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THE EMERGING CRISIS . FOR 3.6 MILLION YEARS INFANTS WERE CARED FOR BY MOTHERS OR CLOSE FAMILY MEMBERS IN THE LAST 25 YEARS, THERE HAS BEEN A SHARP DROP IN CHILDCARE BY FAMILY MEMBERS Many slides from web. CHANGE IN CHILD REARING PATTERNS.

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the emerging crisis
THE EMERGING CRISIS
  • FOR 3.6 MILLION YEARS INFANTS WERE CARED FOR BY MOTHERS OR CLOSE FAMILY MEMBERS
  • IN THE LAST 25 YEARS, THERE HAS BEEN A SHARP DROP IN CHILDCARE BY FAMILY MEMBERS
  • Many slides from web.
change in child rearing patterns
CHANGE IN CHILD REARING PATTERNS
  • IN 1999 60% OF MOTHERS OF INFANTS UNDER 1 YEAR WERE IN THE WORKFORCE.
  • MANY INFANTS SPEND THE BULK OF THEIR WAKING HOURS IN THE CARE OF NON-RELATIVES IN GROUP CHILD CARE SETTINGS
early care is not valued
EARLY CARE IS NOT VALUED
  • HISTORICALLY DONE BY WOMEN AT NO COST
  • U.S. HAS NOT INVESTED ENOUGH TO SAFEGUARD OUR MOST PRESCIOUS RESOURCE—OUR CHILDREN
  • OUR NATION’S FUTURE IS AT RISK
myths about early care
MYTHS ABOUT EARLY CARE
  • “ITS JUST BABYSITTING”
  • “ANYONE CAN DO IT”
  • “JUST FEED THE BABY AND CHANGE ITS DIAPER”
  • “BABIES SLEEP MOST OF THE TIME”
  • “BABIES DON’T LEARN ANYWAY”
child care controversy

Child Care: Controversy

NICHD study of early child care. 1,153 infants

relations between child care in first 3 years peer competencies
Relations between child-care in first 3 years & peer competencies
  • Positive, responsive caregiver behavior most consistently associated with positive, skilled peer interaction in child care.
    • Children with more experience in child-care settings with other children present were observed to be more positive and skilled in their peer play in child care
      • although caregivers rated them more negative with playmates.
  • Children with more hours in child care rated by caregivers as more negative in peer play, but observed play not related to the quantity of care.
        • Child-care experiences were not associated with peer competence as rated by mothers or as observed in dyadic play with a friend.
peer competence
Peer competence
  • Assessed with mother and caregiver ratings, observations in child care
  • Maternal sensitivity and children\'s cognitive and language competence predicted peer competence across all settings and informants, suggesting that family and child-care contexts may play different, but complementary roles in the development of early emerging individual differences in peer interaction.
          • NICHD ECCRN. Child Care and Children\'s Peer Interaction at 24 and 36 Months: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Child Development 2001;72(5):1478-1500.
references
References
  • http://www.nichd.nih.gov/about/od/secc/pubs.htm
effects of child care on infant mother attachment security
Effects of child care on infant-mother attachment security
  • No significant main effects of child-care experience (amount, age entry, or type of care) on attachment security or avoidance.
    • Extensive vs, no child-care experience did not distinguish infant distress in separations from mother.
  • Significant main effects of maternal sensitivity and responsiveness.
    • Interaction: Infants less likely to be secure when low maternal sensitivity/responsiveness was combined with poor quality child care, more than minimal child care, or more than one care arrangement
          • . Child Development. 1997. 68(5) 860-879
same at 36 months
Same at 36 months
  • Maternal sensitivity was the strongest predictor of preschool attachment classification.
  • No child-care factors (quantity, quality, or type) predicted, in and of themselves, attachment security at 36 months.
  • Interaction: When maternal sensitivity was low, more hours per week in care somewhat increased the risk of the insecure (C).
  • Significant but modest stability of attachment classifications from 15 to 36 months
    • especially for children with A and C classifications.
before and after school care arrangements
Before- and After-School Care Arrangements?
  • “A prospective, longitudinal study involving 933 children in the latter part of first grade….
  • Children who consistently participated in extracurricular activities during kindergarten and first grade obtained higher standardized test scores
    • …controlling for child and family factors and children\'s prior functioning.
      • Participation in other types of out-of-school care was not associated with child functioning in first grade when background factors were controlled.
          • NICHD ECCRN. Are Child Developmental Outcomes Related to Before- and After-School Care Arrangements? Results From the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Child Development 2004;75(1):280-295
developmental issues
DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES
  • YOUNG INFANTS: SECURITY
  • MOBILE INFANTS: EXPLORATION
  • OLDER INFANTS: INDEPENDENCE
attachment research
ATTACHMENT RESEARCH
  • ATTACHMENT IS THE MEASURE OF THE QUALITY OF A RELATIONSHIP FROM THE CHILD’S PERSPECTIVE
attachment research14
ATTACHMENT RESEARCH
  • ATTACHMENT RELATIONSHIPS FORM A HIERARCHY (PRIMARY, SECONDARY, ETC.)
  • INFANTS IN POOR QUALITY CARE TEND TO HAVE LESS SECURE ATTACHMENTS TO CAREGIVERS.
attachment research15
ATTACHMENT RESEARCH
  • A SECURE ATTACHMENT IS FORMED WHEN A CHILD IS IN A RELATIONSHIP OVER TIME WITH SOMEONE WH0 IS EMOTIONALLY AVAILABLE & SENSITIVE
  • INFANTS IN HIGH QUALITY CARE ARE MORE SECURELY ATTACHED TO THEIR CAREGIVERS
attachment research16
ATTACHMENT RESEARCH
  • SECURELY ATTACHED CHILDREN HAVE BETTER:
    • COGNITIVE OUTCOMES
    • SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
    • GREATER LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY
national institute of child health human development
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CHILD HEALTH & HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
  • 10-SITE STUDY RESULTS INDICATE INFANT CARE HAS NO EFFECT ON QUALITY OF CHILD’S ATTACHMENT WITH PARENTS
  • IF INSECURELY ATTACHED AT HOME & IN POOR QUALITY SETTINGS, INFANTS ARE AT RISK DEVELOPMENTALLY
carollee howes research findings
CAROLLEE HOWES’ RESEARCH FINDINGS
  • CHILDREN, WHO ARE INSECURELY ATTACHED AT HOME, BENEFIT FROM A SECURE ATTACHMENT WITH A CAREGIVER IN OUT-OF-HOME CARE
univ of minnesota study
UNIV. OF MINNESOTA STUDY
  • CHILDREN NOT RECEIVING RESPONSIVE EARLY CARE WERE AT HIGHER RISK FOR POOR OUTCOMES INCLUDING:
  • DIFFICULTY FORMING RELATIONSHIPS WITH PEERS IN PRESCHOOL & ADOLESCENCE
  • LOWER LEVEL SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT, ESPECIALLY IN ADOLESCENCE
univ of minnesota study20
UNIV. OF MINNESOTA STUDY
  • 72% WERE IN SPECIAL EDUCATION BY 3RD GRADE
  • EXHIBITED MORE BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS
  • MORE LIKELY TO USE DRUGS & ALCOHOL
  • CHILDREN WITH EARLY SECURE ATTACHMENTS WERE LESS VULNERABLE
securely attached infants will develop
SECURELY ATTACHED INFANTS WILL DEVELOP:
  • A POSITIVE SENSE OF SELF WORTH
  • A BELIEF IN THE HELPFULNESS OF OTHERS
  • A MODEL ON WHICH TO BUILD ALL FUTURE RELATIONSHIPS
securely attached infants will develop22
SECURELY ATTACHED INFANTS WILL DEVELOP:
  • THE SECURITY TO EXPLORE ENVIRONMENT & DEAL WITH IT EFFECTIVELY
  • A SENSE THAT THEY ARE COMPETENT AND CAN SOLVE PROBLEMS
secure attachment leads to resilience
SECURE ATTACHMENT LEADS TO RESILIENCE:
  • IF CHILD’S RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHERS CONTINUE TO BE FAVORABLE, THESE EARLY PATTERNS OF BEHAVIOR WILL LEAD TO RESILIENCE
quality infant care
QUALITY INFANT CARE
  • SHOULD HAVE THE SAME COMPONENTS OF QUALITY PARENTING—WARM, RESPONSIVE, CONSISTENT CAREGIVING GEARED TO THE NEEDS OF EACH INFANT
infant needs in group care
INFANT NEEDS IN GROUP CARE
  • CLOSE, CARING RELATIONSHIPS
  • INDIVIDUALIZED CARE
  • A SAFE & INTERESTING ENVIRONMENT
infant needs in group care26
INFANT NEEDS IN GROUP CARE
  • CARE THAT IS CONNECTED TO FAMILY & CULTURE
  • KNOWLEDGEABLE, RESPONSIVE CAREGIVERS
how to support secure attachments in group care
HOW TO SUPPORT SECURE ATTACHMENTS IN GROUP CARE:
  • CAREGIVER MAKES AN EMOTIONAL INVESTMENT IN THE CHILD
  • CAREGIVER IS CONSISTENTLY RESPONSIBLE FOR MEETING PHYSICAL AND EMOTIONAL NEEDS OF THE INFANT
  • THE RELATIONSHIP LASTS FOR AN EXTENDED PERIOD
trends in quality
TRENDS IN QUALITY
  • QUALITY IS CONTINUING TO DETERIORATE
  • COMPENSATION IS LOW & STAFF TURNOVER IS HIGH
  • WHILE EDUCATION OF STAFF IS IMPROVING, RATIOS & GROUPS SIZE ARE INCREASING
1995 cost quality child outcome study
1995 COST, QUALITY & CHILD OUTCOME STUDY
  • ALMOST 50% OF CENTER-BASED INFANT CARE WAS OF POOR QUALITY
  • 40% OF INFANT/TODDLER ROOMS ENDANGERED HEALTH & SAFETY
  • ONLY 8.3% OF ROOMS (1 IN 12) HAD DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE CARE
quality center based infant care
QUALITY CENTER-BASED INFANT CARE
  • LOW CHILD TO STAFF RATIOS
  • SMALL GROUP SIZES
  • CONTINUITY OF CARE (BIRTH-3YRS)
  • STAFF EDUCATION & INFANT TRAINING
quality family child care
QUALITY FAMILY CHILD CARE
  • CAREGIVER WANTS TO CARE FOR CHILDREN & RECOGNIZED THE IMPORTANCE OF HER WORK
  • PLANNED ENVIRONMENT & EXPERIENCES FOR CHILDREN
  • REGULATED BY STATE
what is needed
WHAT IS NEEDED
  • INTENSE EFFORTS TO IMPROVE QUALITY
  • NATIONAL, STATE, LOCAL COMMUNITIES & PARENTS NEED TO ADDRESS COMPENSATION ISSUES
how do we ensure quality care
HOW DO WE ENSURE QUALITY CARE
  • RAISE PUBLIC AWARENESS OF CRITICAL IMPORTANCE OF QUALITY EARLY CARE & EDUCATION
  • INVOLVE ALL STAKEHOLDERS IN MAKING NECESSARY ECONOMIC INVESTMENTS
how do we ensure quality care34
HOW DO WE ENSURE QUALITY CARE
  • INCREASE TRAINING REQUIREMENTS IN LICENSING REQUIREMENTS
  • ENSURE ADEQUATE COMPENSATION TO ATTRACT & RETAIN EARLY CARE & EDUCATION TEACHERS & PROVIDERS
who are the stakeholders
WHO ARE THE STAKEHOLDERS?
  • EVERY CITIZEN OF THE UNITED STATES HAS A PERSONAL STAKE IN ENSURING QUALITY EARLY CARE & EDUCATION
  • OUR CHILDREN ARE THE ONLY FUTURE WE HAVE
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