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The Countermeasure Simulation System - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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THE SUPPORTING ROLE OF ONTOLOGY IN A SIMULATION SYSTEM FOR COUNTERMEASURE EVALUATION Nelia Lombard DPSS, CSIR. Introduction. Ontologies and Simulations What are the possible advantages that an ontology might have in the simulation environment?

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  • Ontologies and Simulations

  • What are the possible advantages that an ontology might have in the simulation environment?

  • Can an ontology provide solutions to some of the challenges to be dealt with in the countermeasure simulation system?

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  • What is an Ontology

  • The Countermeasure Simulation System

  • Possible Role of Ontology in the Simulation System

  • Constructing the Ontology

  • Lessons Learned

  • Conclusions and Future Development

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What is Ontology?

  • Study the meaning of being

  • How an object relates to the world and to itself

  • Describes the world

  • Not a taxonomy




    • Oryx has countermeasures

    • Oryx can hover

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Ontology in Information Systems and Computing

  • The artifact present, in a formal way, the knowledge of a domain as a set of concepts and relationships between the concepts, for the purpose of reasoning.

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Use of Ontologies

  • Share a common understanding of the structure of information and the concepts

    • A common vocabulary

  • Enable reuse of the domain knowledge

    • For example, time ontology

  • Make domain assumptions explicit

  • Separate domain knowledge from the operational knowledge

  • Analysis of domain knowledge

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The Countermeasure Simulation System

  • Purpose:

    • Evaluate countermeasure design

    • Determine aircraft vulnerability

  • Simulate the interaction between models as results of specific events

  • Use realistic models

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The Countermeasure Simulation System

  • The Simulation Scenario

  • Type of aircraft: e.g. Oryx

  • Flight plan: How will the Oryx fly?

  • Type of missile threat

  • Type of countermeasure and the dispensing logic

  • Atmospheric conditions: e.g. clear skies or fog

  • Terrain model

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The Countermeasure Simulation System

  • Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a set of rules for encoding documents in machine-readable format

  • Model parameters are set up in XML files

  • Simulation output written to XML files




<Moving> FileName =”Oryx.xml” Type=”DPSSORYX” />



<Observer> FileName=”ThreatType1.xml” Type=”BaseMissile” />


<Atmosphere> FileName=”Atmo.xml” />


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The Countermeasure Simulation System

  • Simulation results processed to show effectiveness of countermeasure against threat

  • Results:

    • 3D Viewer

    • Videos

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Possible Role of Ontology in the Countermeasure Simulation System

  • To know what is available in the system

  • Guideline for new models

  • High-level description

  • Verify and validation of scenarios

  • Reverse engineer previous simulations

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Constructing the Ontology System

  • Where will it be used?

  • How can it add benefit?

  • Purpose

    • To capture concepts in a simulation scenario

  • Scope

    • A Simulation Scenario

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Creating the Ontology (1) System

  • Identify the classes

    • Scenario, Target, Threat, Atmosphere,


  • Define object properties

    • Relationships between classes

      • Target has countermeasure

      • Scenario has target

  • Define data properties

    • Position, Velocity

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    Creating the Ontology (2) System

    • Create individuals

      Specific objects used in the simulation

      • Target: Oryx

      • Atmosphere: Fog

      • Countermeasure: Flare

      • Scenario: ScenarioFlareLeftOryx200ft30kn

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    Ontology: Lessons Learned System

    • Naming of classes

      • Consistency

      • Agreement

    • Classes versus instances

      • Match the real world

    • Modeling roles as classes

      • Classes can loose their roles over time

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    Conclusions System

    • Clear, common understanding of what is in the domain

    • High-level description

    • Capture the meaning of objects

    • Future functionality: Use ontology to set up scenario and to reason about validity of scenario

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    Commentary System

    Questions? Suggestions Input