Clothed in a robe of concrete 50 years of demography land use and ecology in israel
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Clothed in a Robe of Concrete? 50 years of demography, land-use and ecology in Israel. Daniel Orenstein Center for Environmental Studies, Brown University 11 April, 2006. Environmental problems through an ecologist’s eyes. Trends Population growing Material wealth increasing (cars, homes)

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Clothed in a robe of concrete 50 years of demography land use and ecology in israel l.jpg

Clothed in a Robe of Concrete?50 years of demography, land-use and ecology in Israel

Daniel Orenstein

Center for Environmental Studies, Brown University

11 April, 2006


Environmental problems through an ecologist s eyes l.jpg
Environmental problemsthrough an ecologist’s eyes

  • Trends

    • Population growing

    • Material wealth increasing (cars, homes)

    • Increased demand for resources (water, electricity, consumer goods)

  • Indicators

    • Chronic shortage of natural resources

      • Growing dependency on foreign resources

      • Increased tension over resource allocations

    • Negation of positive trends in pollution production

    • Rearguard battles for habitat protection


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4:1

6:1

20:1

165:1


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Research questions

  • What is the impact of population growth on loss of open space?

Population Growth

Open Space


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Research questions

  • What is the impact of population growth on loss of open space?

  • What is the role of policy in mediating the impact of population growth on open space?

Land use policy

Population Growth

Open Space


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Research questions

  • What is the impact of population growth on loss of open space?

  • What is the impact of population growth, as mediated by land use policy, on biological conservation?

Land use policy

Population Growth


The geographic context l.jpg
The geographic context

AREA

Israel 21,000 km2

West Bank & Gaza 6,000 km2

NEIGHBORS

Lebanon – UN recognized border

Syria – 1974 disengagement lines

Jordan – Internationally recognized borders (1994)

Egypt – Internationally recognized border (1982)

Palestinian Authority – Borders in process of negotiation


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Steep rainfall gradient

Varied topography and soils

Convergence of phytogeographic zones

Major flyway for migratory birds

Long history of human-nature interactions

Mediterranean Oak

Woodlands

Coastal Dunes

Mediterranean/Arid Interface

Tropical Oases

Arid Desert

Coral Reefs

The ecological context



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The demographic context2005 Population: 7 millionAnnual growth rate ≈ 1.3%

RELIGION/ETHNICITY

Jewish 76% Muslim 16%

Christian/Non-Arab 0.5% Christian/Arab 2%

Unclassified 4% Druze 2%

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION

North (Galilee) 17%

Center, coast (incl. Tel Aviv, Jerusalem, Haifa) 65%

South (Negev) 14%

TYPE OF COMMUNITY

Urban 92% Rural 8%


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The demographic context

* Mid-range projection, Central Bureau of Statistics, 2004


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Research sites

  • Ecological gradient

  • Demographic gradient

  • Diverse human communities





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Part 1: Demography and land use change

  • Independent variable – built land (hectares) over three time periods in 40 localities

  • Dependent variables

    • Population growth

    • Hectares of open space

    • Hectares of open agricultural space

    • Urban/rural

    • Arab/Jewish

    • Core/periphery


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Part 1: Demography and land use change

  • Independent variable – built land (hectares) over three time periods in 40 localities

  • Dependent variables

    • Population growth (+)

    • Hectares of open space

    • Hectares of open agricultural space (+)

    • Urban/rural

    • Arab/Jewish (+ Jewish)

    • Core/periphery (+ Periphery)


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Part 1: Demography and land use change – conclusions

  • Population growth matters, but scale and context determines extent

    • Correlation strongest at large aggregations of time and space

    • Large discrepancy in impact at smaller scales of resolution

  • Policy context matters

    • Urban or rural

    • Jewish or Arab

    • National land use policy matters


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Part 2: Policy and land use change

  • Zionist and Israeli land use planning historically driven by ethno-demographic considerations

  • Environmental considerations have become increasingly important

  • Conflicting paradigms lie at the core of current land use conflicts

  • Environmental / demographic planning tensions common around the world


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The demographic context

* Mid-range projection, Central Bureau of Statistics, 2004



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The development of the 1961ethno-demographic land use paradigm

  • Goals

    • Settle land, establish borders

    • Secure borders

    • Disperse [Jewish] population

  • Tools

    • Ideological pioneering discourse

    • Physically moving populations

    • Development of community infrastructure

  • Successes

    • Successive partition plans and the 1948 borders

    • The West Bank/Gaza settlement movement


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Ethno-demographic land use planning (1950s – 1970s) 1961

Aryeh Sharon Plan

  • Distribute population towards periphery

  • Population the empty spaces

  • Fortify the borders


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Ethno-demographic land use planning (1980s) 1961

  • Judaization of the Galilee

  • Pithat Shalom

1972


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Environmental impact of 1961ethno-demographic planning

Case study – The northern Galilee


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Environmental impact of 1961ethno-demographic planning

Regional councils, 1961

Population: 2,000 Density: 10 persons/hectare developed


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Environmental impact of 1961ethno-demographic planning

Regional councils, 2001

Population: 9,600 Density: 5 persons/hectare developed


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Ethno-demographic planning 1961and open space

Arab localities, 1961

Population: 20,000 Density: 28 persons/hectare developed


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Ethno-demographic planning 1961and open space

Arab localities, 2001

Population: 66,000 Density: 31 persons/hectare developed


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Israeli land use planning - 2000 1961An environmental paradigm

"We've all grown up on the ethos of fighting for land and for years there was a war that involved everyone - Jews, Arabs, development and preservation interest groups, villages and cities, and the results of that war have been easy to see on the ground.”

--- Oscar Abu Razek, 2005

Director, Israel Ministry of Interior

Commenting on the legislation of National Outline Plan 35


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Israeli land use planning - 2000 1961An environmental paradigm

National Outline Plan 35

  • Maximize contiguous open space

  • Avoids new development in specific areas

  • Concentrates development

= Landscapes and natural resources

= Forests and nature reserves

= Protected open space


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“Israel 2020” 1961

Israeli land use planning - 2005Another paradigm

Former Prime Minister Sharon’s plan: 30 new communities

“Over the next ten years, Blueprint Negev will bring over 500,000 people to 100,000 housing sites that will be created in 25 new communities.”

--- Jewish National Fund, USA

2006

= Proposed communities

= Protected open space


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Land use planning: 2005 1961Return to ethno-demographic planning

  • Ranches and the “Wine Trail”

    • Prevent Bedouin expansion

    • Divide between Bedouin and Palestinian population

  • Blueprint Negev

    • Bring 250,000 Jews to the Negev

    • Israel’s “Manifest Destiny”

    • “Essential to Israel’s future”

2002


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ETHNIC CONFLICT AND/OR NATIONAL SECURITY CONCERNS 1961

POLICY

PARADIGMS

ENVIRONMENTAL PRIORITIES

Conflicting motives

in policy formulation

Population redistribution to areas of ethnic “imbalance”

Population redistribution to areas of border insecurity

Economic development

Open space preservation

Protection of ecosystem integrity

Protection of cultural landscapes and archeological sites

POLICY

GOALS

POLICY OUTCOMES

Partial success in meeting policy goals


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Part 2 – Conclusions: 1961Are we in a transition period?

  • Old paradigm – spatial control and response to local demographic inequalities

  • New paradigm – environmental protection of open spaces

  • Challenges

    • Demographic concerns not resolved

    • Past inequalities remain

    • Environmental restrictions perceived as inequitable


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Current land use planning: Other considerations 1961

  • Suburban/exurban living increasing in popularity

  • Decline in agricultural preservation ethic

  • Growing power of real estate interests

  • Demographic trends

    • Smaller households

    • Larger houses

  • Resettlement of settlers from occupied territories


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The environmental / ethno-demographic planning conflict 1961

  • Turkey: Kurds and the Southeastern Anatolia Project

  • China: Uighurs and the Xinjiang Province

  • Egypt: Securing the Sinai Border

  • Guatemala: Disputed border region with Belize


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What kind of development is driven by the ethno-demographic paradigm?

  • Dispersed

  • Low-density

  • Strategically located


What is the definition of sprawl l.jpg

Dispersed paradigm?

Low-density

Strategically located

Inefficient use of land reserves

Lack of rural/urban edge

Abandonment of urban core

Underutilization of existing infrastructure

What is the definition of sprawl?


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Dispersed paradigm?

Low-density

Strategically located

Habitat loss

Habitat fragmentation

Habitat degradation

Hunting/collecting

Poisoning

What are the primary drivers of species extinctions?


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Part 3: What is the impact of land use patterns on biodiversity?

Carmiel

Rishon

1961

2001


Ramifications for biodiversity a partial listing l.jpg

Endangered due to habitat destruction biodiversity?

Black-Headed Bunting

Bee-Eater

Spectacled Warbler

Dorcas Gazelle

Beer Sheva Fringe-Fingered Lizard

Endangered due to fragmentation

Striped Hyena

Lesser Egyptian Jerboa

Wolf

Honey Badger

Ramifications for biodiversity(a partial listing)

  • Endangered due to competition with domestic pets and synanthropic species

    • Wild Cat

    • Marbled Polecat

    • Long-Eared Hedgehog

  • Endangered due to rise in garbage eating predators

    • Mountain Gazelle

    • Sand cat


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Israel’s Nature Reserves biodiversity?

Over 150 nature reserves and 65 national parks, encompassing nearly 7000 km2 (25% of Israel’s land area)

  • 60% of reserves are smaller than 1 sq. km.

  • 25% of reserves are between 1 and 10 sq.km.

  • 75% of total area located in the Negev desert

  • 50% of total area overlaps with army firing zones

  • Frequently reach human carrying capacity

  • Conservation value challenged by proximity to human settlement


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Conclusions biodiversity?

  • Ideology shapes the landscape

  • Land use decisions based on ethnic conflict are a significant, under-researched drivers of development patterns and the loss of biodiversity

    • Encourage sprawl

    • Leads to circumvention of environmental land use planning

    • Directly or indirectly related to most of the major drivers of biodiversity loss

  • Short term intervention in development patterns more productive than efforts to slow human population growth


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Acknowledgements biodiversity?

  • Sigalit, Na’ama and Aviv


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Acknowledgements biodiversity?

  • Sigalit, Na’ama and Aviv

Dissertation Research: Year 1


Acknowledgements57 l.jpg
Acknowledgements biodiversity?

  • Sigalit, Na’ama and Aviv

Dissertation Research: Year 5

Dissertation Research: Year 1


Acknowledgements58 l.jpg
Acknowledgements biodiversity?

  • Sigalit, Na’ama and Aviv

  • Steven Hamburg


Acknowledgements59 l.jpg
Acknowledgements biodiversity?

  • Sigalit, Na’ama and Aviv

  • Steven Hamburg


Acknowledgements60 l.jpg
Acknowledgements biodiversity?

  • Sigalit, Na’ama and Aviv

  • Steven Hamburg

  • Brian O’Neill, Michael White, Jack Mustard

  • Harold Ward


Acknowledgements61 l.jpg
Acknowledgements biodiversity?

  • Sigalit, Na’ama and Aviv

  • Steven Hamburg

  • Brian O’Neill, Michael White, Jack Mustard

  • Harold Ward

  • Beth Bradley, Jeremy Fisher


Acknowledgements62 l.jpg
Acknowledgements biodiversity?

  • Sigalit, Na’ama and Aviv

  • Steven Hamburg

  • Brian O’Neill, Michael White, Jack Mustard

  • Harold Ward

  • Beth Bradley, Jeremy Fisher

  • Patti Caton, Laura Sadovnikoff, Betsy Barlow

  • Matt Vadeboncoeur, Lynn Carlson, Dave Murray


Acknowledgements63 l.jpg
Acknowledgements biodiversity?

  • Sigalit, Na’ama and Aviv

  • Steven Hamburg

  • Brian O’Neill, Michael White, Jack Mustard

  • Harold Ward

  • Beth Bradley, Jeremy Fisher

  • Patti Caton, Laura Sadovnikoff, Betsy Barlow

  • Matt Vadeboncoeur, Lynn Carlson, Dave Murray

  • Anne Rhodes, Andrew Elmore, Jenny Henman, Heinrich Hoch, Laura Schneider, Jeff Albert, Valerie Esposito, Gillian Galford


Acknowledgements64 l.jpg
Acknowledgements biodiversity?

  • Sigalit, Na’ama and Aviv

  • Steven Hamburg

  • Brian O’Neill, Michael White, Jack Mustard

  • Harold Ward

  • Beth Bradley, Jeremy Fisher

  • Patti Caton, Laura Sadovnikoff, Betsy Barlow

  • Matt Vadeboncoeur, Lynn Carlson, Dave Murray

  • Anne Rhodes, Andrew Elmore, Jenny Henman, Heinrich Hoch, Laura Schneider, Jeff Albert, Valerie Esposito, Gillian Galford

  • Wei Ying Wong, Farhod Maksudov, Amy Lerner


Acknowledgements65 l.jpg
Acknowledgements biodiversity?

  • Sigalit, Na’ama and Aviv

  • Steven Hamburg

  • Brian O’Neill, Michael White, Jack Mustard

  • Harold Ward

  • Beth Bradley, Jeremy Fisher

  • Patti Caton, Laura Sadovnikoff, Betsy Barlow

  • Matt Vadeboncoeur, Lynn Carlson, Dave Murray

  • Anne Rhodes, Andrew Elmore, Jenny Henman, Heinrich Hoch, Laura Schneider, Jeff Albert, Valerie Esposito, Gillian Galford

  • Wei Ying Wong, Farhod Maksudov, Amy Lerner… and Adam Wienert


Acknowledgements66 l.jpg
Acknowledgements biodiversity?

  • Sigalit, Na’ama and Aviv

  • Steven Hamburg

  • Brian O’Neill, Michael White, Jack Mustard

  • Harold Ward

  • Beth Bradley, Jeremy Fisher

  • Patti Caton, Laura Sadovnikoff, Betsy Barlow

  • Matt Vadeboncoeur, Lynn Carlson, Dave Murray

  • Anne Rhodes, Andrew Elmore, Jenny Henman, Heinrich Hoch, Laura Schneider, Jeff Albert, Valerie Esposito, Gillian Galford

  • Wei Ying Wong, Farhod Maksudov, Amy Lerner… and Adam Wienert

  • CES community


Acknowledgements67 l.jpg
Acknowledgements biodiversity?

  • Sigalit, Na’ama and Aviv

  • Steven Hamburg

  • Brian O’Neill, Michael White, Jack Mustard

  • Harold Ward

  • Beth Bradley, Jeremy Fisher

  • Patti Caton, Laura Sadovnikoff, Betsy Barlow

  • Matt Vadeboncoeur, Lynn Carlson, Dave Murray

  • Anne Rhodes, Andrew Elmore, Jenny Henman, Heinrich Hoch, Laura Schneider, Jeff Albert, Valerie Esposito, Gillian Galford

  • Wei Ying Wong, Farhod Maksudov, Amy Lerner… and Adam Wienert

  • CES community

  • Yaakov Garb, Alon Tal, Stuart Schoenfeld, Nurit Kliot

  • Rassem Khamaisi, Majed Essau, Dror Hawlena, Benjamin Kedar, Tamar Dayan

  • Bureau of Statistics of Israel, Cartography Library of Hebrew University, Survey of Israel, Keren Kayemet L’Israel, Nature and Parks Authority of Israel

  • Luce Foundation, Switzer Foundation, Brown Graduate School


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Environmental organizations Israel/US biodiversity?

  • Arava Institute for Environmental Studies

    www.arava.org

  • Israel Union for Environmental Defense

    www.iued.org.il

  • Heshel Center for Environmental Learning and Leadership

    www.heshelcenter.org/index_eng.html

  • Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel

    www.spni.org

  • Coalition on Jewish Life and the Environment

    www.coejl.org

  • Teva Center for Environmental Learning www.tevacenter.org

  • Hazon

    www.hazon.org


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