introduction to the british isles
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Introduction to the British Isles. Wales. Some facts and figures. Just over 20 000 km² 200 km east to west 250 km north to south Population: 2.94 million (2001 census) 80% of the land dedicated to agriculture Highest mountain: Mt. Snowdon (1,085 m) 1,300 kilometres of coastline.

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some facts and figures
Some facts and figures
  • Just over 20 000 km²
  • 200 km east to west
  • 250 km north to south
  • Population: 2.94 million (2001 census)
  • 80% of the land dedicated to agriculture
  • Highest mountain: Mt. Snowdon (1,085 m)
  • 1,300 kilometres of coastline
longest place name
Longest place name
  • Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwll-llantysiliogogogoch

(St. Mary’s Church in a hollow of the white hazel near to the rapid whirlpool and St. Tysill’s Church of the red cave)

aka Llanfair PG

important dates
Important dates
  • 750 AD Offa’s Dyke boundary between Mercia and the Welsh kingdoms
slide8
1110 “Little England” Henry I moves Flemish settlers to a farming settlement in South Pembrokeshire
slide9
1284 Edward I annexes Wales – migration from England to Wales. Castles such as Caernarfon built to protect English Interests
slide10
1536 Act of Union with England under Henry VIII
  • 1770s Religious refugees flee to Wales, including French Huguenots
  • 1788 Welsh convicts sent to Australia
  • 1841 Irish flee to mainland Britain as a result of the Great Famine. Nearly 30 000 settle in Wales
  • 1850s Rural Welsh move to the cities: by 1900, 63% of the population concentrated in Glamorgan and Monmouthshire
who are the welsh
Who are the Welsh?
  • Celtic tribes from Europe came to settle the whole of the British Isles 500-100 BC, alongside the original Iron Age population.
  • Celtic language behind the modern Welsh language
  • Roman and Saxon invasions pushed the original Britons into the land area of Wales
  • Inward and outward migration has added new layers of population
the origin of the word wales
The origin of the word Wales
  • Variation on Anglo-Saxon word meaning foreigners. Cf. Walloon
  • The Welsh word for the country is Cymru (friends/comrades) cf Cumbria
symbols of wales
Symbols of Wales

Y Ddraig Goch

slide16
St. David (1st March)
  • Male voice choirs
  • National anthem: Land of my Fathers
  • Rugby
  • Pobol Y Cwm
  • Food: laverbread, welsh tea cakes, bara brith
  • Welsh lovespoon
famous welsh people
Famous Welsh people
  • Henry VII
  • Dylan Thomas
  • RS Thomas
  • Tom Jones
  • Max Boyce
  • Catherine Zeta Jones
  • Anthony Hopkins
cool cymru
Cool Cymru
  • 1990s – Music: Manic Street Preachers, Catatonia, Stereophonics, Super Furry Animals (Newport as the “new Seattle”)
  • - Films: Justin Kerrigan (Human Traffic)
  • - Fashion: Julien Macdonald
welsh language cymraeg
Welsh languageCymraeg
  • 20% of the population consider Welsh as their mother tongue
  • Concentration in the north-west
  • Welsh and English official languages
  • Welsh medium education
  • Welsh compulsory in schools
  • Welsh language radio and television
  • Bilingual roadsigns
industry in wales
Industry in Wales
  • Early 20th century – coal, steel (south), slate (north), fishing, maritime industry
  • Main industries today are tourism and public services
  • Manufacturing: less heavy industry, more electronics, technology-related industry
slide23
Economic deprivation, especially South Wales valleys (former mining areas)
  • 2003 – Average gross income 17 900 GBP (cf 21 600 in England, 19 500 in Scotland)
leisure activities
Leisure activities
  • Visiting the pub (58% say it’s their favourite activity)
  • Sport (35% do sport on a regular basis)
  • DIY, Gardening
  • Music – Welsh festivals such as Eisteddfod
devolution in wales
Devolution in Wales
  • 1925: Plaid Cymru founded
  • 1979: referendum rejected by 80%
  • 1997: referendum 50.3% in favour (Assembly, not parliament), 49.7% against
  • 1999 Welsh Assembly 60 AMs (40 constistuency; 20 from party lists, using alternative party vote)
  • Main responsibilities: health, education, economic development, rural affairs
  • No power over: defence, foreign affairs, taxation, policing
  • Welsh Assembly elections 2003: Labour 30 AMs, PC 12, Conservatives 11
slide26
Still 40 MPs at Westminster, Secretary of State for Wales a member of the cabinet
  • Budget of 14 billion GBP
  • Different policy decisions from Westminster include abolition of Key Stage 1 and 2 tests for school children (at 6-7 and 10-11); free prescription charges for under – 25s; plans to abolish prescription charges completely by 2007; appointment of Children’s Commissioner
slide28
Welsh Assembly building at Cardiff Bay; new chamber designed by Lord Richard Rogers, opened on St. David’s Day, 2006
slide30
Quiz
  • What is the capital of Wales?
  • What is the Welsh flag called?
  • What is the population of Wales?
  • What percentage of the population speak Welsh?
  • Where is the Welsh Assembly?
  • What percentage of the population voted in favour of the Assembly in 1997?
  • How big is Wales?
  • Who annexed Wales to England?
  • Under which monarch was the Act of Union in 1536?
  • Which two counties home the majority of the population?
  • What is the population of Wales?
  • What percentage of Welsh land is dedicated to agriculture?
  • Who designed the new chamber at the Welsh Assembly?
  • Who is the patron saint of Wales and which date is his feast day?
  • What are the national emblems of Wales?
slide31

Cardiff

  • Y Draig Goch
  • 2.94 million
  • 20%
  • Cardiff Bay
  • 50.3%
  • 20 000 km²
  • Edward I
  • What is the capital of Wales?
  • What is the Welsh flag called?
  • What is the population of Wales?
  • What percentage of the population speak Welsh?
  • Where is the Welsh Assembly?
  • What percentage of the population voted in favour of the Assembly in 1997?
  • How big is Wales?
  • Who annexed Wales to England?
slide32

Henry VIII

  • Glamorgan and Monmouthshire
  • 80%
  • Tourism
  • Lord Richard Rogers
  • St. David – 1st March
  • Leeks and daffodils
  • Under which monarch was the Act of Union in 1536?
  • Which two counties home the majority of the population?
  • What percentage of Welsh land is dedicated to

agriculture?

  • What is the largest industry today?
  • Who designed the new chamber at the Welsh Assembly?
  • Who is the patron saint of Wales and which date is his feast day?
  • What are the national emblems of Wales?
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