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Colombia. Geography. Northwestern region of South America Venezuela and Brazil to the East Ecuador and Peru to the West Panama in the North 26 th largest nation in the world. History- Pre-Colombian. 10,000 BC hunter gatherers lived near Bogota Pyramidal government established

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Colombia

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Colombia l.jpg

Colombia


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Geography

  • Northwestern region of South America

  • Venezuela and Brazil to the East

  • Ecuador and Peru to the West

  • Panama in the North

  • 26th largest nation in the world


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History-Pre-Colombian

  • 10,000 BC hunter gatherers lived near Bogota

  • Pyramidal government established

  • Muisca, one of the most developed gov. in S.A.


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History

  • Rodrigo de Bastidas leads Spanish exploration in 1500

  • Christopher Columbus explores Caribbean 1502

  • Vasco Nunez de Balboa, started conquest, also first to discover Pacific Ocean (Mar del Sur)‏

  • Simon Bolivar and Francisco de Paula Santander lead rebellion in 1810

  • Rebellion succedes in 1819, Republic of Greater Colombia formed (includes Panama)‏


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  • After two year civil war United States of Colombia was created (1863), lasting until 1886

  • Republic of Colombia once again

  • 1903, American influence in Panama leads to secession and independence

  • La Violencia in the 1940's and 1950's

    • Jorge Gaitan assasinated

  • System set in place to alternate liberal and conservative parties

  • 1980's and 1990's powerful drug cartels exert pressure on the political formations

  • 1991-New Constitution ratified

  • Current Pres. - Alvaro Uribe Valez


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Flag

  • Adopted Dec. 17, 1819


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Government

  • Republic

  • Executive

    • Head of Government

  • Legislative

    • Bi-cameral

      • 166 seat Congress

      • 106 seat Chamber of Rep.

  • Judicial

    • Currently under re-form to adversarial


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People

  • 43.6 million pop. Total, 3rd most populace in Latin America

  • 77 % Urban

  • Very wide variety of Ethnicities

    • African descent from slave trade

    • Indigenous peoples

    • European, Middle Eastern, and Asian Immigrants

  • Spanish is the official language, followed by English


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  • Ethnicity by %

    • 42 % Mestizo

    • 36 % European

    • 14 % Mulatto

    • 4 % African

    • 3 % Zambos

    • Less than 1 % pure Indigenous


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Religion

  • 95 % Christian

    • 81-90% Roman Catholic

  • Less than 2 % practice another religion

  • Remaining percentage report that they do not actively practice their religion


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Education

  • Over 93 % pop over 15 can read and write

  • 60 % complete primary schooling (5 years) and move to secondary (6 years)‏

  • Compulsory between 6 and 12, 86.7 % enrollment

  • 4.4 % GDP spent on education, 19.7 % gov spending


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Transportation

  • Maintained by the government

  • Pan-American highway

  • El-Dorado National airport


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Economy

  • Steady GDP growth until 1999

    • Weak domestic and foreign demand

  • Exports

    • Manufactured goods, petrol, coal, and coffee

  • 12 % Unemployment

  • Tourism


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Food

  • In Medellin - bandeja paisa

  • In Cali – Sancocho de gallina

  • Caribbean coast – spicy with fish and lobster, coconut rice

  • In the llanos – barbecued meat and river fishes


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