Chapter 10 aerobic exercise prescriptions for public health cardiorespiratory fitness and athletics
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Chapter 10 Aerobic Exercise Prescriptions for Public Health, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Athletics. Exercise and medical evaluations. Individuals are categorized as: Low risk Moderate risk High risk. Visit Physical Activity and Health Executive Summary at www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/sgr.htm.

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Chapter 10 aerobic exercise prescriptions for public health cardiorespiratory fitness and athletics l.jpg

Chapter 10

Aerobic Exercise Prescriptions for Public Health, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Athletics


Exercise and medical evaluations l.jpg
Exercise and medical evaluations

  • Individuals are categorized as:

    • Low risk

    • Moderate risk

    • High risk

Visit Physical Activity and Health Executive Summary at www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/sgr.htm


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Risk categories for medical exams before beginning an aerobic training program.

Population

Risk Factors

Low Risk

Family history of coronary

artery disease

Cigarette smoking

Hypertension

men < 45 yrs.

women < 55 yrs.

No more than one

Moderate

Risk

Hypercholesterolemia

Impaired fasting glucose

Obesity

Sedentary lifestyle

men ≥ 45 yrs. women ≥ 55 yrs.

Two or more

High Risk

Known cardiovascular, pulmonary, or metabolic disease

Ischemia

Dizziness/syncope

Orthopnea/paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

Ankle edema

Palpitations/tachycardia

Intermittent claudication

Known heart murmur

Unusual fatigue

All

One or more


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Risk categories for medical exams before beginning an aerobic training program (cont.)

Prior

Physical Exam

Type Program

Low Risk

Moderate

Vigorous

NO

NO

Moderate

Risk

Moderate

Vigorous

NO

YES

High Risk

All

YES


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Physiological changes aerobic training program (cont.)during a warm-up

  • Muscles relax and contract faster.

  • Increased temperature decreases viscous resistance in muscles and improves efficiency.

  • Hemoglobin and myoglobin give up more oxygen and dissociate more rapidly.

  • The rates of metabolic processes increase with temperature.


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Physiological changes aerobic training program (cont.)during a warm-up (cont.)

  • Warm-up provides more time for aerobic metabolism to supply the energy needs of the activity and so may reduce lactate accumulation during actual exercise.

  • Vascular resistance decreases with increasing temperature.

  • Total pulmonary resistance to blood flow decreases with increasing temperature.


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Warming up before aerobic training program (cont.)exercise is important

  • Provides more time for aerobic metabolism to supply the energy needs of the activity

  • Reduces the risk of musculoskeletal injuries and improves heart function

  • Increases blood flow to muscles and the temperature of tendons and ligaments

  • Gradually increases blood flow to the heart


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An effective warm-up aerobic training program (cont.)

  • Involves low- to moderate-intensity exercise

  • Mimics the physical activity to follow

  • Stretching not a substitute


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Benefits of cooling down aerobic training program (cont.)

  • Helps to clear lactate from the blood more rapidly than an inactive cool-down

  • Prevents blood pooling in the lower extremities, which can cause dizziness

  • Helps maintain increased muscle and connective tissue temperature, increasing flexibility


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Exercise for public health aerobic training program (cont.)

  • Adults should accumulate 30 minutes or more of moderate-intensity activity on most, preferably all, days of the week.

  • The 30 minutes can be in one continuous bout or several smaller bouts of at least 10 minutes each.

  • Exercise can consist of a variety of activities.

  • Rigid, highly structured aerobic exercise programs are not necessary.

Visit Physical Activity and Fitness: Healthy People 2010 at www.health.gov/healthypeople/default.htm


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Examples of moderate-intensity physical activities aerobic training program (cont.)


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The ACSM considers four components for designing aerobic exercise programs

  • Mode of activity

  • Intensity of training

  • Duration of training

  • Frequency of training


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ACSM’s recommendations regarding mode of activity for developing and maintaining fitness

  • Uses large muscle groups

  • Can be maintained continuously

  • Is rhythmical

  • Is aerobic


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ACSM’s recommendations regarding intensity of activity developing and maintaining fitness

  • Approx. 55 to 90% maximum heart rate

  • Approx. 40 to 85% maximum heart rate reserve

  • Approx. 40 to 85% maximum V02 reserve

  • Metabolic equivalents (METs)

    • 20-39 yrs. 4.8-10.1 METs

    • 40-64 yrs. 4.0-8.4 METs

    • 65-79 yrs. 3.2-6.7 METs

  • RPE of approx. 12-16 (somewhat hard to hard)


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Methods of determining exercise intensity include monitoring developing and maintaining fitness

  • Heart rate

  • Oxygen consumption rate

  • Metabolic equivalents

  • Perceived exertion


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Recommended target heart rate range developing and maintaining fitness

  • Using percentage of maximum heart rate

    • 55-90% of maximum heart rate, depending on the person’s fitness level

    • 220 – age in years = maximum heart rate

  • Using percentage of maximum heart rate reserve

    • 40 to 85% of the maximum heart rate reserve

    • 220 – age in years = maximum heart rate

    • Maximum heart rate – resting heart rate = maximum heart rate reserve


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Advantages of the percentage of heart rate reserve method over the percentage of maximum heart rate method

  • The percentage of heart rate reserve method more closely tracks the relationship between VO2 reserve and exercise intensity.

  • It takes into account training-induced changes in the resting heart rate.


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Recommended VO over the percentage of maximum heart rate method2 range for improving fitness

  • 40 to 85% of maximum VO2 reserve

  • VO2max - VO2resting = maximum VO2 reserve


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Recommended METs over the percentage of maximum heart rate methodrange for improving fitness

  • 20 to 30 yrs.

    • 4.8 to 10.1 METs

  • 40 to 64 yrs.

    • 4.0 to 8.4 METs

  • 65-79 yrs.

    • 3.2 to 6.7 METs

  • 80 yrs. and over

    • 2.0 to 4.25 METs


Leisure activities in mets l.jpg

Basketball over the percentage of maximum heart rate method

Game playing

Non-game playing

Bicycling (<10 mph)

Circuit weight training

Football (touch)

Golf

Power cart

Walking (carrying bag or pulling cart)

8.0

6.0

4.0

8.0

8.0

3.5

4.5

Leisure activities in METs.

Activity Average MET


Leisure activities in mets cont l.jpg

Running over the percentage of maximum heart rate method

5 mph

6 mph

7 mph

Stair climbing

Walking

2 mph

3 mph

4 mph

Weightlifting

8.0

10.0

11.5

8.0

2.5

4.5

6.5

3.0

Leisure activities in METs (cont.)

Activity Average MET


Rating of perceived exertion rpe l.jpg
Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) over the percentage of maximum heart rate method

  • RPE is used to quantify an individual’s subjective experience of exercise intensity.

  • Advantage is simplicity.

  • Disadvantage is its subjective nature.

  • 12 to 16 (somewhat hard to hard) is recommended intensity range for improving cardiorespiratory fitness.


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Rating for perceived exertion (RPE) scale over the percentage of maximum heart rate method


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Duration of training over the percentage of maximum heart rate method

  • Should range from 20 to 60 minutes

  • Can be accomplished in single continuous bout or multiple bouts of at least 10 minutes each

  • Intermittent bouts may result in better adherence to program


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Frequency of training over the percentage of maximum heart rate method

  • ACSM recommends three to five days per week.

  • Payoff for six or seven vigorous exercise sessions per week may not outweigh potential for injuries, decrease in adherence, and risk of overtraining.


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Detraining over the percentage of maximum heart rate method

  • Decreases in fitness may occur in as little as two weeks after stopping exercise

  • Can result in loss of almost all improvement in 10 weeks

  • If intensity is unchanged, can maintain fitness with substantial reductions in frequency and duration


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Aerobic training for over the percentage of maximum heart rate methodendurance athletes

  • Training differs substantially from exercise prescriptions recommended for improving public health.

  • Athletes must train at higher intensities, for longer durations, more frequently.

  • Athletes perform much greater volume of training.

  • Athletes must use a mode of training that mimics the sport in which they compete.


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VO over the percentage of maximum heart rate method2 max and athletic performance

  • VO2 max describes the maximum amount of oxygen that can be used in the ETS to produce ATP.

  • Successful endurance athletes are characterized by high VO2 max values.

Visit Sports Coach—VO2 max at www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/vo2max.htm


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Physiological factors that determine performance in endurance events

  • Maximal oxygen consumption rate (VO2 max)

  • The fraction of VO2 max that can be maintained

  • Economy of movement


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Anaerobic threshold endurance events

  • The fraction of VO2 max that can be maintained during an endurance event

  • The intensity of exercise just below that at which lactic acid buildup in the blood and the associated changes in gas exchange occur

Visit Anaerobic Threshold at www.rice.edu/~jenky/sports/anaerobic.threshold.html


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Theoretical representation of the anaerobic threshold from respiratory (ventilatory threshold) and lactate (lactate threshold) responses to incremental exercise


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Factors that influence respiratory (ventilatory threshold) and lactate (lactate threshold) responses to incremental exerciseeconomy of movement

  • Age

  • Muscle fiber type

  • Altitude

  • Gender

  • Fatigue

  • Temperature

  • Wind

  • Acceleration–deceleration versus smooth movement

  • Pace and efficiency

  • Velocity of running, walking, and cycling


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Factors to consider when designing training programs for endurance athletes

  • Set goals and then determine the best training regimen based on those goals

  • Consider the athlete’s strengths and weaknesses when developing the program

  • Place early season emphasis on weaknesses and late season emphasis on strengths


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Key elements of an endurance athletes effective training program

  • Efficient long-range planning

  • Wise use of rest and recovery days

  • Gradual increases in training intensity and duration


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Training methods endurance athletes for distance events

  • LSD training

  • Tempo-pace training

  • Interval training

  • REP training

  • Fartlek training

  • Hypoxic training

  • Analysis of pace

Visit Gatorade Sports Science Institute at www.gssiweb.com


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Characteristics of training methods listed from easiest to hardest (slowest to fastest).

Easy (E)

Long (L)

Tempo (T)

Skeletal and cardiac muscle adaptation

Improve endurance by raising lactate threshold

Warm up, Recovery,

Cool down, Early season buildup

Purpose

Intensity

Comfortably hard

85% of VO2 max

15 seconds per mile slower than 10 K race pace

Conversational, 70% of VO2 max

Duration of each work bout

20-60 minutes

60-120 minutes

20 minutes

Recovery time between work bouts

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Number of work bouts in one session

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable


Characteristics of training methods listed from easiest to hardest slowest to fastest cont l.jpg
Characteristics of training methods listed from easiest to hardest (slowest to fastest) (cont.)

Cruise (C)

Interval (I)

Reps (R)

Improve endurance by raising lactate threshold

Improve VO2 max

Improve speed and running economy

Purpose

Intensity

Comfortably hard

85% of VO2 max

15 seconds per mile slower than 10 K race pace

5 K race pace or slightly slower

95%-100% of VO2 max

5 seconds per 400 m faster than interval pace or race pace, whichever is fastest

Duration of each work bout

3-10 minutes

11/2-5 minutes

30-90 seconds

Recovery time between work bouts

1 to 1 work: rest ratio

1 mile

1 to 5 work: rest ratio

Number of work bouts in one session

Repeat work bouts until quality work totals 8% of 1 weekly mileage; not over 6 miles/session

5% of weekly mileage;

not over 5 miles/session


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