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Worldwide Energy Production. 2000. 2050 ?. Sustainable Energy. Chapter 22. ENERGY FROM BIOMASS. Photosynthesis 6H 2 0+6CO 2 + solar energy = C 6 H 12 O 6 +6O 2. Fuelwood. Other Sources of Biomass Energy. Dung Where other fuel is in short supply, people often dry and burn animal dung.

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Worldwide Energy Production

2000

2050?

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Sustainable Energy

Chapter 22

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ENERGY FROM BIOMASS

  • Photosynthesis

    • 6H20+6CO2 + solar energy = C6H12O6+6O2

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Fuelwood

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Other Sources of Biomass Energy

  • Dung

    • Where other fuel is in short supply, people often dry and burn animal dung.

  • Methane

    • Methane is main component of natural gas produced by anaerobic decomposition.

  • Negative Impacts

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ENERGY FROM EARTH'S FORCESHydropower

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Dam Drawbacks

  • Human Displacement

  • Ecosystem Destruction

  • Wildlife Losses

  • Large-Scale Flooding Due to Dam Failures

  • Sedimentation

  • Herbicide Contamination

  • Evaporative Losses

  • Nutrient Flow Retardation

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Dam Alternatives

  • Low-Head Hydropower - Extract energy from small headwater dams.

  • Run-of-River Flow - Submerged directly in stream and usually do not require dam or diversion structure.

  • Micro-Hyrdo Generators - Small versions designed to supply power to single homes.

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Other Sources of Energy from Earth's Forces

  • Tidal and Wave Energy

    • Ocean tides and waves contain enormous amounts of energy that can be harnessed.

  • Ocean Thermal Electric Conversion

    • Heat from sun-warmed upper ocean layers is used to evaporate a working fluid, such as ammonia, which has a low boiling point.

  • Geothermal Energy

    • High-pressure, high-temperature steam fields exist below the earth’s surface.

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Wind Energy

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Wind Energy in Canada

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Cypress Wind Power Facility

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Negative Impacts of Wind Energy

  • Interrupt view in remote places

  • Noise

  • Destroy sense of isolation

  • Potential bird kills

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SOLAR ENERGY

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Solar Energy

  • Passive Solar Heat - Using absorptive structures with no moving parts to gather and hold heat.

  • Active Solar Heat - Generally pump heat- absorbing medium through a collector, rather than passively collecting heat in a stationary object.

  • Eutectic Chemicals are also used to store large amounts of energy in a small volume.

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Photovoltaic Solar Energy

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Storing Electrical Energy

  • Electrical energy storage is difficult and expensive.

    • Lead-acid batteries are heavy and have low energy density.

    • Metal-gas batteries are inexpensive and have high energy densities, but short lives.

    • Alkali-metal batteries have high storage capacity, but are more expensive.

    • Lithium batteries have very long lives, and store large amounts of energy, but are very expensive.

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Promoting Renewable Energy

  • Proposed Energy Conservation Policies:

    • Distributional Surcharges

      • Small fee levied on all utility customers.

    • Renewable Portfolio

      • Suppliers must get minimum percentage of power from renewable sources.

    • Green Pricing

      • Allows utilities to profit from conservation programs and charge premium prices for renewable energy.

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Promoting Renewable Energy

  • "Negawatt" Programs

    • It is much less expensive to finance conservation projects than to build new power plants.

  • Cogeneration

    • Simultaneous production of both electricity and steam, or hot water, in the same plant.

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Energy Costs

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CONSERVATION

  • Utilization Efficiencies describe how well available energy is used for its intended purpose.

  • Energy Efficiency is a measure of energy produced compared to energy consumed.

  • Net Energy Yield - Based on total useful energy produced during the lifetime of an entire energy system, minus the energy required to make useful energy available.

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Energy Conversion Efficiencies

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Net Energy Yields

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Links

  • Saskatchewan Waste Reduction Council (www.saskwastereduction.ca)

  • Canadian Wind Energy Association (www.canwea.ca)

  • Canadian Hydro Developers, Inc. (www.canhydro.com)

  • Solar Energy Society of Canada (www.solarenergysociety.ca)

  • Canadian Renewable Fuels Association (www.greenfuels.org)

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