondrial DNA comparisons can be used to trace ancestry: can tell us about relationships between individuals.


Human DNA is divided into 46 chromosomes can tell us about relationships between individuals.

(23 pairs)


X 23 can tell us about relationships between individuals.

in humans

X 23

in humans

X 23

in humans

Each of us are a combination of DNA from mom and dad.


Mom can tell us about relationships between individuals. provides 50.000275%andDad provides 49.999825% of DNA to offspring.

… because Mom provides 100% of mitochondrial DNA


Non-Coding DNA is used for comparisons between individuals can tell us about relationships between individuals.


As DNA is passed on mutations take place can tell us about relationships between individuals.

Fig 1 and 4


Fig 4 can tell us about relationships between individuals.


By determining the average time between mutations, we can estimate the time of the last common ancestor.

Fig 4


The mutation rate in human mtDNA is one nucleotide change per 20,000 years.

OR

A difference of one nucleotide between two people indicates a common relative 10,000 years ago.

Fig 4



Two hypotheses about the origin of H. sapiens per 20,000 years.

Multiregional hypothesis

“Out of Africa” hypothesis


Relationships of different per 20,000 years.populations using mtDNA

~150,000ya

7 Daughters of Eve, fig. 1


Two hypotheses about the origin of H. sapiens per 20,000 years.

Multiregional hypothesis

“Out of Africa” hypothesis


Relationships of different per 20,000 years.people using mtDNA.

7 Daughters of Eve, fig. 2


Relationships of different per 20,000 years.people using mtDNA.

7 Daughters of Eve, fig. 2


Relationships of different per 20,000 years.people using mtDNA.

7 Daughters of Eve, fig. 2


Relationships of different per 20,000 years.people using mtDNA.

  • From Science v298 12/20/02 pg 2381

  • 93-95% of genetic variation within population.

  • 3-5% of genetic variation occurs between populations.

7 Daughters of Eve, fig. 2



Newer Data: Estimated time of divergence for per 20,000 years.several DNA regions

Fig 3


Newer Data: Estimated time of divergence for per 20,000 years.several DNA regions

Fig 3


Two hypotheses about the origin of H. sapiens per 20,000 years.

Multiregional hypothesis: disproved by mtDNA data

“Out of Africa” hypothesis: disproved by other DNA data


Relationships of different per 20,000 years.people using mtDNA.

  • From Science v298 12/20/02 pg 2381

  • 93-95% of genetic variation within population.

  • 3-5% of genetic variation occurs between populations.

7 Daughters of Eve, fig. 2



The nervous system allows us to perceive the environment while the brain integrates the incoming signals to determine an appropriate response.



Active seeking of info to?versusSubconscious scanning for threats

Are we evolutionarily adapted to detect certain threats?


Emotion Drives Attention: Detecting the Snake in the Grass to?

Journal of Experimental Psychology: General

2001, Vol. 130, No. 3, 466-478

Arne Ohman, Anders Flykt,

and Francisco Esteves

http://sas.epnet.com/citation.asp?tb=0&_ug=sid+B751259C%2D3010%2D40FD%2D856F%2D2A9AA70CE5D2%40sessionmgr6+FE52&_us=SLsrc+ext+30AB&_usmtl=ftv+True+137E&_uso=hd+False+db%5B0+%2Dpdh+33B8&bk=S&EBSCOContent=ZWJjY8bb43ePqLhrvNfxa6Gmr4GPp7iFpKq5gKiWxpjDpfKDo6%2BwfqevrbjQ3%2B151N7uvuMA&rn=&fn=&db=pdh&an=xge1303466&sm=&cf=1


Ability to detect snake or spider versus flower or mushroom to?by grid

position

Fig 1. Emotion Drives Attention: Detecting the Snake in the Grass (2001) J. of Ex. Psy., Vol. 130, No. 3, 466-478


Ability to detect snake or spider versus flower or mushroom to?by grid

position

Fig 1. Emotion Drives Attention: Detecting the Snake in the Grass (2001) J. of Ex. Psy., Vol. 130, No. 3, 466-478


Ability to detect snake or spider versus flower or mushroom is relatively quicker in a larger grid

Fig 2. Emotion Drives Attention: Detecting the Snake in the Grass (2001) J. of Ex. Psy., Vol. 130, No. 3, 466-478


The Role of Social Groups in the Persistence of Learned Fear (2005) SCIENCE 309 pg 785 Andreas Olsson, Jeffrey P. Ebert, Mahzarin R. Banaji, Elizabeth A. Phelpshttp://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/309/5735/785

This perspective accompanies the article and has some useful background and further discussion:http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/309/5735/711


Conditioned fear:

snakes/spiders

Fig 1. The Role of Social Groups in the Persistence of Learned Fear (2005) SCIENCE 309 pg 785


Conditioned fear:

race

Fig 1. The Role of Social Groups in the Persistence of Learned Fear (2005) SCIENCE 309 pg 785


Conditioned fear:

snakes/spiders

race

Fig 1. The Role of Social Groups in the Persistence of Learned Fear (2005) SCIENCE 309 pg 785


Fear of other races:

Whites

Blacks

Fig 2. The Role of Social Groups in the Persistence of Learned Fear (2005) SCIENCE 309 pg 785


Is Race Necessarily a Defining Characteristic?

Can race be erased? Coalitional computation and social categorization (December 18, 2001) PNAS vol. 98 no. 26 pg 15387–15392 Robert Kurzban, John Tooby, and Leda Cosmideshttp://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/98/26/15387


Random Statements

My birthday is in April.

My birthday is in June.

My birthday is in August.

My birthday is in January.

My birthdayis in February.

My birthday is in July.

My birthday is in October.

My birthday is in May.

Can race be erased? Coalitional computation and social categorization (December 18, 2001) PNAS vol. 98 no. 26 pg 15387–15392


Coalition Membership

I like orange.

Hook em’.

Acie Law is awesome.

Gig em’.

Go Aggies.

Kevin Durant is awesome.

I like Maroon.

Go Horns.

Can race be erased? Coalitional computation and social categorization (December 18, 2001) PNAS vol. 98 no. 26 pg 15387–15392


When alternate coalition membership information is introduced, race is ignored.

I like orange.

Hook em’.

Acie Law is awesome.

Gig em’.

Go Aggies.

Kevin Durant is awesome.

I like Maroon.

Go Horns.


Despite a lifetime's experience of race as a predictor of social alliance, less than 4 min of exposure to an alternate social world was enough to deflate the tendency to categorize by race. These results suggest that racism may be a volatile and eradicable construct that persists only so long as it is actively maintained through being linked to parallel systems of social alliance.


Two hypotheses about the origin of H. sapiens social alliance, less than 4 min of exposure to an alternate social world was enough to deflate the tendency to categorize by race. These results suggest that racism may be a volatile and eradicable construct that persists only so long as it is actively maintained through being linked to parallel systems of social alliance.

Multiregional hypothesis: disproved by mtDNA data

“Out of Africa” hypothesis: disproved by other DNA data


Relationships of different social alliance, less than 4 min of exposure to an alternate social world was enough to deflate the tendency to categorize by race. These results suggest that racism may be a volatile and eradicable construct that persists only so long as it is actively maintained through being linked to parallel systems of social alliance.people using mtDNA.

  • From Science v298 12/20/02 pg 2381

  • 93-95% of genetic variation within population.

  • 3-5% of genetic variation occurs between populations.

7 Daughters of Eve, fig. 2


There is no genetic definition of race. social alliance, less than 4 min of exposure to an alternate social world was enough to deflate the tendency to categorize by race. These results suggest that racism may be a volatile and eradicable construct that persists only so long as it is actively maintained through being linked to parallel systems of social alliance.


  • Exam #3 W 12/5 at 7-8:30pm social alliance, less than 4 min of exposure to an alternate social world was enough to deflate the tendency to categorize by race. These results suggest that racism may be a volatile and eradicable construct that persists only so long as it is actively maintained through being linked to parallel systems of social alliance.9am classin ETC 2.108andnoon class in ECJ 1.202

  • Review T 12/4 at 5pm in WRW 102

  • Homework #4 due now


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