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The Social Context of Computing . Group 1. The Social Context of Computing . Kyle Lippencott – Introduction to the Social Implications of computing Laura Thurber – Social Implications of Networked Communications Douglas Camin – Growth of, Control of and Access to the Internet

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The Social Context of Computing

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The Social Context of Computing

Group 1


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The Social Context of Computing

  • Kyle Lippencott – Introduction to the Social Implications of computing

  • Laura Thurber – Social Implications of Networked Communications

  • Douglas Camin – Growth of, Control of and Access to the Internet

  • Christopher Conway – Gender related Issues of Computing

  • Matthew Dietz – International Issues

  • Robert Host – Computer Crime


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Social Implications of Computing

By: Kyle Lippincott


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Primary Issues

  • Interpersonal Relations

  • Privacy and Anonymity

  • Segregation and Stereotyping

  • Education and Work

  • Reliability


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Interpersonal Relations

  • Always-On

    • Cell Phones

    • Email

    • Instant Messaging

  • Efficient

  • Impersonal


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Privacy and Anonymity

  • Data Mining

  • Identifiable Trails

    • Cookies/History

    • Email Inbox/Chat Logs

  • Unique Identifiers and Alternate Identities

  • Anonymizer Services

  • Information/Identity Theft


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Segregation and Stereotyping

  • Digital Divide

  • Stereotyping

    • Gender

    • Race

    • Social Class

    • Elitism

    • Cliques


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Education and Work

  • Computers in the Classroom

    • Student Attention

    • Access Control

  • Changes in Workflow

    • Digital Meetings


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Reliability

  • Physical Reliability

    • Always-On

      • Alwayson=!You.place.equals(bing);

    • Uptime

  • Data Integrity

    • Compromised Data

    • Flawed Programming


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Social Implications of Networked Communications

By: Laura Thurber


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Social Implications of Networked Computing

  • The everyday effect of networks on our lives

    • Benefits

    • Misuses

    • What values has society adopted from this widespread internet culture?

  • The social impact of these networks has changed our lives to a degree probably unimagined 10 or 15 years ago.


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Benefits of Networks

  • What can networks do for the average user?

    • -The normal stuff

      • Chatting

      • Email

      • Simple research, i.e. News, health, games


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However...

  • There are other uses for a network

    • The Center for Children and Technology and Lexington School for the Deaf

    • Using a network for basic communication

      • Chatting to perform lessons

      • Improve basic language skills

      • Dramatic improvement in communication and understanding

      • Classes became much more fun!


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The Problems

  • However, networks can also create problems

    • Viruses, worms, trojans

    • Scams and hoaxes

      • The Good Times “virus”

        • Threatened to erase all files on the computer, scare the dog, kill the cat, overheat the stove, and turn off the freezer so that your ice cream goes all melty.

        • Physically impossible to execute

        • Nevertheless captured the imagination/attention of the nation

        • Major companies shut down – AT&T, NASA, DoD, FCC, TI

        • The effect it had on the populace


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The Overall Impact

  • The level of integration

    • Schools

      • Reports typed, online sources encouraged

    • Pharmacies

      • Records no longer accepted in hard copy

    • Banks

      • Moving away from passbook accounts

    • Business Offices, Newspapers, dental offices


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  • Have we progressed to dependance?

  • Entire industries are spawned from our dependance on these machines

  • Interaction accomplished online, rather than in person

    • Email, instant messaging and online shopping replace standing in line at the grocery store

    • Good or bad?


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  • Implication: Technology has so changed our lives that it would be difficult to regress, even given an impetus to.


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Growth of, Control of and Access to the Internet

By: Douglass Camin


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Humble Beginnings - 1969

  • ARPANet: precursor of today’s Internet

  • 4 Nodes:

    • Stanford

    • UC Santa Barbara

    • UCLA

    • University of Utah

  • Sponsored by Department of Defense

The Internet, circa 1969


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Innovations – 1970’s

  • 15 Nodes (1971) – 188 nodes (1979)

  • First e-mail program created (1971)

  • Telnet specification created (1972)

  • Ethernet proposal by Metcalfe (1973)

  • TCP Specification by Cerf and Kahn (1974)

  • ARPA established the Internet Configuration Control Board (ICCB) (1979)


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Years of Transition – 1980’s

  • 213 Hosts (1981) – ~159,000 (1989)

  • Phrase “Internet” came to be popular

  • DNS created (1984)

  • NSF creates five “supercomputing” sites as backbone to handle growing load (1986):

    • Princeton (NJ)

    • Pittsburgh (PA)

    • UC – San Diego

    • Cornell (NY)

  • Number of new connections grows logarithmically


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In the Mainstream – 1990’s

  • 313,000 hosts (1990) – 56.2 million (1999)

  • Original ARPANet removed from service and transferred to NSF (1990)

  • First commercial dial-up Internet service: The World (1990)

  • NSF increases backbone speed to T3 (44.736Mbps) (1991)

  • World Wide Web protocols and software released by CERN (1991)


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In the Mainstream (cont) – 1990’s

  • Government agencies begin to have presence on the Internet – White House, UN (1993)

  • Web browsing becomes an immediate hit with the release of the Mosaic browser (1993)

  • Businesses begin to see Internet as a viable commerce tool. First web advertisements are served (1994)

  • NSF turns support of backbone over to private enterprise (1995)

  • Private commercial dial-up services such as America Online and CompuServe connect users to the Internet


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In the Mainstream (cont) – 1990’s

  • MCI increases backbone speed from 155Mbps to 622Mbps (1996)

  • DNS turned over to ICANN, a quasi-private enterprise

  • MCI increases backbone capacity again, to 2.5Gbps (1999)

  • “Internet Mania” takes hold – shaky business plans lead to rush of technology investment (1999)


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New Millennium – 2000’s

  • Internet mania (or Internet bubble) ends – many online businesses fail (2000-2001)

  • Connections of new users to Internet continues to grow exponentially

  • Many other countries catching the United States in terms of percentage of population accessing Internet


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Security & Control

  • Early security concerns stemmed primarily from intruder access (1970’s)

  • As network grew, concerns changed to malicious code and viruses (1980’s)

  • “Morris” worm spreads and shuts down most of Internet (1988) – CERT created in response

  • As Internet technology spreads into the mainstream, and web pages become prevalent, who can view content becomes most important (1990’s)

  • Privacy and rights (copyrights) are large issues with advent of high-speed data connections to homes (2000’s)


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Security & Control

  • Some governments imposed more strict limits on users’ ability to access the Internet:

    • China – All users and service providers must first register with the government

    • Germany – Asked service providers to block content the government deemed offensive to it’s citizens

    • France – Asked Yahoo to block objectionable items from online auction sites it felt violated decency laws.


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Sociological Implications

  • Who has access to the Internet has become an important social issue recently

  • Many governments and private enterprises work hard to provide internet access to poor, rural, or otherwise disadvantaged people

  • Many social advocates believe the Internet will, over the long term, help foster better communication and interconnection between various societies in the world


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Gender Related Issues of Computing

By: Christopher Conway


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Decrease in female Participation

  • In 1986, 36% of bachelor degrees were given to females.

  • In 1996, 27% of bachelor and master’s degrees were given to females.


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“Pipeline Shrinkage”

  • The process of a gradual decline in the participation of women as they advance along the academic pipeline.

  • 3 major factors

    • Lack of self esteem

    • Gender Discrimination

    • Balancing of a career and family Responsibilities


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Self Esteem

  • Study by American Association for the Advancement of Science

    • 30% vs. 15% questioned ability to do work

    • 27% vs. 12% criticism hard to handle

    • 30% vs. 57% confident in class

    • 33% vs. 9% fear speaking

  • Dealing with Success and Failure

    • Lack of strategy vs. Lack of competence

    • Reproductive strategy vs. Constructive strategy


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Gender Discrimination

  • Patronizing behavior

  • Male dominated preconception

    • “The early stereotyping of toys for boys and girls: Transformers for boys and Barbie for girls.”

    • Aggressive metaphors in software


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Career vs. Family

  • Tenure vs. Childbearing

  • Effects males and females

  • Possible Solutions

    • Quality childcare

    • Increased amount of time to earn tenure


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International Issues

By: Matthew Dietz


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Digital Divide

  • Separation of the Rich from the Poor

  • Eastern Europe, monopolizing phone companies

    • The Internet moves citizens to participate in Society

    • “Information Poverty”

  • 2001- less than 25% online lived outside of U.S.


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Non-Western Culture

  • Iran

    • Requires Internet users to sign waivers agreeing to not access non-Islamic sites

  • Israel

    • Accepts the internet openly

    • Uses internet as propaganda tool

      • Middle East Peace Process


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Security and Privacy

  • Computer Terrorism

    • NYC Blackout

      • Not caused by a computer, but takes almost nothing to cripple 2 million people

      • Raises concern over how easily terrorists could destroy communications, banking, or more

  • Security

    • Israel

      • Head of Secret Service name revealed publicly in Washington Post


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Security and Privacy Cont…

  • Ban on encryption

    • U.S. bans export of encryption strong than 40 bit

      • International fears of secret information being cracked using own products

    • Causes other nations to question usefulness vs security concerns

      • Total dependence on computers, likely a weakness?


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H1-B and L-1

  • Visas

    • Allow the import of foreign workers and executives

      • Cheaper labor, often equally skilled

      • Workers often paid significantly less

      • Factor in many developed nations, not just U.S.

      • Some lose jobs, but others able to feed and clothe families

      • Raises many moral issues

      • 1999 – 40% of foreign visa workers to fill computer-related positions


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Outsourcing

  • Act of sending workload of common practices to other, often cheaper companies

    • India primary receiver of outsourced labor

    • Beneficial to some, detrimental to others.

    • India

      • Some make as little as $11,000/yr

        • Actually 22 times more than average salary in India


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Outsourcing cont…


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Outsourcing cont…

  • Issue of great controversy

    • Is it fair to export work when there are job-less domestically?


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International Issues

  • Computers have proven to be both good and bad

    • Flow of information to new places every day

    • People can benefit from improved medical care, education, etc.

    • Causes conflict in terms of what’s considered moral

    • Important part of the future of the world.


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Computer Crime

By: Robert Host


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Introduction

  • Rise of the internet

  • The Good:

    • New medium for communication and business

  • The Bad:

    • Identity Theft

    • Peer to Peer programs


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Identity Theft

  • One of the fastest growing crimes in America

  • Methods:

    • “Shoulder Surfing”

    • Mail

    • Email hoaxes

  • Victims

    • Consumers

    • Companies


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A brief comparison…


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Peer to Peer

  • “Come and get it…FREE!”

  • Napster is made and people use it to swap music files illegally.

  • Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) to the rescue!

  • Kazaa, Morpheus, Bittorent

  • US District Court rules in favor of P2P programs

  • Not totally illegal, some practical applications


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