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ICWS 2006. Incheon Paik, University of Aizu Daisuke Maruyama, University of Aizu Michael N. Huhns, University of South Carolina. A Framework for Intelligent Web Services: Combined HTN and CSP Approach. Presented by: Jingshan Huang Computer Science and Engineering Dept.

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icws 2006

ICWS 2006

Incheon Paik, University of Aizu

Daisuke Maruyama, University of Aizu

Michael N. Huhns, University of South Carolina

A Framework for Intelligent Web Services:

Combined HTN and CSP Approach

Presented by: Jingshan Huang

Computer Science and Engineering Dept.

University of South Carolina

ICWS 2006, Chicago

motivation
Motivation
  • Solving real-life problems requires a set of appropriate services to be (1) composed via planning, (2) scheduled, and (3) executed.
    • HTN (Hierarchical Task Network) : Planning
    • CSP (Constraint Satisfaction Problem) : Scheduling
  • Problems of HTN-Only system
      • Cannot satisfy scheduling efficiently
      • Difficulty in finding an autonomous solution
  • Suggest a Novel WS Composition Engine: the HTN-CSP combined system

ICWS 2006, Chicago

hierarchical task network htn planning
Hierarchical Task Network (HTN) Planning
  • To produce a sequence of actions by task decomposition from large tasks
  • Similar to classical AI planning
  • Can produce plans to reach a final goal, but it is not suitable for scheduling
  • We chose SHOP2 as our basic planner

ICWS 2006, Chicago

planning domain example
Planning Domain Example

: Method

(transport ?p)

task:

: compound task

(at ?p ?x)

(destination ?p ?y)

(available-truck ?t)

preconditions:

: primitive task

: state

subtasks:

(dispatch ?t ?x)

(!load ?t ?p)

(!move ?t ?x ?y)

(return ?t ?y)

(dispatch ?t ?x)

(return ?t ?y)

task:

task:

subtasks:

subtasks:

(!reserve ?t)

(!move ?t home ?x)

(!move ?t ?x home)

(!free ?t)

ICWS 2006, Chicago

htn only system framework

Web Services

Hotel Reservation WS

Train Timetable WS

Airplane Timetable WS

HTN-Only System Framework

plan

inputdata

HTN

Planner

Input

Domain

Analyzer

Web

Service

Executor

planning

problem

ICWS 2006, Chicago

htn only system framework6

Web Services

Hotel Reservation WS

Train Timetable WS

Airplane Timetable WS

HTN-Only System Framework

I\'d like to make a trip next week.I want to departAizu-wakamatsu at 14:00 and arrive at San-Francisco.

plan

Departure Location = Aizuwakamatsu

Departure Time = 14:00

Departure Date = Feb. 21, 2006

Arrival Location = San-Francisco

inputdata

HTN

Planner

Input

Domain

Analyzer

Web

Service

Executor

planning

problem

ICWS 2006, Chicago

htn only system framework7

Web Services

initial states:

(departure-location aizu-wakamatsu)

(departure-time _1400)

(departure-date _20060221)

(arrival-location san-francisco))

Hotel Reservation WS

Train Timetable WS

(trip)

goal task:

Airplane Timetable WS

HTN-Only System Framework

plan

inputdata

HTN

Planner

Input

Domain

Analyzer

Web

Service

Executor

planning

problem

ICWS 2006, Chicago

htn only system framework8

Web Services

(travel ?from ?to)

task:

Hotel Reservation WS

preconditions:

Train Timetable WS

. . .

subtasks:

Airplane Timetable WS

(travel-by-train

?from ?via)

(travel-by-airplane

?via ?to)

(available-train JR-Banetsu-West-Line

aizu-wakamatsu _0600 koriyama _0712)

. . .

HTN-Only System Framework

plan

inputdata

HTN

Planner

Input

Domain

Analyzer

Web

Service

Executor

planning

problem

ICWS 2006, Chicago

htn only system framework9

Web Services

Hotel Reservation WS

Train Timetable WS

Airplane Timetable WS

HTN-Only System Framework

(!travel-by-train JR-Banetsu-West-Line

aizu-wakamatsu _1413 _20060221 koriyama _1513 _ 20060221)

(!travel-by-train Tsubasa-186

koriyama _1525 _ 20060221

tokyo _1648 _ 20060221)

(!travel-by-train Narita-Express-37

tokyo _1703 _ 20060221

narita _1757 _ 20060221)

(!travel-by-airplane ANA-B2

narita _2000 _ 20060221

san-francisco _1100 _ 20060221)

plan

inputdata

HTN

Planner

Input

Domain

Analyzer

Web

Service

Executor

planning

problem

ICWS 2006, Chicago

problems with an htn only system
Problems with an HTN-Only System
  • Web service composition by a planner has limitations:
    • Inefficient for autonomous finding solution in planning
    • Not good for dealing user’s various requests
    • Weak in maintenance
    • Not efficient for scheduling

ICWS 2006, Chicago

htn csp combined system framework

Web Services

Hotel Reservation WS

Train Timetable WS

Airplane Timetable WS

HTN-CSP Combined System Framework

plan

Web

Service

Executor

inputdata

HTN

Planner

Input

Domain

Analyzer

CSP

Constructor

CSP

Solver

planning

problem

CSP

representation

CSP

tuple

ICWS 2006, Chicago

slide12

CSP Constructor

HTN Planner

Domain Analyzer

Goal

Variable Representation

Trip

<Z, D, C>

Z: variables

D: domains

C: constraints

Domain Representation

Sub-Goal

Sub-Goal

Shopping

Constraint Representation

Trip

Domain

Trip

Domain

Knowledge Base

Ontology

Knowledge Base

Ontology

Knowledge Base

Ontology

Information needed for

constructing CSP tuple

Information needed for

HTN planning

Information needed for

Domain Analysis

Request Data

defined with

Ontology

CSP Solver

Web Service

UDDI

Master-Layer

Sub-Layer

Hotel

Reservation

Web Service

Dynamic Request

Hotel

Label

Assigner

Robot with

Situation Calculus

Train

Timetable

Web Service

Assigner Management

Control

Train

Label

Assigner

Worldwide

Web Service

Constraint Check

Airplane

Timetable

Web Service

Knowledge Base

Assigner Repository

Constraint-satisfied Label

Which assigner

should be applied.

ICWS 2006, Chicago

htn csp combined system framework13

Web Services

Hotel Reservation WS

Train Timetable WS

Airplane Timetable WS

HTN-CSP Combined System Framework

(riding-duration tokyo narita) = 0:54

(riding-duration koriyama tokyo) = 1:23

(riding-duration aizu-wakamatsu koriyama) = 1:00

(departure-time tokyo) = 17:03

(departure-time koriyama) = 15:25

(departure-time aizu-wakamatsu) = 14:13

(departure-date tokyo) = 2006/2/21

(departure-date koriyama) = 2006/2/21

(departure-date aizu-wakamatsu) = 2006/2/21

(arrival-time tokyo) = 16:48

(arrival-time narita) = 17:57

(arrival-time koriyama) = 15:13

(arrival-date tokyo) = 2006/2/21

(arrival-date narita) = 2006/2/21

(arrival-date koriyama) = 2006/2/21

(departure-time narita) = 20:00

(departure-date narita) = 2006/2/21

(arrival-time san-francisco) = 11:00

(arrival-date san-francisco) = 2006/2/21

plan

Web

Service

Executor

inputdata

HTN

Planner

Input

Domain

Analyzer

CSP

Constructor

CSP

Solver

planning

problem

CSP

representation

CSP

tuple

ICWS 2006, Chicago

performance comparison
Performance Comparison

Scenario

ICWS 2006, Chicago

advantages of the htn csp combined system
Advantages of the HTN-CSP Combined System
  • Development Efficiency
    • Scheduling is already integrated
  • Flexibility
    • HTN-CSP combined system:
      • Can represent complex problems more easily
    • HTN-only system:
      • Might produce scenarios that are hard to solve
  • Extensibility
    • HTN-CSP combined system:
      • Features can be added easily
      • Many algorithms for solving CSPs available
    • HTN-only system:
      • To add new features, the planning domain must be rewritten in many cases

ICWS 2006, Chicago

conclusion and future work
Conclusion and Future Work
  • Suggested a combined HTN-CSP architecture for automatic Web service composition
    • Efficient for planning and scheduling
  • Future work
    • Automating HTN – CSP encoding
    • Fully automated problem solving (service composition) in a Semantic Web environment using this framework

ICWS 2006, Chicago

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