fish kill outbreak in the southern caribbean epidemiology and public health impact
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Pan American Health Organization Regional Office of the World Health Organization. Fish-Kill Outbreak in the Southern Caribbean: Epidemiology and Public-Health Impact. Genaro García Regional Advisor on Food Safety Veterinary Public Health Unit Disease Prevention and Control

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fish kill outbreak in the southern caribbean epidemiology and public health impact

Pan American Health Organization

Regional Office of the

World Health Organization

Fish-Kill Outbreak in the Southern Caribbean: Epidemiology and Public-Health Impact

Genaro García

Regional Advisor on Food Safety

Veterinary Public Health Unit

Disease Prevention and Control

Amelia la Barbera

Fondo Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (FONAIAP)

Venezuela

  • 4th Annual Meeting of Inspection and Quality-Control Services and Institutions for Fish Products (Porlamar, Margarita Island, Venezuela, 28 July- 1 August 2003)
objectives
Objectives
  • Present an experience of fish mortality in the southeastern Caribbean (1999).
  • Discuss its public-health implications (Health: Socioeconomic ---> Political)
hypothesis
Hypothesis
  • Volcanic eruption in Trinidad.
  • Red tides (toxic and non-toxic).
  • Rainfall.
  • Chemical spillage.
  • Combination of:
    • High water temperatures.
    • Increase of nutrients.
    • Decrease of oxygen.
fish kill temporal distribution caribbean 1999
Fish Kill: Temporal Distribution(Caribbean, 1999)
  • Guyana: July 1999
  • Venezuela: Beginning of August 1999
  • Barbados: 16 September 1999
  • Grenada: End July – Beginning August 1999
  • Saint Vincent: 2 September 1999
  • Tobago: September (?) 1999
  • Decline: By mid-September 1999, mortality had declined in affected English-speaking islands.
country situation 1999 barbados 1
Country Situation 1999:Barbados (1)
  • Began on 16 September 1999.
  • Southeast coast affected.
  • Fisherman reported greenish water in affected areas.
  • Killing of reef fish : thousands per day.
  • Mortality declining by last week.
  • There are still no conclusive results on the cause(s) associated with the high fish mortality.
country situation 1999 barbados 2
Country Situation 1999:Barbados (2)

Water Samples

  • None collected, thus no results for phytoplankton studies.
  • Observation showed water high temperature of 28–33° C.
  • Fish samples taken of freshly killed reef fish from one (? ) affected area.
slide8

Country Situation 1999:Barbados (3)

Fish Samples (cont.)

  • No macroscopic lesions observed on skin.
  • Pale gills.
  • Liver, other internal organs: anemic appearance.
  • Distended abdomen (air in peritoneal cavity).
country situation 1999 barbados 4
Country Situation 1999:Barbados (4)

Fish Samples (cont.)

  • Streptococcus iniae isolated from liver, brain, gastrointestinal tract of dying fish. (Source: Ferguson, St. John, Roach, 1999)
  • Samples taken of additional fish species from affected areas and “normal-healthy” fish.
country situation 1999 barbados 5
Country Situation 1999:Barbados (5)

Fish Samples (cont.)

  • Streptococcus iniae is being proposed as a determining factor for the fish-kill events in Barbados.(Source: Ferguson, e-mail of 10 November 1999)
country situation 1999 barbados 6
Country Situation 1999:Barbados (6)

Fish Samples

“Investigation of predisposing factors is required but most difficult …There are several areas for further monitoring/surveillance and research, the end result of which would be a … monitoring and early-control detection/warning system.”

(Ferguson, personal communication, 11/10/99)

country situation 1999 grenada 1
Country Situation 1999:Grenada (1)

Water Samples

  • Improperly collected, thus no conclusive results for phytoplankton studies.
  • Observation of high water temperature of 28–33° C.
  • Oxygen demand (DO2) was low.
  • Unusual organic matter.
  • Salinity a bit lower.
  • Carbamate-like compound present.
country situation 1999 grenada 2
Country Situation 1999:Grenada (2)
  • Began at end July to beginning of August 1999.
  • Mainly on the east coast.
  • Fisherman reported greenish water in affected areas.
  • Killing of reef fish : thousands per day.
  • Mortality in Grenada declining by last week.
  • Mortality still reported in Carracou by 28 September 1999.
country situation 1999 st vincent the grenadines 1
Country Situation 1999:St. Vincent & the Grenadines (1)
  • Began on 2 September 1999.
  • Mainly on the east coast.
  • Fisherman reported greenish water in affected areas.
  • Killing of reef fish : thousands per day.
  • Mortality declining by last week.
  • Mortality still being reported in the Grenadines during the last two weeks.
country situation 1999 st vincent the grenadines 2
Country Situation 1999:St. Vincent & the Grenadines(2)

Water Samples

  • Improperly collected, thus no conclusive results for phytoplankton studies.
  • Observation of high water temperature of 28–33° C.
  • DO2 was low .
  • Unusual organic matter.
  • Salinity a bit lower.
  • High coliforms counts
country situation 1999 st vincent the grenadines 3
Country Situation 1999:St. Vincent & the Grenadines(3)

Fish Samples

  • No macroscopic lesions.
  • Will be sent to Barbados regarding hypothesis of Streptococcus iniae.
  • Frozen fish samples will be send to Venezuela.
  • Japanese team.
country situation 1999 trinidad and tobago 1
Country Situation 1999:Trinidad and Tobago (1)
  • The Institute of Marine Affairs (IMA) is investigating fish mortality in Tobago.
  • Press release issued by the IMA.
  • Preliminary report of findings:Report on water, phytoplanktons to be released and shared with countries and PAHO.
  • IMA does not have capability to run bioassays for marine toxins.
satellite images of chlorophyll a concentration 1999 satellite sea wifs usa 01

Ocean: Chlorophyll a Concentration (mg/m3)

Land:Normalized Difference Land Vegetation Index

Minimum

Maximum

Satellite Images of Chlorophyll a Concentration (1999)Satellite: Sea WIFs (USA) (01)

satellite images of chlorophyll a concentration 1999 satellite sea wifs usa 02

Ocean:Chlorophyll a Concentration (mg/m3)

Land:Normalized Difference Land Vegetation Index

Minimum

Maximum

Satellite Images of Chlorophyll a Concentration (1999)Satellite: Sea WIFs (USA) (02)
satellite images of chlorophyll a concentration 1999 satellite sea wifs usa 03

Ocean:Chlorophyll a Concentration (mg/m3)

Land: Normalized Difference Land Vegetation Index

Minimum

Maximum

Satellite Images of Chlorophyll a Concentration (1999)Satellite: Sea WIFs (USA) (03)
fish killing a serious public health and politico social problem
Fish-Killing a SeriousPublic-Health and Politico-Social Problem

Indirect Impact on Public Health

  • Tourism influx affected.
  • Apprehension among the national population regarding consumption of fish until problem clearly defined.
fish killing a serious public health and politico social problem22
Fish Killing “a Serious” Public-Health and Politico-Social Problem

Direct Impact on Public Health

  • Human cases: Only one reported case associated to rock fish consumption in Bequia.
  • Informal Interview of people from working people in Grenada, Saint Vincent:3 out of 10 persons interviewed reported diarrhea, vomiting, and cramping a few hours after consuming rockfish.
  • Note: Is there any increase of diarrhea syndromes in the affected countries?
fish killing a serious public health and politico social problem23
Fish-Killing a “Serious” Public-Health and Politico-Social Problem

Direct Economic Impact on Fisheries (St. Vincent)

  • Fish-landing drop: 75% value of EC$ 500,000 per month.
  • Fishermen: 75% drop in activity.
  • Vendors and fish-handlers: 75% drop in activity.
  • Exports to Martinique: Loss of US$ 120,000 per month.
  • Export of affected species to USA: Loss of US$ 12,000 per month.
fish killing a serious public health and politico social problem24
Fish Killing “a Serious” Public-Health and Politico-Social Problem

Direct Economic Impact on Fisheries (Saint Vincent)

If current trend continues, losses will amount to

US$ 132,000 in exports.

US$ 375,000 in local markets.

US$ 507,000 per month total losses.

epidemiological surveillance
Epidemiological Surveillance

FK (P) = a + b1 (x1) + b2 (x2) + b3 (x3) + b4 (x1x2) + … + e

FK (p) = Variable or probability of fish kill

a = interceptor

b1……bn = regression coefficients

x1…….xn= independent variables (contributing factors)

x1 = Temperature (Centigrade)

X2 = Phytoplankton (number of cells per liter)

X3 = toxic dyflagelates a and b (0 or 1)

X4 = Streptococcus iniae (ufc/g)

E = Error

slide26

Start

Monitoring

Mouse Essay

/Plankton

SAS/MAC/GN

Toxic

dinoflagelates

Yes

Suspension

of

consumption

No

Surveillance Program for

Marine Toxins (PSP)

Venezuela

A. La Barbera, FONAIAP

Certification

Information

Health

Permit

Hospital

alert

Transport

Permit

Market

supervision,

confiscation

>Sample

frequency

Normal

sample

frequency

Commercialization

websites of interest
Websites of Interest
  • Pan American Health Organization (PAHO/WHO)http://www.paho.org
  • Pan American Institute on Food Protection and Zoonoses (INPPAZ)http://www.panalimentos.org
  • World Health Organization (WHO)http://www.who.org
the end
The End
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