the social context of computing
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
The Social Context of Computing

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 49

the social context of computing - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

The Social Context of Computing . Group 1. The Social Context of Computing . Kyle Lippencott – Introduction to the Social Implications of computing Laura Thurber – Social Implications of Networked Communications Douglas Camin – Growth of, Control of and Access to the Internet

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'the social context of computing ' - ivanbritt

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
the social context of computing2
The Social Context of Computing
  • Kyle Lippencott – Introduction to the Social Implications of computing
  • Laura Thurber – Social Implications of Networked Communications
  • Douglas Camin – Growth of, Control of and Access to the Internet
  • Christopher Conway – Gender related Issues of Computing
  • Matthew Dietz – International Issues
  • Robert Host – Computer Crime
primary issues
Primary Issues
  • Interpersonal Relations
  • Privacy and Anonymity
  • Segregation and Stereotyping
  • Education and Work
  • Reliability
interpersonal relations
Interpersonal Relations
  • Always-On
    • Cell Phones
    • Email
    • Instant Messaging
  • Efficient
  • Impersonal
privacy and anonymity
Privacy and Anonymity
  • Data Mining
  • Identifiable Trails
    • Cookies/History
    • Email Inbox/Chat Logs
  • Unique Identifiers and Alternate Identities
  • Anonymizer Services
  • Information/Identity Theft
segregation and stereotyping
Segregation and Stereotyping
  • Digital Divide
  • Stereotyping
    • Gender
    • Race
    • Social Class
    • Elitism
    • Cliques
education and work
Education and Work
  • Computers in the Classroom
    • Student Attention
    • Access Control
  • Changes in Workflow
    • Digital Meetings
  • Physical Reliability
    • Always-On
      • Alwayson=!;
    • Uptime
  • Data Integrity
    • Compromised Data
    • Flawed Programming
social implications of networked computing
Social Implications of Networked Computing
  • The everyday effect of networks on our lives
    • Benefits
    • Misuses
    • What values has society adopted from this widespread internet culture?
  • The social impact of these networks has changed our lives to a degree probably unimagined 10 or 15 years ago.
benefits of networks
Benefits of Networks
  • What can networks do for the average user?
    • -The normal stuff
      • Chatting
      • Email
      • Simple research, i.e. News, health, games
  • There are other uses for a network
    • The Center for Children and Technology and Lexington School for the Deaf
    • Using a network for basic communication
      • Chatting to perform lessons
      • Improve basic language skills
      • Dramatic improvement in communication and understanding
      • Classes became much more fun!
the problems
The Problems
  • However, networks can also create problems
    • Viruses, worms, trojans
    • Scams and hoaxes
      • The Good Times “virus”
        • Threatened to erase all files on the computer, scare the dog, kill the cat, overheat the stove, and turn off the freezer so that your ice cream goes all melty.
        • Physically impossible to execute
        • Nevertheless captured the imagination/attention of the nation
        • Major companies shut down – AT&T, NASA, DoD, FCC, TI
        • The effect it had on the populace
the overall impact
The Overall Impact
  • The level of integration
    • Schools
      • Reports typed, online sources encouraged
    • Pharmacies
      • Records no longer accepted in hard copy
    • Banks
      • Moving away from passbook accounts
    • Business Offices, Newspapers, dental offices
Have we progressed to dependance?
  • Entire industries are spawned from our dependance on these machines
  • Interaction accomplished online, rather than in person
    • Email, instant messaging and online shopping replace standing in line at the grocery store
    • Good or bad?
Implication: Technology has so changed our lives that it would be difficult to regress, even given an impetus to.
humble beginnings 1969
Humble Beginnings - 1969
  • ARPANet: precursor of today’s Internet
  • 4 Nodes:
    • Stanford
    • UC Santa Barbara
    • UCLA
    • University of Utah
  • Sponsored by Department of Defense

The Internet, circa 1969

innovations 1970 s
Innovations – 1970’s
  • 15 Nodes (1971) – 188 nodes (1979)
  • First e-mail program created (1971)
  • Telnet specification created (1972)
  • Ethernet proposal by Metcalfe (1973)
  • TCP Specification by Cerf and Kahn (1974)
  • ARPA established the Internet Configuration Control Board (ICCB) (1979)
years of transition 1980 s
Years of Transition – 1980’s
  • 213 Hosts (1981) – ~159,000 (1989)
  • Phrase “Internet” came to be popular
  • DNS created (1984)
  • NSF creates five “supercomputing” sites as backbone to handle growing load (1986):
    • Princeton (NJ)
    • Pittsburgh (PA)
    • UC – San Diego
    • Cornell (NY)
  • Number of new connections grows logarithmically
in the mainstream 1990 s
In the Mainstream – 1990’s
  • 313,000 hosts (1990) – 56.2 million (1999)
  • Original ARPANet removed from service and transferred to NSF (1990)
  • First commercial dial-up Internet service: The World (1990)
  • NSF increases backbone speed to T3 (44.736Mbps) (1991)
  • World Wide Web protocols and software released by CERN (1991)
in the mainstream cont 1990 s
In the Mainstream (cont) – 1990’s
  • Government agencies begin to have presence on the Internet – White House, UN (1993)
  • Web browsing becomes an immediate hit with the release of the Mosaic browser (1993)
  • Businesses begin to see Internet as a viable commerce tool. First web advertisements are served (1994)
  • NSF turns support of backbone over to private enterprise (1995)
  • Private commercial dial-up services such as America Online and CompuServe connect users to the Internet
in the mainstream cont 1990 s24
In the Mainstream (cont) – 1990’s
  • MCI increases backbone speed from 155Mbps to 622Mbps (1996)
  • DNS turned over to ICANN, a quasi-private enterprise
  • MCI increases backbone capacity again, to 2.5Gbps (1999)
  • “Internet Mania” takes hold – shaky business plans lead to rush of technology investment (1999)
new millennium 2000 s
New Millennium – 2000’s
  • Internet mania (or Internet bubble) ends – many online businesses fail (2000-2001)
  • Connections of new users to Internet continues to grow exponentially
  • Many other countries catching the United States in terms of percentage of population accessing Internet
security control
Security & Control
  • Early security concerns stemmed primarily from intruder access (1970’s)
  • As network grew, concerns changed to malicious code and viruses (1980’s)
  • “Morris” worm spreads and shuts down most of Internet (1988) – CERT created in response
  • As Internet technology spreads into the mainstream, and web pages become prevalent, who can view content becomes most important (1990’s)
  • Privacy and rights (copyrights) are large issues with advent of high-speed data connections to homes (2000’s)
security control27
Security & Control
  • Some governments imposed more strict limits on users’ ability to access the Internet:
    • China – All users and service providers must first register with the government
    • Germany – Asked service providers to block content the government deemed offensive to it’s citizens
    • France – Asked Yahoo to block objectionable items from online auction sites it felt violated decency laws.
sociological implications
Sociological Implications
  • Who has access to the Internet has become an important social issue recently
  • Many governments and private enterprises work hard to provide internet access to poor, rural, or otherwise disadvantaged people
  • Many social advocates believe the Internet will, over the long term, help foster better communication and interconnection between various societies in the world
decrease in female participation
Decrease in female Participation
  • In 1986, 36% of bachelor degrees were given to females.
  • In 1996, 27% of bachelor and master’s degrees were given to females.
pipeline shrinkage
“Pipeline Shrinkage”
  • The process of a gradual decline in the participation of women as they advance along the academic pipeline.
  • 3 major factors
    • Lack of self esteem
    • Gender Discrimination
    • Balancing of a career and family Responsibilities
self esteem
Self Esteem
  • Study by American Association for the Advancement of Science
    • 30% vs. 15% questioned ability to do work
    • 27% vs. 12% criticism hard to handle
    • 30% vs. 57% confident in class
    • 33% vs. 9% fear speaking
  • Dealing with Success and Failure
    • Lack of strategy vs. Lack of competence
    • Reproductive strategy vs. Constructive strategy
gender discrimination
Gender Discrimination
  • Patronizing behavior
  • Male dominated preconception
    • “The early stereotyping of toys for boys and girls: Transformers for boys and Barbie for girls.”
    • Aggressive metaphors in software
career vs family
Career vs. Family
  • Tenure vs. Childbearing
  • Effects males and females
  • Possible Solutions
    • Quality childcare
    • Increased amount of time to earn tenure
international issues

International Issues

By: Matthew Dietz

digital divide
Digital Divide
  • Separation of the Rich from the Poor
  • Eastern Europe, monopolizing phone companies
    • The Internet moves citizens to participate in Society
    • “Information Poverty”
  • 2001- less than 25% online lived outside of U.S.
non western culture
Non-Western Culture
  • Iran
    • Requires Internet users to sign waivers agreeing to not access non-Islamic sites
  • Israel
    • Accepts the internet openly
    • Uses internet as propaganda tool
      • Middle East Peace Process
security and privacy
Security and Privacy
  • Computer Terrorism
    • NYC Blackout
      • Not caused by a computer, but takes almost nothing to cripple 2 million people
      • Raises concern over how easily terrorists could destroy communications, banking, or more
  • Security
    • Israel
      • Head of Secret Service name revealed publicly in Washington Post
security and privacy cont
Security and Privacy Cont…
  • Ban on encryption
    • U.S. bans export of encryption strong than 40 bit
      • International fears of secret information being cracked using own products
    • Causes other nations to question usefulness vs security concerns
      • Total dependence on computers, likely a weakness?
h1 b and l 1
H1-B and L-1
  • Visas
    • Allow the import of foreign workers and executives
      • Cheaper labor, often equally skilled
      • Workers often paid significantly less
      • Factor in many developed nations, not just U.S.
      • Some lose jobs, but others able to feed and clothe families
      • Raises many moral issues
      • 1999 – 40% of foreign visa workers to fill computer-related positions
  • Act of sending workload of common practices to other, often cheaper companies
    • India primary receiver of outsourced labor
    • Beneficial to some, detrimental to others.
    • India
      • Some make as little as $11,000/yr
        • Actually 22 times more than average salary in India
outsourcing cont43
Outsourcing cont…
  • Issue of great controversy
    • Is it fair to export work when there are job-less domestically?
international issues44
International Issues
  • Computers have proven to be both good and bad
    • Flow of information to new places every day
    • People can benefit from improved medical care, education, etc.
    • Causes conflict in terms of what’s considered moral
    • Important part of the future of the world.
computer crime
Computer Crime

By: Robert Host

  • Rise of the internet
  • The Good:
    • New medium for communication and business
  • The Bad:
    • Identity Theft
    • Peer to Peer programs
identity theft
Identity Theft
  • One of the fastest growing crimes in America
  • Methods:
    • “Shoulder Surfing”
    • Mail
    • Email hoaxes
  • Victims
    • Consumers
    • Companies
peer to peer
Peer to Peer
  • “Come and get it…FREE!”
  • Napster is made and people use it to swap music files illegally.
  • Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) to the rescue!
  • Kazaa, Morpheus, Bittorent
  • US District Court rules in favor of P2P programs
  • Not totally illegal, some practical applications