PIA 2528 Governance, Local Government and Civil Society Civil Society: A Conceptual Framework See Below- The Model - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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PIA 2528 Governance, Local Government and Civil Society Civil Society: A Conceptual Framework See Below- The Model. The Model: Civil Society. Local Governance and Civil Society Decentralization Diagram. Quote of the Week. George Orwell, Burmese Days

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PIA 2528

Governance, Local Government

and Civil Society

Civil Society:

A Conceptual Framework

See Below- The Model

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The Model: Civil Society

  • Local Governance and Civil Society

  • Decentralization Diagram

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Quote of the Week

  • George Orwell, Burmese Days

    • "Why is it you are always abusing the pukka sahibs as you call them. They are the salt of the earth. Consider the great administrators who have made British India what it is.”

    • The Issue: History, Empire and Civil Society

    • Colonial Burma and Civil Society in Myanmar

    • Authoritarian Legacies

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Save the Victims of the Cyclone Nargis in Myanmar (2008)

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1923 Burma Provincial Police Training School, Mandalay (Eric Blair standing third from the left)

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Review- Discussion of Themes

Democratic Governance and Institutional State

  • Rule of Law

  • Transparency

  • Security

  • Competitive Elections and Political Parties

  • Devolved Local Government

  • Institutional Processes

  • Interest articulation and aggregation (Competition

  • Civil Society- Mediation and Social Capital

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Social Mediation

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Hamilton, Madison and Jay

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Madison, Hamilton and Jay and Civil Society

  • Federalist Papers

    • Fear of Populism

    • Minority rights

    • Shifting majorities

    • The problem with majorities

    • Tyranny

    • Factions

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Polyarchy: The Conceptual Framework

  • Competitive Pluralism

  • Diverse interest associations of society compete with each other over policy issues

  • Basis of Economic and Political Competition

  • Social vs. Economic Liberalism

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Social vs. Economic Liberalism?

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Polyarchy: Six Principles-Summary

  • Interest Group Liberalism

  • Problem of zero-sum game

  • Civil Society as organizational not individual or the mass.

  • The need for apathy

  • Institutional structures: Checks and balances

  • Constitutional vs. social stability

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Civil Society: The Base Point

  • Civil Society- Networks of organizations, groups and individuals pursuing socio-economic interests

  • Base point- Governance vs. interests (negative and positive)

  • Relationship to Private sector

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A Positive Image

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Review: Civil SocietyThe Nature of the Beast:

  • Non-Profits

  • Not for Profits

  • Private Voluntary


  • Community Based Organizations

  • Civics

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Nature of the Beast-Continued

  • Foundations

  • Associations

  • Interest Groups

  • Quangos

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Nature of the Beast

  • The University of Pittsburgh is a Non-Profit

  • They are not always small

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Five Caveats: Civil Society Groups

  • Usually excludes “for profits”- issue of contractors

  • Both International and Local

  • Internationals are not universally loved

  • Very often internationals are religious or charity based

  • Focus has been primarily on relief rather than development or civil society goals

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Types of “Development” NGOs

1. Philanthropy

2. Humanitarian Assistance

War, Drought, Agricultural Failure (WWI)

Relief and Welfare Societies- Disaster-

3. Populist based development agencies (national)

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“Cooperative for American Remittances to Europe”

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Types of “Development” NGOs

4. Grassroots associations (local or village based): Focus on Rural Development

5. Advocacy groups: Democracy and Governance

6. Public Service Contractors and Grantees

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ARD-Associates in Rural Development and MSI- Management Systems International

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International NGOs- Weaknesses

1. Lack of local legitimacy

2. Donor driven

3. Inefficiency

4. Amateurism- leadership and continuity problems

5. Staffing problems

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International NGOs- Weaknesses

6. Self-serving- own objectives: Faith Based

7.Fixation on projects- Problems of replication

8. Lack of perceived accountability

9. Learning problems/lack of institutional memory

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German Missionaries in Southwest Africa, 1910 (now Namibia)

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Thousand Points of Light

George Bush, appearing with victim’s rights advocate Doris Tate at a ceremony in which Tate was named as one of the thousand points of light.

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10. Tensions with government institutions- Politically threatening

11. Ties with existing local elites

12. Inability of humanitarian organizations to transfer to new development orientation

International NGOs- Weaknesses

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Politically Threatening NGOs

  • Kenya, 2008-

  • 2009

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Foreign Aid

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  • Ten Minutes

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Public Private Partnerships

The Twenty-First Century Paradigm

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Types of Democracy and Civil Society Representation

  • Cooperative Movements (or Corporatism)

    • Diverse interest associations cooperate with each other and with organs of the state to make policy

    • Scandinavian Social Corporatism

    • Public-Private Partnership?

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Nyhavn Copenhagen Denmark

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Public-Private Partnerships

  • U.S. Parallel: Western Pennsylvania

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Understanding the Public Sector of Allegheny County

Allegheny County is made up of 130 townships and boroughs. Each of these has its own public manager and council. The city of Pittsburgh is part of this mix of local government. Several Thousand non-profits

Operating Budget for the County for 2003 is $654 million. This budget provides for such services as:

Children and Youth Services

Jail/County Police

Port Authority

District attorney


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Demographics of Allegheny County

  • Total population 1,281,666

    • 84% White

    • 12% African American

    • 1.7% Asian

    • 1% Hispanic

    • 1/10 of 1% Native American

    • 18% 65+

    • 6% under 5 years old

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Post-Industrial Patterns

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Public-Private Partnerships

  • Non-Profits Number in W. PA in tens of thousands and

  • deliver up to two-thirds of the social services of the County in several different sectors

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Financial Links: Public Private

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Public Private Partnerships:The International Context

Defined: Partnerships (formal or informal) between:

  • Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs),

  • Community Based Organizations (CBOs),

  • Governments,

  • Donors (International and Private),

  • Private- Business Sector.

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Foreign Aid Links

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Public Private Partnerships

  • Origins- Use in International Development

    a. International Donors- Way of Dealing with Umbrella Grants and implementation of development policies

    b. Accepting donor money means accepting donor principles

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Public Private Partnerships

c. Comes out of Structural Adjustment and Policy Reform (re. LDCs)

d. Seen by some as an alternative to Contracting Out- Others as part of it

e. Critics see it as detrimental to a market approach to economic change

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The Latest Phase?

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Public Private Partnerships: Characteristics

a. Targeted at the expansion of Social Capital and Synergy in the promotion of Economic and Social Development

 b. Seeks a holistic or Integrated Approach to Economic and Social Development

 c. Involves informal processes, cultural sensitivities as well as legal norms and contracting principles.

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USAID Cooperative Agreement AEG-A-00-05-00007-00- Political Parties Project

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Public Private Partnerships (PPPs)

Supporting Factors in the International Context:

 1. Democratic Governance- private sector and NGOs seen as legitimate actors; transparency, accountability and responsiveness

2. Rational Government- Merit Principles, anti-corruption environment, acceptance of non-state actors as service deliverers. Contracting Out

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Post-Structural Adjustment

  • Human Development and Governance are seen as the key to economic development

  • Millennium Development Goals

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Public Private Partnerships- Factors

Factors that Support PPPs 

3. Decentralization- Subsidiarity: Governance devolved to the lowest levels capable of implementation and contracting out

4. Legal Frameworks- Acceptance of Contractual Agreement as the basic organizational relationship

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Public Private Partnerships-Factors

5. Institutional Norms, Organizational Capacity and regularized principles of inter-organizational interaction. Requires high levels of capacity building

6. Requires Social and Economic Stability

7. Organizational flexibility across all sectors

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Public Private Partnerships- Factors

8. Social and Institutional Pluralism- win-win rather than zero sum game across social, ethnic, religious and racial groups

9. Social Networks exist at Grass roots, and intermediate as well as higher levels of government-See diagram

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Flat Pyramid- Early NASA

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Jennifer M. Brinkerhoff,

Partnership for International Development: Rhetoric or ResultsBoulder, Co.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2002

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Books: Five minute Reactions

  • The Painted Veil:

    Somerset Maugham

  • Weep Not Child

    Ngugi wa Thiongo

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The Master and MargaretaMikhail Bulgakov

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  • Questions, Comments?

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  • Themes

    • Governance

    • Local Governance

    • Civil Society

    • Area Focus

  • Login