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THE EMERGING CRISIS . FOR 3.6 MILLION YEARS INFANTS WERE CARED FOR BY MOTHERS OR CLOSE FAMILY MEMBERS IN THE LAST 25 YEARS, THERE HAS BEEN A SHARP DROP IN CHILDCARE BY FAMILY MEMBERS Many slides from web. CHANGE IN CHILD REARING PATTERNS.

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THE EMERGING CRISIS

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THE EMERGING CRISIS

  • FOR 3.6 MILLION YEARS INFANTS WERE CARED FOR BY MOTHERS OR CLOSE FAMILY MEMBERS

  • IN THE LAST 25 YEARS, THERE HAS BEEN A SHARP DROP IN CHILDCARE BY FAMILY MEMBERS

  • Many slides from web.


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CHANGE IN CHILD REARING PATTERNS

  • IN 1999 60% OF MOTHERS OF INFANTS UNDER 1 YEAR WERE IN THE WORKFORCE.

  • MANY INFANTS SPEND THE BULK OF THEIR WAKING HOURS IN THE CARE OF NON-RELATIVES IN GROUP CHILD CARE SETTINGS


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EARLY CARE IS NOT VALUED

  • HISTORICALLY DONE BY WOMEN AT NO COST

  • U.S. HAS NOT INVESTED ENOUGH TO SAFEGUARD OUR MOST PRESCIOUS RESOURCE—OUR CHILDREN

  • OUR NATION’S FUTURE IS AT RISK


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MYTHS ABOUT EARLY CARE

  • “ITS JUST BABYSITTING”

  • “ANYONE CAN DO IT”

  • “JUST FEED THE BABY AND CHANGE ITS DIAPER”

  • “BABIES SLEEP MOST OF THE TIME”

  • “BABIES DON’T LEARN ANYWAY”


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Child Care: Controversy

NICHD study of early child care. 1,153 infants


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Relations between child-care in first 3 years & peer competencies

  • Positive, responsive caregiver behavior most consistently associated with positive, skilled peer interaction in child care.

    • Children with more experience in child-care settings with other children present were observed to be more positive and skilled in their peer play in child care

      • although caregivers rated them more negative with playmates.

  • Children with more hours in child care rated by caregivers as more negative in peer play, but observed play not related to the quantity of care.

    • Child-care experiences were not associated with peer competence as rated by mothers or as observed in dyadic play with a friend.


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Peer competence

  • Assessed with mother and caregiver ratings, observations in child care

  • Maternal sensitivity and children's cognitive and language competence predicted peer competence across all settings and informants, suggesting that family and child-care contexts may play different, but complementary roles in the development of early emerging individual differences in peer interaction.

    • NICHD ECCRN. Child Care and Children's Peer Interaction at 24 and 36 Months: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Child Development 2001;72(5):1478-1500.


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References

  • http://www.nichd.nih.gov/about/od/secc/pubs.htm


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Effects of child care on infant-mother attachment security

  • No significant main effects of child-care experience (amount, age entry, or type of care) on attachment security or avoidance.

    • Extensive vs, no child-care experience did not distinguish infant distress in separations from mother.

  • Significant main effects of maternal sensitivity and responsiveness.

    • Interaction: Infants less likely to be secure when low maternal sensitivity/responsiveness was combined with poor quality child care, more than minimal child care, or more than one care arrangement

      • . Child Development. 1997. 68(5) 860-879


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Same at 36 months

  • Maternal sensitivity was the strongest predictor of preschool attachment classification.

  • No child-care factors (quantity, quality, or type) predicted, in and of themselves, attachment security at 36 months.

  • Interaction: When maternal sensitivity was low, more hours per week in care somewhat increased the risk of the insecure (C).

  • Significant but modest stability of attachment classifications from 15 to 36 months

    • especially for children with A and C classifications.


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Before- and After-School Care Arrangements?

  • “A prospective, longitudinal study involving 933 children in the latter part of first grade….

  • Children who consistently participated in extracurricular activities during kindergarten and first grade obtained higher standardized test scores

    • …controlling for child and family factors and children's prior functioning.

      • Participation in other types of out-of-school care was not associated with child functioning in first grade when background factors were controlled.

        • NICHD ECCRN. Are Child Developmental Outcomes Related to Before- and After-School Care Arrangements? Results From the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Child Development 2004;75(1):280-295


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DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES

  • YOUNG INFANTS:SECURITY

  • MOBILE INFANTS:EXPLORATION

  • OLDER INFANTS:INDEPENDENCE


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ATTACHMENT RESEARCH

  • ATTACHMENT IS THE MEASURE OF THE QUALITY OF A RELATIONSHIP FROM THE CHILD’S PERSPECTIVE


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ATTACHMENT RESEARCH

  • ATTACHMENT RELATIONSHIPS FORM A HIERARCHY (PRIMARY, SECONDARY, ETC.)

  • INFANTS IN POOR QUALITY CARE TEND TO HAVE LESS SECURE ATTACHMENTS TO CAREGIVERS.


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ATTACHMENT RESEARCH

  • A SECURE ATTACHMENT IS FORMED WHEN A CHILD IS IN A RELATIONSHIP OVER TIME WITH SOMEONE WH0 IS EMOTIONALLY AVAILABLE & SENSITIVE

  • INFANTS IN HIGH QUALITY CARE ARE MORE SECURELY ATTACHED TO THEIR CAREGIVERS


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ATTACHMENT RESEARCH

  • SECURELY ATTACHED CHILDREN HAVE BETTER:

    • COGNITIVE OUTCOMES

    • SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

    • GREATER LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY


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NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CHILD HEALTH & HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

  • 10-SITE STUDY RESULTS INDICATE INFANT CARE HAS NO EFFECT ON QUALITY OF CHILD’S ATTACHMENT WITH PARENTS

  • IF INSECURELY ATTACHED AT HOME & IN POOR QUALITY SETTINGS, INFANTS ARE AT RISK DEVELOPMENTALLY


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CAROLLEE HOWES’ RESEARCH FINDINGS

  • CHILDREN, WHO ARE INSECURELY ATTACHED AT HOME, BENEFIT FROM A SECURE ATTACHMENT WITH A CAREGIVER IN OUT-OF-HOME CARE


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UNIV. OF MINNESOTA STUDY

  • CHILDREN NOT RECEIVING RESPONSIVE EARLY CARE WERE AT HIGHER RISK FOR POOR OUTCOMES INCLUDING:

  • DIFFICULTY FORMING RELATIONSHIPS WITH PEERS IN PRESCHOOL & ADOLESCENCE

  • LOWER LEVEL SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT, ESPECIALLY IN ADOLESCENCE


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UNIV. OF MINNESOTA STUDY

  • 72% WERE IN SPECIAL EDUCATION BY 3RD GRADE

  • EXHIBITED MORE BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS

  • MORE LIKELY TO USE DRUGS & ALCOHOL

  • CHILDREN WITH EARLY SECURE ATTACHMENTS WERE LESS VULNERABLE


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SECURELY ATTACHED INFANTS WILL DEVELOP:

  • A POSITIVE SENSE OF SELF WORTH

  • A BELIEF IN THE HELPFULNESS OF OTHERS

  • A MODEL ON WHICH TO BUILD ALL FUTURE RELATIONSHIPS


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SECURELY ATTACHED INFANTS WILL DEVELOP:

  • THE SECURITY TO EXPLORE ENVIRONMENT & DEAL WITH IT EFFECTIVELY

  • A SENSE THAT THEY ARE COMPETENT AND CAN SOLVE PROBLEMS


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SECURE ATTACHMENT LEADS TO RESILIENCE:

  • IF CHILD’S RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHERS CONTINUE TO BE FAVORABLE, THESE EARLY PATTERNS OF BEHAVIOR WILL LEAD TO RESILIENCE


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QUALITY INFANT CARE

  • SHOULD HAVE THE SAME COMPONENTS OF QUALITY PARENTING—WARM, RESPONSIVE, CONSISTENT CAREGIVING GEARED TO THE NEEDS OF EACH INFANT


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INFANT NEEDS IN GROUP CARE

  • CLOSE, CARING RELATIONSHIPS

  • INDIVIDUALIZED CARE

  • A SAFE & INTERESTING ENVIRONMENT


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INFANT NEEDS IN GROUP CARE

  • CARE THAT IS CONNECTED TO FAMILY & CULTURE

  • KNOWLEDGEABLE, RESPONSIVE CAREGIVERS


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HOW TO SUPPORT SECURE ATTACHMENTS IN GROUP CARE:

  • CAREGIVER MAKES AN EMOTIONAL INVESTMENT IN THE CHILD

  • CAREGIVER IS CONSISTENTLY RESPONSIBLE FOR MEETING PHYSICAL AND EMOTIONAL NEEDS OF THE INFANT

  • THE RELATIONSHIP LASTS FOR AN EXTENDED PERIOD


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TRENDS IN QUALITY

  • QUALITY IS CONTINUING TO DETERIORATE

  • COMPENSATION IS LOW & STAFF TURNOVER IS HIGH

  • WHILE EDUCATION OF STAFF IS IMPROVING, RATIOS & GROUPS SIZE ARE INCREASING


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1995 COST, QUALITY & CHILD OUTCOME STUDY

  • ALMOST 50% OF CENTER-BASED INFANT CARE WAS OF POOR QUALITY

  • 40% OF INFANT/TODDLER ROOMS ENDANGERED HEALTH & SAFETY

  • ONLY 8.3% OF ROOMS (1 IN 12) HAD DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE CARE


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QUALITY CENTER-BASED INFANT CARE

  • LOW CHILD TO STAFF RATIOS

  • SMALL GROUP SIZES

  • CONTINUITY OF CARE (BIRTH-3YRS)

  • STAFF EDUCATION & INFANT TRAINING


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QUALITY FAMILY CHILD CARE

  • CAREGIVER WANTS TO CARE FOR CHILDREN & RECOGNIZED THE IMPORTANCE OF HER WORK

  • PLANNED ENVIRONMENT & EXPERIENCES FOR CHILDREN

  • REGULATED BY STATE


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WHAT IS NEEDED

  • INTENSE EFFORTS TO IMPROVE QUALITY

  • NATIONAL, STATE, LOCAL COMMUNITIES & PARENTS NEED TO ADDRESS COMPENSATION ISSUES


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HOW DO WE ENSURE QUALITY CARE

  • RAISE PUBLIC AWARENESS OF CRITICAL IMPORTANCE OF QUALITY EARLY CARE & EDUCATION

  • INVOLVE ALL STAKEHOLDERS IN MAKING NECESSARY ECONOMIC INVESTMENTS


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HOW DO WE ENSURE QUALITY CARE

  • INCREASE TRAINING REQUIREMENTS IN LICENSING REQUIREMENTS

  • ENSURE ADEQUATE COMPENSATION TO ATTRACT & RETAIN EARLY CARE & EDUCATION TEACHERS & PROVIDERS


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WHO ARE THE STAKEHOLDERS?

  • EVERY CITIZEN OF THE UNITED STATES HAS A PERSONAL STAKE IN ENSURING QUALITY EARLY CARE & EDUCATION

  • OUR CHILDREN ARE THE ONLY FUTURE WE HAVE


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