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ICWS 2006. Incheon Paik, University of Aizu Daisuke Maruyama, University of Aizu Michael N. Huhns, University of South Carolina. A Framework for Intelligent Web Services: Combined HTN and CSP Approach. Presented by: Jingshan Huang Computer Science and Engineering Dept.

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Icws 2006 l.jpg

ICWS 2006

Incheon Paik, University of Aizu

Daisuke Maruyama, University of Aizu

Michael N. Huhns, University of South Carolina

A Framework for Intelligent Web Services:

Combined HTN and CSP Approach

Presented by: Jingshan Huang

Computer Science and Engineering Dept.

University of South Carolina

ICWS 2006, Chicago


Motivation l.jpg
Motivation

  • Solving real-life problems requires a set of appropriate services to be (1) composed via planning, (2) scheduled, and (3) executed.

    • HTN (Hierarchical Task Network) : Planning

    • CSP (Constraint Satisfaction Problem) : Scheduling

  • Problems of HTN-Only system

    • Cannot satisfy scheduling efficiently

    • Difficulty in finding an autonomous solution

  • Suggest a Novel WS Composition Engine: the HTN-CSP combined system

  • ICWS 2006, Chicago


    Hierarchical task network htn planning l.jpg
    Hierarchical Task Network (HTN) Planning

    • To produce a sequence of actions by task decomposition from large tasks

    • Similar to classical AI planning

    • Can produce plans to reach a final goal, but it is not suitable for scheduling

    • We chose SHOP2 as our basic planner

    ICWS 2006, Chicago


    Planning domain example l.jpg
    Planning Domain Example

    : Method

    (transport ?p)

    task:

    : compound task

    (at ?p ?x)

    (destination ?p ?y)

    (available-truck ?t)

    preconditions:

    : primitive task

    : state

    subtasks:

    (dispatch ?t ?x)

    (!load ?t ?p)

    (!move ?t ?x ?y)

    (return ?t ?y)

    (dispatch ?t ?x)

    (return ?t ?y)

    task:

    task:

    subtasks:

    subtasks:

    (!reserve ?t)

    (!move ?t home ?x)

    (!move ?t ?x home)

    (!free ?t)

    ICWS 2006, Chicago


    Htn only system framework l.jpg

    Web Services

    Hotel Reservation WS

    Train Timetable WS

    Airplane Timetable WS

    HTN-Only System Framework

    plan

    inputdata

    HTN

    Planner

    Input

    Domain

    Analyzer

    Web

    Service

    Executor

    planning

    problem

    ICWS 2006, Chicago


    Htn only system framework6 l.jpg

    Web Services

    Hotel Reservation WS

    Train Timetable WS

    Airplane Timetable WS

    HTN-Only System Framework

    I'd like to make a trip next week.I want to departAizu-wakamatsu at 14:00 and arrive at San-Francisco.

    plan

    Departure Location = Aizuwakamatsu

    Departure Time = 14:00

    Departure Date = Feb. 21, 2006

    Arrival Location = San-Francisco

    inputdata

    HTN

    Planner

    Input

    Domain

    Analyzer

    Web

    Service

    Executor

    planning

    problem

    ICWS 2006, Chicago


    Htn only system framework7 l.jpg

    Web Services

    initial states:

    (departure-location aizu-wakamatsu)

    (departure-time _1400)

    (departure-date _20060221)

    (arrival-location san-francisco))

    Hotel Reservation WS

    Train Timetable WS

    (trip)

    goal task:

    Airplane Timetable WS

    HTN-Only System Framework

    plan

    inputdata

    HTN

    Planner

    Input

    Domain

    Analyzer

    Web

    Service

    Executor

    planning

    problem

    ICWS 2006, Chicago


    Htn only system framework8 l.jpg

    Web Services

    (travel ?from ?to)

    task:

    Hotel Reservation WS

    preconditions:

    Train Timetable WS

    . . .

    subtasks:

    Airplane Timetable WS

    (travel-by-train

    ?from ?via)

    (travel-by-airplane

    ?via ?to)

    (available-train JR-Banetsu-West-Line

    aizu-wakamatsu _0600 koriyama _0712)

    . . .

    HTN-Only System Framework

    plan

    inputdata

    HTN

    Planner

    Input

    Domain

    Analyzer

    Web

    Service

    Executor

    planning

    problem

    ICWS 2006, Chicago


    Htn only system framework9 l.jpg

    Web Services

    Hotel Reservation WS

    Train Timetable WS

    Airplane Timetable WS

    HTN-Only System Framework

    (!travel-by-train JR-Banetsu-West-Line

    aizu-wakamatsu _1413 _20060221 koriyama _1513 _ 20060221)

    (!travel-by-train Tsubasa-186

    koriyama _1525 _ 20060221

    tokyo _1648 _ 20060221)

    (!travel-by-train Narita-Express-37

    tokyo _1703 _ 20060221

    narita _1757 _ 20060221)

    (!travel-by-airplane ANA-B2

    narita _2000 _ 20060221

    san-francisco _1100 _ 20060221)

    plan

    inputdata

    HTN

    Planner

    Input

    Domain

    Analyzer

    Web

    Service

    Executor

    planning

    problem

    ICWS 2006, Chicago


    Problems with an htn only system l.jpg
    Problems with an HTN-Only System

    • Web service composition by a planner has limitations:

      • Inefficient for autonomous finding solution in planning

      • Not good for dealing user’s various requests

      • Weak in maintenance

      • Not efficient for scheduling

    ICWS 2006, Chicago


    Htn csp combined system framework l.jpg

    Web Services

    Hotel Reservation WS

    Train Timetable WS

    Airplane Timetable WS

    HTN-CSP Combined System Framework

    plan

    Web

    Service

    Executor

    inputdata

    HTN

    Planner

    Input

    Domain

    Analyzer

    CSP

    Constructor

    CSP

    Solver

    planning

    problem

    CSP

    representation

    CSP

    tuple

    ICWS 2006, Chicago


    Slide12 l.jpg

    CSP Constructor

    HTN Planner

    Domain Analyzer

    Goal

    Variable Representation

    Trip

    <Z, D, C>

    Z: variables

    D: domains

    C: constraints

    Domain Representation

    Sub-Goal

    Sub-Goal

    Shopping

    Constraint Representation

    Trip

    Domain

    Trip

    Domain

    Knowledge Base

    Ontology

    Knowledge Base

    Ontology

    Knowledge Base

    Ontology

    Information needed for

    constructing CSP tuple

    Information needed for

    HTN planning

    Information needed for

    Domain Analysis

    Request Data

    defined with

    Ontology

    CSP Solver

    Web Service

    UDDI

    Master-Layer

    Sub-Layer

    Hotel

    Reservation

    Web Service

    Dynamic Request

    Hotel

    Label

    Assigner

    Robot with

    Situation Calculus

    Train

    Timetable

    Web Service

    Assigner Management

    Control

    Train

    Label

    Assigner

    Worldwide

    Web Service

    Constraint Check

    Airplane

    Timetable

    Web Service

    Knowledge Base

    Assigner Repository

    Constraint-satisfied Label

    Which assigner

    should be applied.

    ICWS 2006, Chicago


    Htn csp combined system framework13 l.jpg

    Web Services

    Hotel Reservation WS

    Train Timetable WS

    Airplane Timetable WS

    HTN-CSP Combined System Framework

    (riding-duration tokyo narita) = 0:54

    (riding-duration koriyama tokyo) = 1:23

    (riding-duration aizu-wakamatsu koriyama) = 1:00

    (departure-time tokyo) = 17:03

    (departure-time koriyama) = 15:25

    (departure-time aizu-wakamatsu) = 14:13

    (departure-date tokyo) = 2006/2/21

    (departure-date koriyama) = 2006/2/21

    (departure-date aizu-wakamatsu) = 2006/2/21

    (arrival-time tokyo) = 16:48

    (arrival-time narita) = 17:57

    (arrival-time koriyama) = 15:13

    (arrival-date tokyo) = 2006/2/21

    (arrival-date narita) = 2006/2/21

    (arrival-date koriyama) = 2006/2/21

    (departure-time narita) = 20:00

    (departure-date narita) = 2006/2/21

    (arrival-time san-francisco) = 11:00

    (arrival-date san-francisco) = 2006/2/21

    plan

    Web

    Service

    Executor

    inputdata

    HTN

    Planner

    Input

    Domain

    Analyzer

    CSP

    Constructor

    CSP

    Solver

    planning

    problem

    CSP

    representation

    CSP

    tuple

    ICWS 2006, Chicago


    Performance comparison l.jpg
    Performance Comparison

    Scenario

    ICWS 2006, Chicago


    Advantages of the htn csp combined system l.jpg
    Advantages of the HTN-CSP Combined System

    • Development Efficiency

      • Scheduling is already integrated

    • Flexibility

      • HTN-CSP combined system:

        • Can represent complex problems more easily

      • HTN-only system:

        • Might produce scenarios that are hard to solve

    • Extensibility

      • HTN-CSP combined system:

        • Features can be added easily

        • Many algorithms for solving CSPs available

      • HTN-only system:

        • To add new features, the planning domain must be rewritten in many cases

    ICWS 2006, Chicago


    Conclusion and future work l.jpg
    Conclusion and Future Work

    • Suggested a combined HTN-CSP architecture for automatic Web service composition

      • Efficient for planning and scheduling

    • Future work

      • Automating HTN – CSP encoding

      • Fully automated problem solving (service composition) in a Semantic Web environment using this framework

    ICWS 2006, Chicago


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