The emerging crisis
Download
1 / 35

THE EMERGING CRISIS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 146 Views
  • Updated On :

THE EMERGING CRISIS . FOR 3.6 MILLION YEARS INFANTS WERE CARED FOR BY MOTHERS OR CLOSE FAMILY MEMBERS IN THE LAST 25 YEARS, THERE HAS BEEN A SHARP DROP IN CHILDCARE BY FAMILY MEMBERS Many slides from web. CHANGE IN CHILD REARING PATTERNS.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' THE EMERGING CRISIS ' - ivanbritt


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
The emerging crisis l.jpg
THE EMERGING CRISIS

  • FOR 3.6 MILLION YEARS INFANTS WERE CARED FOR BY MOTHERS OR CLOSE FAMILY MEMBERS

  • IN THE LAST 25 YEARS, THERE HAS BEEN A SHARP DROP IN CHILDCARE BY FAMILY MEMBERS

  • Many slides from web.


Change in child rearing patterns l.jpg
CHANGE IN CHILD REARING PATTERNS

  • IN 1999 60% OF MOTHERS OF INFANTS UNDER 1 YEAR WERE IN THE WORKFORCE.

  • MANY INFANTS SPEND THE BULK OF THEIR WAKING HOURS IN THE CARE OF NON-RELATIVES IN GROUP CHILD CARE SETTINGS


Early care is not valued l.jpg
EARLY CARE IS NOT VALUED

  • HISTORICALLY DONE BY WOMEN AT NO COST

  • U.S. HAS NOT INVESTED ENOUGH TO SAFEGUARD OUR MOST PRESCIOUS RESOURCE—OUR CHILDREN

  • OUR NATION’S FUTURE IS AT RISK


Myths about early care l.jpg
MYTHS ABOUT EARLY CARE

  • “ITS JUST BABYSITTING”

  • “ANYONE CAN DO IT”

  • “JUST FEED THE BABY AND CHANGE ITS DIAPER”

  • “BABIES SLEEP MOST OF THE TIME”

  • “BABIES DON’T LEARN ANYWAY”


Child care controversy l.jpg

Child Care: Controversy

NICHD study of early child care. 1,153 infants


Relations between child care in first 3 years peer competencies l.jpg
Relations between child-care in first 3 years & peer competencies

  • Positive, responsive caregiver behavior most consistently associated with positive, skilled peer interaction in child care.

    • Children with more experience in child-care settings with other children present were observed to be more positive and skilled in their peer play in child care

      • although caregivers rated them more negative with playmates.

  • Children with more hours in child care rated by caregivers as more negative in peer play, but observed play not related to the quantity of care.

    • Child-care experiences were not associated with peer competence as rated by mothers or as observed in dyadic play with a friend.


Peer competence l.jpg
Peer competence competencies

  • Assessed with mother and caregiver ratings, observations in child care

  • Maternal sensitivity and children's cognitive and language competence predicted peer competence across all settings and informants, suggesting that family and child-care contexts may play different, but complementary roles in the development of early emerging individual differences in peer interaction.

    • NICHD ECCRN. Child Care and Children's Peer Interaction at 24 and 36 Months: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Child Development 2001;72(5):1478-1500.


References l.jpg
References competencies

  • http://www.nichd.nih.gov/about/od/secc/pubs.htm


Effects of child care on infant mother attachment security l.jpg
Effects of child care on infant-mother attachment security competencies

  • No significant main effects of child-care experience (amount, age entry, or type of care) on attachment security or avoidance.

    • Extensive vs, no child-care experience did not distinguish infant distress in separations from mother.

  • Significant main effects of maternal sensitivity and responsiveness.

    • Interaction: Infants less likely to be secure when low maternal sensitivity/responsiveness was combined with poor quality child care, more than minimal child care, or more than one care arrangement

      • . Child Development. 1997. 68(5) 860-879


Same at 36 months l.jpg
Same at 36 months competencies

  • Maternal sensitivity was the strongest predictor of preschool attachment classification.

  • No child-care factors (quantity, quality, or type) predicted, in and of themselves, attachment security at 36 months.

  • Interaction: When maternal sensitivity was low, more hours per week in care somewhat increased the risk of the insecure (C).

  • Significant but modest stability of attachment classifications from 15 to 36 months

    • especially for children with A and C classifications.


Before and after school care arrangements l.jpg
Before- and After-School Care Arrangements? competencies

  • “A prospective, longitudinal study involving 933 children in the latter part of first grade….

  • Children who consistently participated in extracurricular activities during kindergarten and first grade obtained higher standardized test scores

    • …controlling for child and family factors and children's prior functioning.

      • Participation in other types of out-of-school care was not associated with child functioning in first grade when background factors were controlled.

        • NICHD ECCRN. Are Child Developmental Outcomes Related to Before- and After-School Care Arrangements? Results From the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Child Development 2004;75(1):280-295


Developmental issues l.jpg
DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES competencies

  • YOUNG INFANTS: SECURITY

  • MOBILE INFANTS: EXPLORATION

  • OLDER INFANTS: INDEPENDENCE


Attachment research l.jpg
ATTACHMENT RESEARCH competencies

  • ATTACHMENT IS THE MEASURE OF THE QUALITY OF A RELATIONSHIP FROM THE CHILD’S PERSPECTIVE


Attachment research14 l.jpg
ATTACHMENT RESEARCH competencies

  • ATTACHMENT RELATIONSHIPS FORM A HIERARCHY (PRIMARY, SECONDARY, ETC.)

  • INFANTS IN POOR QUALITY CARE TEND TO HAVE LESS SECURE ATTACHMENTS TO CAREGIVERS.


Attachment research15 l.jpg
ATTACHMENT RESEARCH competencies

  • A SECURE ATTACHMENT IS FORMED WHEN A CHILD IS IN A RELATIONSHIP OVER TIME WITH SOMEONE WH0 IS EMOTIONALLY AVAILABLE & SENSITIVE

  • INFANTS IN HIGH QUALITY CARE ARE MORE SECURELY ATTACHED TO THEIR CAREGIVERS


Attachment research16 l.jpg
ATTACHMENT RESEARCH competencies

  • SECURELY ATTACHED CHILDREN HAVE BETTER:

    • COGNITIVE OUTCOMES

    • SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

    • GREATER LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY


National institute of child health human development l.jpg
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CHILD HEALTH & HUMAN DEVELOPMENT competencies

  • 10-SITE STUDY RESULTS INDICATE INFANT CARE HAS NO EFFECT ON QUALITY OF CHILD’S ATTACHMENT WITH PARENTS

  • IF INSECURELY ATTACHED AT HOME & IN POOR QUALITY SETTINGS, INFANTS ARE AT RISK DEVELOPMENTALLY


Carollee howes research findings l.jpg
CAROLLEE HOWES’ RESEARCH FINDINGS competencies

  • CHILDREN, WHO ARE INSECURELY ATTACHED AT HOME, BENEFIT FROM A SECURE ATTACHMENT WITH A CAREGIVER IN OUT-OF-HOME CARE


Univ of minnesota study l.jpg
UNIV. OF MINNESOTA STUDY competencies

  • CHILDREN NOT RECEIVING RESPONSIVE EARLY CARE WERE AT HIGHER RISK FOR POOR OUTCOMES INCLUDING:

  • DIFFICULTY FORMING RELATIONSHIPS WITH PEERS IN PRESCHOOL & ADOLESCENCE

  • LOWER LEVEL SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT, ESPECIALLY IN ADOLESCENCE


Univ of minnesota study20 l.jpg
UNIV. OF MINNESOTA STUDY competencies

  • 72% WERE IN SPECIAL EDUCATION BY 3RD GRADE

  • EXHIBITED MORE BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS

  • MORE LIKELY TO USE DRUGS & ALCOHOL

  • CHILDREN WITH EARLY SECURE ATTACHMENTS WERE LESS VULNERABLE


Securely attached infants will develop l.jpg
SECURELY ATTACHED INFANTS WILL DEVELOP: competencies

  • A POSITIVE SENSE OF SELF WORTH

  • A BELIEF IN THE HELPFULNESS OF OTHERS

  • A MODEL ON WHICH TO BUILD ALL FUTURE RELATIONSHIPS


Securely attached infants will develop22 l.jpg
SECURELY ATTACHED INFANTS WILL DEVELOP: competencies

  • THE SECURITY TO EXPLORE ENVIRONMENT & DEAL WITH IT EFFECTIVELY

  • A SENSE THAT THEY ARE COMPETENT AND CAN SOLVE PROBLEMS


Secure attachment leads to resilience l.jpg
SECURE ATTACHMENT LEADS TO RESILIENCE: competencies

  • IF CHILD’S RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHERS CONTINUE TO BE FAVORABLE, THESE EARLY PATTERNS OF BEHAVIOR WILL LEAD TO RESILIENCE


Quality infant care l.jpg
QUALITY INFANT CARE competencies

  • SHOULD HAVE THE SAME COMPONENTS OF QUALITY PARENTING—WARM, RESPONSIVE, CONSISTENT CAREGIVING GEARED TO THE NEEDS OF EACH INFANT


Infant needs in group care l.jpg
INFANT NEEDS IN GROUP CARE competencies

  • CLOSE, CARING RELATIONSHIPS

  • INDIVIDUALIZED CARE

  • A SAFE & INTERESTING ENVIRONMENT


Infant needs in group care26 l.jpg
INFANT NEEDS IN GROUP CARE competencies

  • CARE THAT IS CONNECTED TO FAMILY & CULTURE

  • KNOWLEDGEABLE, RESPONSIVE CAREGIVERS


How to support secure attachments in group care l.jpg
HOW TO SUPPORT SECURE ATTACHMENTS IN GROUP CARE: competencies

  • CAREGIVER MAKES AN EMOTIONAL INVESTMENT IN THE CHILD

  • CAREGIVER IS CONSISTENTLY RESPONSIBLE FOR MEETING PHYSICAL AND EMOTIONAL NEEDS OF THE INFANT

  • THE RELATIONSHIP LASTS FOR AN EXTENDED PERIOD


Trends in quality l.jpg
TRENDS IN QUALITY competencies

  • QUALITY IS CONTINUING TO DETERIORATE

  • COMPENSATION IS LOW & STAFF TURNOVER IS HIGH

  • WHILE EDUCATION OF STAFF IS IMPROVING, RATIOS & GROUPS SIZE ARE INCREASING


1995 cost quality child outcome study l.jpg
1995 COST, QUALITY & CHILD OUTCOME STUDY competencies

  • ALMOST 50% OF CENTER-BASED INFANT CARE WAS OF POOR QUALITY

  • 40% OF INFANT/TODDLER ROOMS ENDANGERED HEALTH & SAFETY

  • ONLY 8.3% OF ROOMS (1 IN 12) HAD DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE CARE


Quality center based infant care l.jpg
QUALITY CENTER-BASED INFANT CARE competencies

  • LOW CHILD TO STAFF RATIOS

  • SMALL GROUP SIZES

  • CONTINUITY OF CARE (BIRTH-3YRS)

  • STAFF EDUCATION & INFANT TRAINING


Quality family child care l.jpg
QUALITY FAMILY CHILD CARE competencies

  • CAREGIVER WANTS TO CARE FOR CHILDREN & RECOGNIZED THE IMPORTANCE OF HER WORK

  • PLANNED ENVIRONMENT & EXPERIENCES FOR CHILDREN

  • REGULATED BY STATE


What is needed l.jpg
WHAT IS NEEDED competencies

  • INTENSE EFFORTS TO IMPROVE QUALITY

  • NATIONAL, STATE, LOCAL COMMUNITIES & PARENTS NEED TO ADDRESS COMPENSATION ISSUES


How do we ensure quality care l.jpg
HOW DO WE ENSURE QUALITY CARE competencies

  • RAISE PUBLIC AWARENESS OF CRITICAL IMPORTANCE OF QUALITY EARLY CARE & EDUCATION

  • INVOLVE ALL STAKEHOLDERS IN MAKING NECESSARY ECONOMIC INVESTMENTS


How do we ensure quality care34 l.jpg
HOW DO WE ENSURE QUALITY CARE competencies

  • INCREASE TRAINING REQUIREMENTS IN LICENSING REQUIREMENTS

  • ENSURE ADEQUATE COMPENSATION TO ATTRACT & RETAIN EARLY CARE & EDUCATION TEACHERS & PROVIDERS


Who are the stakeholders l.jpg
WHO ARE THE STAKEHOLDERS? competencies

  • EVERY CITIZEN OF THE UNITED STATES HAS A PERSONAL STAKE IN ENSURING QUALITY EARLY CARE & EDUCATION

  • OUR CHILDREN ARE THE ONLY FUTURE WE HAVE


ad