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Diagnostic Imaging Considerations for Wildlife. Mark A. Mitchell DVM, MS, PhD University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine. Diagnostic imaging. Non-invasive Radiography Ultrasonography Advanced imaging (CT, MRI) Semi-invasive/Invasive Endoscopy. Introduction.

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diagnostic imaging considerations for wildlife

Diagnostic Imaging Considerations for Wildlife

Mark A. Mitchell DVM, MS, PhD

University of Illinois

College of Veterinary Medicine

diagnostic imaging
Diagnostic imaging
  • Non-invasive
    • Radiography
    • Ultrasonography
    • Advanced imaging (CT, MRI)
  • Semi-invasive/Invasive
    • Endoscopy
introduction
Introduction
  • Diagnostic imaging
    • Underutilized
      • Thorough diagnostic work-up
    • Getting started:
      • learn anatomy
      • restraint and anesthesia
      • positioning techniques
      • Practice, practice, pratice
radiographic equipment
Radiographic Equipment
  • Machine should be capable of:
    • short exposure time: 1/60 or faster
    • high mA- capacity (>300): better detail
    • KvP range: 40-100
      • bone less radiopaque than mammals
      • 2 kVp incremental change
radiographic equipment5
Radiographic equipment
  • Dental radiographs
radiographic equipment6
Radiographic equipment
  • Digital radiography
radiographic equipment8
Radiographic Equipment
  • Film and screens
    • High-detail, rare-earth
    • Kodak Ektascan EM-1
      • gray film
      • single emulsion
      • slow speed
      • more detail
    • Kodak T-Mat TML
      • black film
      • double emulsion
      • fast speed
      • less detail
    • use appropriate size
restraint and immobilization
Restraint and Immobilization
  • Manual vs. Chemical Restraint
  • Manual restraint
    • physical restraint
      • increases stress
    • restraint devices
      • tubes
      • “blinders”
positioning birds and mammals
Positioning-Birds and Mammals
  • Standard
    • Dorsoventral or Ventrodorsal
    • Lateral
positioning reptiles
Positioning-Reptiles
  • Chelonians
    • dorsoventral
      • tortoise in prone position
      • measure thickest point between carapace and plastron
positioning reptiles13
Positioning-Reptiles
  • Chelonians
    • Lateral
      • Horizontal beam
        • place tortoise on sponge
        • cassette in vertical position
      • Vertical beam
        • fasten tortoise to cassette and position animal in vertical position
positioning reptiles14
Positioning-Reptiles
  • Chelonians
    • Craniocaudal
      • Horizontal beam
        • tortoise on sponge
        • cassette placed vertically and behind tortoise
      • Vertical
        • fasten tortoise to cassette
avian radiographic anatomy
Avian Radiographic Anatomy
  • Respiratory System
    • Trachea
    • Syrinx
    • Lungs
    • Air Sacs
      • Interclavicular, thoracic, and abdominal air sacs
avian radiographic anatomy16
Avian Radiographic Anatomy
  • Cardiovascular System
    • Heart
    • right-sided aortic arch
    • ascending aorta
    • pulmonary arteries
    • caudal vena cava
avian radiographic anatomy17
Avian Radiographic Anatomy
  • Gastrointestinal tract
    • Crop
    • Esophagus
    • Proventriculus
    • Ventriculus
    • Small intestine
      • duodenum
    • Cloaca
avian radiographic anatomy18
Avian Radiographic Anatomy
  • Viscera
    • Liver
      • “hour-glass”
    • Spleen
    • Kidneys
    • Gonads
      • obvious during breeding periods
avian radiographic anatomy19
Avian Radiographic Anatomy
  • Skeletal
    • Clavicles
    • Coracoids
    • Appendages
      • Normal anatomy
avian radiographs
Avian Radiographs
  • Contrast radiographs
      • deliver suspension into crop
      • Iohexal (25-30 mg/kg)
        • 2x as fast as barium
        • every 15 minutes
    • radiograph over 2-3 hour period
mammal radiographic anatomy
Mammal Radiographic Anatomy
  • Heart
    • Point of elbow
    • Mustelids
      • Caudal to elbow
      • Globoid
  • Gastrointestinal tract
  • Splenomegaly
  • Kidneys
    • 2 lumbar vertebrae
    • adrenal glands
  • Urinary system
  • Barium: 15 ml/kg, 20% solution
rodent and rabbit radiographic anatomy
Rodent and Rabbit Radiographic Anatomy
  • Teeth
  • Tympanic bullae
  • Respiratory tract
    • reduced size
  • Gastrointestinal tract
    • prominent cecum
  • Urogenital system
  • Skeleton
ultrasonography
Ultrasonography
  • Value?
    • Anatomic size
    • Location
    • Architecture
    • Organs
      • Heart
      • Liver
      • Reproductive
      • Bladders
      • Kidneys
      • GI
  • Post-radiographs
    • Overall sensitivity?
endoscopy
Endoscopy
  • Diagnostic imaging?
  • Additional benefits beyond imaging
      • Biopsies
  • More invasive
    • General anesthesia
endoscopy50
Endoscopy
  • Rigid endoscopes
    • Sizes
    • Procedures
      • Coelioscopy
      • Cloacoscopy
      • Upper respiratory
      • Oral
      • Aural
endoscopy53
Endoscopy
  • Flexible endoscopes
    • Sizes: variable
    • Respiratory tract
    • Gastrointestinal tract
      • Upper
        • Foreign body removal
        • Biopsies
      • Lower
        • Cloacoscopy
        • Examine dystocia
        • Cystoscopy
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