Diagnostic imaging considerations for wildlife
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Diagnostic Imaging Considerations for Wildlife. Mark A. Mitchell DVM, MS, PhD University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine. Diagnostic imaging. Non-invasive Radiography Ultrasonography Advanced imaging (CT, MRI) Semi-invasive/Invasive Endoscopy. Introduction.

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Diagnostic imaging considerations for wildlife l.jpg

Diagnostic Imaging Considerations for Wildlife

Mark A. Mitchell DVM, MS, PhD

University of Illinois

College of Veterinary Medicine


Diagnostic imaging l.jpg
Diagnostic imaging

  • Non-invasive

    • Radiography

    • Ultrasonography

    • Advanced imaging (CT, MRI)

  • Semi-invasive/Invasive

    • Endoscopy


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Introduction

  • Diagnostic imaging

    • Underutilized

      • Thorough diagnostic work-up

    • Getting started:

      • learn anatomy

      • restraint and anesthesia

      • positioning techniques

      • Practice, practice, pratice


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Radiographic Equipment

  • Machine should be capable of:

    • short exposure time: 1/60 or faster

    • high mA- capacity (>300): better detail

    • KvP range: 40-100

      • bone less radiopaque than mammals

      • 2 kVp incremental change


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Radiographic equipment

  • Dental radiographs


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Radiographic equipment

  • Digital radiography


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Radiographic Equipment

  • Film and screens

    • High-detail, rare-earth

    • Kodak Ektascan EM-1

      • gray film

      • single emulsion

      • slow speed

      • more detail

    • Kodak T-Mat TML

      • black film

      • double emulsion

      • fast speed

      • less detail

    • use appropriate size


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Restraint and Immobilization

  • Manual vs. Chemical Restraint

  • Manual restraint

    • physical restraint

      • increases stress

    • restraint devices

      • tubes

      • “blinders”



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Positioning-Birds and Mammals

  • Standard

    • Dorsoventral or Ventrodorsal

    • Lateral


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Positioning-Reptiles

  • Chelonians

    • dorsoventral

      • tortoise in prone position

      • measure thickest point between carapace and plastron


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Positioning-Reptiles

  • Chelonians

    • Lateral

      • Horizontal beam

        • place tortoise on sponge

        • cassette in vertical position

      • Vertical beam

        • fasten tortoise to cassette and position animal in vertical position


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Positioning-Reptiles

  • Chelonians

    • Craniocaudal

      • Horizontal beam

        • tortoise on sponge

        • cassette placed vertically and behind tortoise

      • Vertical

        • fasten tortoise to cassette


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Avian Radiographic Anatomy

  • Respiratory System

    • Trachea

    • Syrinx

    • Lungs

    • Air Sacs

      • Interclavicular, thoracic, and abdominal air sacs


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Avian Radiographic Anatomy

  • Cardiovascular System

    • Heart

    • right-sided aortic arch

    • ascending aorta

    • pulmonary arteries

    • caudal vena cava


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Avian Radiographic Anatomy

  • Gastrointestinal tract

    • Crop

    • Esophagus

    • Proventriculus

    • Ventriculus

    • Small intestine

      • duodenum

    • Cloaca


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Avian Radiographic Anatomy

  • Viscera

    • Liver

      • “hour-glass”

    • Spleen

    • Kidneys

    • Gonads

      • obvious during breeding periods


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Avian Radiographic Anatomy

  • Skeletal

    • Clavicles

    • Coracoids

    • Appendages

      • Normal anatomy


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Avian Radiographs

  • Contrast radiographs

    • deliver suspension into crop

    • Iohexal (25-30 mg/kg)

      • 2x as fast as barium

      • every 15 minutes

  • radiograph over 2-3 hour period





















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Mammal Radiographic Anatomy

  • Heart

    • Point of elbow

    • Mustelids

      • Caudal to elbow

      • Globoid

  • Gastrointestinal tract

  • Splenomegaly

  • Kidneys

    • 2 lumbar vertebrae

    • adrenal glands

  • Urinary system

  • Barium: 15 ml/kg, 20% solution





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Rodent and Rabbit Radiographic Anatomy

  • Teeth

  • Tympanic bullae

  • Respiratory tract

    • reduced size

  • Gastrointestinal tract

    • prominent cecum

  • Urogenital system

  • Skeleton


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Ultrasonography

  • Value?

    • Anatomic size

    • Location

    • Architecture

    • Organs

      • Heart

      • Liver

      • Reproductive

      • Bladders

      • Kidneys

      • GI

  • Post-radiographs

    • Overall sensitivity?




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Endoscopy

  • Diagnostic imaging?

  • Additional benefits beyond imaging

    • Biopsies

  • More invasive

    • General anesthesia


  • Endoscopy50 l.jpg
    Endoscopy

    • Rigid endoscopes

      • Sizes

      • Procedures

        • Coelioscopy

        • Cloacoscopy

        • Upper respiratory

        • Oral

        • Aural




    Endoscopy53 l.jpg
    Endoscopy

    • Flexible endoscopes

      • Sizes: variable

      • Respiratory tract

      • Gastrointestinal tract

        • Upper

          • Foreign body removal

          • Biopsies

        • Lower

          • Cloacoscopy

          • Examine dystocia

          • Cystoscopy


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