Masterplan workshop held at Khao Kheow Open Zoo, Thailand, 17-20 July 1995 ... demographic and relevant biological information about zoo animals worldwide ...
Slide 1:Conservation of Asian Tigers
Mike Szymanski Sean Bertie Neil Kadrmas Sandy Hagen
5 subspecies of tigers existing today Amur or Siberian (Panthera tigris altaica) Bengal (Panthera tigris tigris) South China (Panthera tigris amoyensis) Sumatran (Panthera tigris sumatrae) Indochinese (Panthera tigris corbetti)
Slide 4:Extinct Tigers
Javan (Panthera tigris sondaica) Bali (Panthera tigris balica) Caspian (Panthera tigris virgata)
Slide 5:Extinct Tigers-Javan
Last seen in 1972 Prime causes for extinction Poisons (poisoned boar) Encroachment of plantations These coincided w/ a loss of large ungulate prey base Currently no room for tigers on Java
Slide 6:Extinct Tigers-Bali
Believed to have gone extinct in 1937 The Dutch colonization in 1910 brought Plantations Hunters Similar losses of habitat as the Javan Currently no room on Bali for tigers
Slide 7:Extinct Tigers-Caspian
Last one reportedly shot in 1959 Preferred reed beds, but these were reclaimed as ag land Probably also due to civil unrest
Slide 8:Amur (Siberian) Tiger
Largest subspecies of all tigers Males nearly 11 feet long weighing in around 660 pounds Females up to 8 1/2 feet long weighing about 200 to 370 pounds.
Slide 9:Amur (Siberian) Tiger
Slide 10:Amur (Siberian) Tiger
Slide 11:Amur (Siberian) Tiger
Distinguished from the other subspecies by Wider spaced brown stripes Paler orange fur White belly fur Thicker, longer hair with thick neck tuft
Slide 12:Amur (Siberian) Tiger
Currently around 400 survive in the wild Russia, China and possibly N.Korea Numbers and range have shrunk dramatically in the past 100 years with a recent increased declines since the 1990’s Important that 400 may not be the actual “effective population”
Slide 13:Amur (Siberian) Tiger
Causes of the population declines Poaching Habitat loss Habitat loss arrived in eastern Russia with the railroads.
Slide 14:Amur (Siberian) Tiger
Habitat requirements of the Siberian tiger Not really any for the tigers per se BUT, their food does have habitat requirements Red Deer (Cervus eluphus xanthropygus) Prefer forests with small openings Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) Prefer forests with mast producing trees Primarily Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis) Probably also Mongolian Oak (Quercus mongolica)
Slide 15:Amur (Siberian) Tiger
Wild Boar Red Deer
Slide 16:Amur (Siberian) Tiger
Habitat loss Widespread deforestation Large scale harvest of Korean Pine Primary effects of habitat loss Creation of a sink for dispersing tigers Loss of habitat for prey Why? Increased encounters with humans Increased depredations increased license hunting Gives false impression of population size due to more visible tigers
Slide 17:Amur (Siberian) Tiger
Why? contd. Large home ranges Female 200-400 km2 Male 800-1000 km2 Male home ranges typically overlap 2 or 3 female home ranges
Slide 18:Amur (Siberian) Tiger
Habitat Protection Protect what is left (save what you can now, think about improvements later) Primary concern areas are those with with pristine forest remaining No permanent signs of humans should exist
Slide 19:Amur (Siberian) Tiger
Secondary areas of emphasis should be those forests that are 90% intact, but some logging is taking place. Only selective logging would be allowed This would leave only small gaps Logging roads would be closed when not in use Tertiary areas of concern are those of mixed land uses where 70% forest remains Mixed land uses would persist Human operations would be closed whenever possible
Slide 20:Amur (Siberian) Tiger
Most importantly for all three areas of protection concern Maintain a large ungulate prey base Concentrate on habitat for tiger prey
Slide 21:Amur (Siberian) Tiger
Tiger corridors May provide cover to allow tigers to disperse Could help prevent the “sink” effect of open areas Would probably allow enough dispersal for a reasonable genetic flow between fragmented populations Would increase the “effective” population size Do not, however, provide home range habitat (too narrow)
Slide 22:Panthera tigris tigris The Bengal Tiger
Slide 23:Distribution, Life History, Population
Distributions -The Bengal tiger occurs primarily throughout India, with smaller populations in southern Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, and western Myanmar
According to Peter Jacksons’ editorial in May of 1998 the numbers of Bengal Tigers are as follows: Bangladesh-362 individuals Bhutan-91 adults China-35 individuals India-3,750 individuals Myanmar-231individuals Nepal-97 adults
Slide 25:Life History
Size ?Male Bengal tigers average 2.9 meters (9 1/2 feet) from head to tail and weigh about 220 kilograms (480 pounds). Females are smaller, measuring about 2.5 meters (8 feet) in length and weighing approximately 140 kilograms (300 pounds).
Slide 26:Life History
Color Most tigers are redish brown in color with dark stripes and white stomachs. Records indicate however, that a few wild tigers have been seen in unusual colors, including all white and all black . Have you heard of Jenny Craig?
Slide 27:White Tigers
A popular attraction in zoos, white tigers in the wild were recorded in India during the Mughal Period from 1556 to 1605 AD At least 17 instances were recorded in India between 1907 and 1933 in Orissa, Bilaspur, Sohagpur and Rewa But mostly found in zoos today.
Slide 28:South China Tiger
• An estimated 20-30 individuals South China tigers still exist in the wild. Currently 47 South China tigers live in 18 zoos, all in China.The South China tiger is the most critically endangered of all tiger subspecies.
Slide 29:South China Distribution
Slide 30:South China Tiger
Chinese specialists believe between 20 and 30 tigers are still left in the wild. The last time a wild tiger was seen in the wild was 10 years ago. These facts suggest that the South China tiger is the rarest of the five living tiger subspecies, the most threatened, and the closest to extinction.
Slide 31:General Information
The South China tiger is one of the smallest tiger subspecies Males are ~150 kilograms (330 pounds) Females are ~110 kilograms (240 pounds) Because there are so few wild South China tigers, and they have rarely been seen, very little is know about them at this point in time The tiger is a favorite subject of Chinese artists, depicted as fierce and powerful
Age: The life span the South China and Bengal in the wild is about 10 to 15 years. Tigers in zoos live to be around 16 and 20 years old. Fur: Tiger hair length varies geographically. In the southern subspecies the hairs are short (approximately 7 to 20 mm on the back and 15 to 35 mm on the stomach). Claws: The forefeet have five toes and the hind feet have four toes. All toes have claws. The claws are 3-4 inches. Teeth: Adult tigers have 30 large teeth. The length of the canine teeth can be between 2.5 to 3 inches. Chromosomes: Chromosomes are arranged in pairs and there are 19 pairs or 38 total.
• Bengal and South China tigers prey primarily on wild deer and bovids.
Slide 34:Management Implications
According to the study by James Smith et al. Tigers must have the following in order to have a viable population Very high ratio of good to excellent habitat When the “good” habitat in less that 50% breeding tigers will not occur in the area. If it drops to less than 30% no tigers will be found Little or no metapopulations Stop poaching Stop or decrease habitat loss Increase prey number The prey numbers are down because of habitat loss
Slide 35:“Good Habitat”
Tropical evergreen and deciduous forests Coniferous, scrub oak, and birch woodlands The mangrove swamps, and dry thorn forests of northwestern India, and the tall grass jungles at the foot of Himalayas The tiger's habitat requirements can be summarized as: some form of dense vegetative cover, sufficient large ungulate prey and access to water.
Slide 36:Loss of Habitat
Much of the forest and almost all of the grasslands have gone as a growing human population converts them to land for settlement and agriculture. In Nepal, between 1990 and 1995, 1.1 percent of the country’s forest cover was lost each year. Habitat loss has resulted in fragmented tiger distributions in Nepal. (ultimately decreasing the population) Many of these populations are currently too small to have long term viability
Tiger parts are used in traditional Chinese medicine, in the form of tiger bone wine and tiger plasters. Primary consumers of tiger products are Chinese communities throughout the world. Drastic rise in tiger poaching was first noticed in 1990. If the present worldwide rate of poaching continues for three to six more years, many tiger populations may be extinct They are protected by the Convention in International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES) Nepal has had serious problems at the national level with endangered species trade control and CITES enforcement, serving as an important conduit in the illegal trade of tiger parts.
Slide 38:Sumatran Tigers
Panthera tigris sumatrae
Sumatran tigers are only found on the island of Sumatra About 400 to 500 Sumatran tigers live in the wild, mostly in the island's five national parks. Another 235 Sumatran tigers live in zoos around the world
Slide 40:Life History
What do Sumatran Tigers look like? Sumatran tigers are the smallest subspecies of tiger. It has the darkest coat of all tigers. Its broad, black stripes are closely spaced and often doubled. Unlike the Siberian tiger, it has striped forelegs
Slide 41:Life History
Weight Male Sumatran tigers weigh about 264 pounds Female Sumatran tigers weigh about 198 pounds Length Male Sumatran tigers average 8 feet from head to tail Female Sumatran tigers are smaller, about 7 feet in length.
The Sumatran tiger eats wild pig, rusa deer, muntjak or barking deer which is a smaller deer
The Sumatran tiger is found in habitat that ranges from lowland forest to sub mountain and mountain forest with some peat-moss forest Population density in these areas are about 4-5 tigers per 100km˛
Slide 44:Deforestation and Poaching
Deforestation is depriving tigers of needed habitat leading to subpopulations Poaching is accelerating leading from deforestation; Tigers are easier to find in these areas of less habitat
Sumatran Tiger Project This is a long-term field study designed to develop a cost-effective field census system for wild tigers using ground-based census counts, remote camera census, and radio-telemetry that can be modified and used as a model for long-term population monitoring in Way Kambas and other protected areas. Researchers will establish a set of life history characteristics that will be critical in developing effective interactive management strategies for wild populations
Sumatran Tiger Project cont. The project is also looking to educate the people and allocate forest resources in tiger habitat This project has been ongoing for multiple years and is keeping track of the number of tigers in each area through several methods of observation
Mark-recapture efforts This is a similar grid system that is used in estimating the tiger populations in Sumatra Study by Karanth and Nichols (1998) in India estimated the density for tiger populations (by capture-recapture) and their prey base (by line transects)
Slide 48:Tiger Mark-Recapture
Slide 49:Indochinese Tigers
Panthera tigris corbetti
The majority of Indochinese tigers are centered in Thailand. They are also found in Myanmar, southern China, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and peninsular Malaysia About 1,050-1,750 tigers are left in the wild. About 60 live in zoos, mostly in Asia, with a few in the U.S.A.
Slide 51:Life History
What do Indochinese tigers look like? Look a lot like Bengal tigers, but are a bit smaller and darker, with shorter, narrower stripes
Slide 52:Life History
Weight Male Indochinese tigers weigh about 400 pounds Female Indochinese tigers weigh about 250 pounds Length Male Indochinese tigers average 9 feet from head to tail Female Indochinese tigers are smaller, about 8 feet in length
The Indochinese tiger eats wild pig, wild deer and wild cattle
Live in remote forests in hilly to mountainous terrain, much of which lies along the borders between countries Population densities in these areas are similar to the Sumatran tiger which is 4 to 5 adult tigers/100 km2
Access to tiger habitat is often restricted, and biologists have only recently been granted limited permits for field surveys. As a result, relatively little is know about the status of these tigers in the wild.
At this point, very little has been done in Indochinese tiger management. Since the inability to access tiger habitat, only talk has started in the last years. There have been a couple of workshops held to plan for conserving the tigers Masterplan workshop held at Khao Kheow Open Zoo, Thailand, 17-20 July 1995 Tiger GIS Workshop Royal Forest Department, Bangkok, Thailand, 21-31 Jan. 1996
After the workshops the main concerns right now are to maintain a healthy stock of tigers in zoos, mostly in Thailand Deforestation, educating the people, and controlling the poaching is the main management implications so far
Slide 58:Protection in Vietnam
Laws protecting tigers and tiger concerns Decree 39/CP, 1963 on regulation of hunting for wildlife. Tiger was one of 4 limited hunting species. Regulation (1972) on forest protection. Decision 276/QD (1989) promulgating ban on hunting, trading of tiger and 37 other species. Law for forest protection and development (1991). Decree 18/HDBT (1992) stipulates management and protection of rare and precious species of flora and fauna. Tiger is one of 49 species and subspecies of complete ban on hunting and using. Decree 14/CP stipulates system of penalties for violation on forest protection. In 1994 Vietnam has joint to CITES for more effective control of wildlife trade including tiger. March 1995, subregional tiger workshop held in Hanoi to establish Action plan for tiger conservation in Vietnam, Laos, Kampuchea
Slide 59:Status of Captive Tigers
20% of the entire tiger population is studbook-registered: 475 Siberian 235 Sumatran 300 Bengal 50 South China 35 Indochinese These do not include tigers in circuses, private facilities, or non-participating zoos throughout the world. Do not contribute to breeding programs
Slide 60:Tigers in Zoos
Slide 61:Captive Management
Species Survival Plans (SSP) Objective: Preservation of wildlife both as species and as components of ecosystems Cooperative management programs for the AZA (American Zoo and Aquarium Association) Reinforce, not replace, wild populations Gene pools… are becoming puddles
Slide 62:AZA Tiger SSP
Manage 3 of the 5 remaining subspecies 102 member institutions with 277 tigers: 154 Siberian; goal=175 54 Sumatran; goal=175 10 Indochinese; goal=75 Bengal; goal=75 59 generic tigers Goal: 90% genetic diversity for the next 100-200 years Use breeding programs in zoos to produce genetically diverse individuals
Slide 63:SSP Masterplan
Strength of the plan lies within the biological database for each animal =Studbook Computerized database containing genetic, demographic and relevant biological information about zoo animals worldwide Avoid inbreeding Preserve genetic diversity International
Slide 64:Breeding Programs
Artificial insemination Placing sperm into the females vagina Not very successful (only 1 cub) Tiger ovulation is induced by mating In vitro fertilization Eggs from female and sperm from male Fertilized in lab Injected into female Has produced a litter of 3 cubs
Slide 65:More Breeding
“Frozen zoos” Sperm and eggs preserved in nitrogen Not yet successful, but promising Reproductive research Monitor ovarian cycles Improve assisted reproduction technology Genetic resource bank Naturally The recommended method SSP recommends when, who will be moved to zoos for breeding
Slide 66:The Ethics of Captive Animals
“Circus” tigers and “zoo” tigers have diverging interests
Slide 67:The Ethics of Captive Animals
Dallas zoo: remodeled $4.5 million 1 acre of habitat which resembles a rainforest that has recently been logged Now have enough room to implement captive breeding (SSP) Private Facilities
Trade in tiger bone Major factor that threatens survival Used for thousands of years in Asian medicine for treatment of rheumatism Some statistics from the early 90’s South Korea imported 9000kg of bone over 24 years (1970-1994) About 750 skeletons Taiwan imported 12,000kg over 10 years (1980-1990) China is a supplier, processor and consumer Tiger bone wine
Slide 69:“Killed for a Cure” Judy A. Mills and Peter Jackson
1994 TRAFFIC report Documented the importance of the tiger trade Increased national and international awareness November 1994 CITES passed a resolution to prohibit domestic trade of tiger bone Also called for a ban on using tiger parts in traditional medicine All subspecies, except Siberian, of tigers and their derivatives were banned from international trade under CITES in 1975. Siberian in 1987
Slide 70:Progress in Tiger Trade
Supply More seizures of goods Prices are lower Major supplying markets disappeared Processing Manufacture has stopped in many countries China now substitutes sailong (mole rat) Medicines that are found are old stock Demand Availability has declined Consumers now support wildlife conservation International Trade More countries join CITES
Slide 71:Trade Continues
Illegal supply market still operate (Cambodia, Indonesia, Vietnam) Processing markets label medicines incorrectly Domestic retail trade in Japan, China, Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia International trade through “an army of ants”= large number of people smuggling small volumes of goods
Slide 72:What to do
Improved enforcement on trade bans, especially international Increase penalties for poaching Raise conservation awareness More research to help distinguish between real and fake tiger parts and products Adopt a tiger $2000 Eviction of humans from tiger habitat Conservation Education
Slide 73:Decline Over Last 100 Years