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subduction zone PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Review:. Galápagos Islands. plate motion. subduction zone. Darwin. Wolf. Galápagos Islands. Cocos Plate. Nazca Plate. Pinta. Marchesa. Genovesa. Santiago. Fernandina. Santa Cruz. San Cristobal. Isabela. Santa Fe. Floreana. Espa ñ ola. Biogeography of Hawaii.

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Review:

Galápagos Islands

plate motion

subduction zone


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Darwin

Wolf

Galápagos Islands

Cocos Plate

Nazca Plate

Pinta

Marchesa

Genovesa

Santiago

Fernandina

Santa Cruz

San Cristobal

Isabela

Santa Fe

Floreana

Española


Biogeography of hawaii l.jpg

Biogeography of Hawaii

Volcano tops from Ocean Floor

Remote

Colonization Rare

Adaptive Radiation of Founder Species

Diagrams in this lecture are liberally adapted from:

Wagner, W. L. and V. A. Funk. 1995. Hawaiian biogeography: evolution on a hot spot archipelago. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.


Origin of island archipelago l.jpg

Loihi

Origin of Island Archipelago

North America

Meiji Seamount

Aleutian Islands

  • Hot spot moves or plates move over hot spot

  • Volcanoes build to surface then erode or subside

  • Current islands arose after previous islands were already submerged

  • Exceedingly limited island hopping

Pacific Ocean

Emperor Seamounts

Hawaiian Emperor Bend

Kure

Midway

Layann

Necker

Nihoa

Kauai

Oahu

Hawaiian Ridge

Maui

Hawaii


Slide5 l.jpg

Motion of hotspot magma plume under plate

Detroit 80 Ma

Suiko 61 Ma

Nintoku 56 Ma

Time/motion data adapted from:

Tarduno, et al. 2009. The bent Hawaiian-Emperor hotspot track: inheriting the mantle wind. Science 324: 50-53

Koko 49 Ma

Diakakuji 47 Ma

Midway 27 Ma

Necker 10 Ma

Plate motion over fixed hotspot


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Necker


Slide7 l.jpg

Necker


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Kauai

Oahu

Nihau

Molokai

Maui

Lanai

Kahoolawe

Hawaii


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7.5 Million Years Ago

22°

Gardner Pinnacles

La Perouse Pinnacles

20°

Necker

Nihoa

18°

160°

158°

156°

154°


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5 Million Years Ago

22°

Necker

Nihoa

20°

Kauai

Nihau

Kaula

18°

160°

158°

156°

154°


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2.5 Million Years Ago

22°

Nihoa

Kauai

20°

Oahu

Nihau

Kaula

18°

160°

158°

156°

154°


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1 Million Years Ago

22°

Nihoa

Kauai

Oahu

20°

Nihau

Maui

Kaula

18°

160°

158°

156°

154°


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0.5 Million Years Ago

Nihoa

22°

Kauai

Oahu

Nihau

Kaula

Maui

20°

Mahukona

18°

160°

158°

156°

154°


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Present

Kauai

22°

Oahu

Nihau

Molokai

Kaula

Maui

Lanai

Kahoolawe

Hawaii

20°

Loihi Seamount

18°

160°

158°

156°

154°


Island development l.jpg

Island Appears

Colonized by Plants

Biota Establishes

Biota Stabilizes

Island Moves Away from Hot Spot

Waif Founders Lack Competition

Speciation: Adaptive Radiation to fill empty niches

Endemic Species

Sequence of Islands should reflect patterns of speciation

Endemics found on just one island, one volcano

Humans (about 10 BC)

Introduced Exotic Species

Endemics Poor Competitors…Extinct

Island Development


Endemic terrestrial species l.jpg

Endemic Terrestrial Species


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Cladistic Analysis

  • 1960s Development of Cladistic Analysis

    • Determines Possible Pathways of Evolution

  • Characters and Polarized Character States

    • Anatomy, Morphology, Behavior, Chemical, Gene Sequence

    • Plesiomorphies-Ancestral character states

    • Apomorphies-Derived character states

  • Construction of Cladogram-computers!

    • Reveal homoplasies (parallel, convergent), reversals

    • Most-parsimonious (fewest steps) cladogram

    • Not necessarily unique!


How do you do cladistics l.jpg

How do you DO cladistics?

  • Look at a group of organisms that you think are related

  • Find a not-too-distantly related (primitive?) out-group

  • Select characters that will help to distinguish the organisms

  • Polarize the character states by:

    • Stratigraphic sequence (fossil sequence)

    • Developmental sequence (ontogeny recaps phylogeny)

    • Outgroup comparison

  • Build a data matrix

  • Group by number of synapomorphies (shared derived)

  • Sketch possible cladograms

  • Seek simplest (most parsimonious) cladogram


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OG

E

B

A

C

D

Asian

Oahu Kauai Hawaii Maui Kauai

E

B

A

D

C

-- 2

Large

Black

Wide

Wide

Dark

Wide

Long

Long

Thick

Long

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

2

1

1

3

2

5

1

2

3

5

-- 3

-- 7

-- 8

-- 5

-- 1

OG

-- 9

-- 4

-- 10

-- 6


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Area cladogram

showing progression process

AsiaKauai Oahu Maui Hawaii

OG E B A D C

autapomorphies

-- 2 black eye

-- 7 long wing

-- 3 wide neck

-- 8 long leg

-- 5 dark body

-- 1 large eye

-- 9 thick leg

-- 4 wide body

apomorphies

-- 6 wide wing

-- 10 long stinger

plesiomorphies


Island hopping crickets l.jpg

Island-Hopping Crickets!


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Island Hopping Crickets

Prognathogryllus

mauka

puna

spadix

kohala

weli

waikemoi

kipahulu

kukui

hana

stridulans

makai

alternatus

alapa

opua

kahea

awili

oahuensis

elongatus

epimeces

hypomacron

kahili

parakahili

alatus

flavidus

hea

robustus

pihea

victoriae

Hawaii

Equivocal

Island Formation

Migration

Time

Maui

Oahu

Kauai


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More Island Hopping Crickets

Laupala

pruna

cerasina

kona

hualalai

fugax

paranigra

kohalaensis

kolea

nigra

prosea

eukolea

vespertina

pacifica

tantalus

hapapa

kokeensis

keahua

Hawaii

http://www.wam.umd.edu/~fergusd/Laup3.jpg

Island Formation

Migration

Time

Equivocal

Maui

Oahu

Kauai


Amazing fruit flies l.jpg

Amazing Fruit Flies!

  • 511 of 2,300 endemic insects are drosophiloids

  • DNA sequences show 10 MYBP arrived Necker

  • Necker has subsided and lost habitat…now n=0

  • All 511 endemic species are a single clade!

  • Analyzed by morphology, karyotype, molecular analysis

Drosophila sproati

http://www.msu.edu/~taylo110/DSproati.JPG


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Drosophilid Comparisons

15

D. melanogaster

D. robusta

D. melanica

D. funebris

D. pinicola

D. imigrans

D. repleta

E. crassifemur

S. exigua

D. mimica

D. sproati

Zaprionus

Chymomyza

Hirtodrosophila

Scaptodrosophila

16

Continental

16

8

9

7

9

6

7

8

Numbers of

mtDNA base

transitions

10

10

7

14

6

7

Purine AG

11

7

13

Pyrimidine CT

8

Hawaiian

10

10

11

11

38

Outgroups

16

Proper cladograms have branch length correlated to number of steps


Primitive phylogram of drosophiloids l.jpg

Primitive Phylogram of Drosophiloids

chromosomal changes

recticilia

bostrycha

disjuncta

musaphilia

gradata

affinidisjuncta

hawaiiensis

grimshawl

planitibia

silvestris

spectabilis

differens

heteroneura

adiastola

peniculipedis

cilifera

setosimentum

hemipeza

cyrtoloma

picticornis

clavisetae

hanaulae

oahuensis

neoperkinsi

arcuatus

neopicta

longiseta

adunca

nigribasis

melanocephala

mimica

obscuripes

yooni

tanythrix

cognata


Drosophilid area cladogram l.jpg

Drosophilid Area Cladogram

Continental

Oahu

Molokai

West Maui

East Maui 1

East Maui 2

Hawaii Kona

Hawaii Hilo

Just as observed among crickets, these fruit flies radiate in ways that correlate with the biogeography of the Hawaiian Islands


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Spiders Spinning Southeast!

Tetragnatha

5

T. pilosa

1

T. kauaiensis

6

T. perreirai

4

http://www.entomology.cornell.edu/Faculty_Staff/Blackledge/tetragnatha.JPG

4

2

T. tantalus

T. kamakou

Back dispersal

4

3

T. kamakou

4

3

3

2

2

T. quasimodo

1

T. waikamoi

T. quasimodo

3

T. quasimodo

1

6

3

1

4

T. quasimodo

T. polychromata

3

T. restricta

4

6

1

T. macracantha

T. restricta

2

3

N

T. brevignatha

4

1

T. brevignatha

3

T. stelarobusta

4

T. pallescens


Honeycreepers of hawaii l.jpg

http://www.state.hi.us/dlnr/mfbp/images/akohekohe.jpg

HoneycreepersofHawaii

Vestiaria coccinea

Palmeria dolei

Extreme isolation limits vertebrate fauna

No native amphibians

No native reptiles

1 mammal (bat)

1 bird established and radiated into 33 extant and 14 extinct species!

http://www.stanford.edu/~petelat1/ani5.jpg

Hemignathus virens

http://www.oahunaturetours.com/images/laysanfinch.jpg

Telespiza cantans

Hemignathus parvus

http://www.uatuahine.hawaii.edu/hana/NaManu/iiwi/iiwi.jpeg

http://www.stanford.edu/~petelat1/hcreepr1.jpg

Vestiaria coccinea

Oreomystis bairdi


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Honeycreeper Cladogram

9

Loxops caeruleirostris

Loxops coccineus

Hemignathus virens virens

Hemignathus virens wilsoni

Hemignathus virens steinegeri

Palmeria dolei

Himatione sanguinea

Vestiaria coccinea

Hemignathus parvus

Oreomystis bairdi

Telespiza cantans

Paroreomyza montana

Carpodacus mexicanus OG

10

15

mtDNA RFLP

11

19

6

7

11

17

7

7

8

11

23

11

11

8

19

29

6

33

26

37

Is this a phylogram, a cladogram, or an area cladogram?


How about plants hibiscadelphus l.jpg

How about Plants?Hibiscadelphus

Hibiscadelphus distans

distans Kauai

wilderianus Maui

crucibracteatus Lanai

giffardianus Hawaii

hualalaiensis Hawaii

bombycinus Hawaii

progression

adaptive radiation

The phylogram is also an area cladogram showing the positive correlation between evolution and oceanic island biogeography.

Photo Source: Unknown…If yours, please send email to [email protected]


Silverswords l.jpg

Silverswords

Kauai-11 endemic

http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/good-bad/images/iliau.jpg

Oahu-2 endemic

http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/lrgimage/t172w01.jpg

Wilkesia gymnoxiphium

Dubautia paleata

Maui Nui-7 endemic

Argyroxiphium

sandwicense

Hawaii-3 endemic

N

Plus 5 indigenous species

http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/images/dpal_chl.jpg


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Silversword Origins

  • Closest relatives are California tarweeds

  • 3,900 km open ocean crossing

  • Fruits too thin-walled to survive bird gut

  • Fruits do not float in sea water

  • Fruits too heavy to float on wind

  • Hairy and sticky sepals suggest bird attachment

  • Preened off on Kauai, then radiated and migrated


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Silversword Cladogram (simplified)

Tarweed (California USA) OG

Dubautia paleata Kauai

Dubautia waialealae Kauai

Dubautia laxa indigenous

Wilkesia gymnoxiphium Kauai

Wilkesia hobdyi Kauai

Argyroxiphium caliginisMaui

Argyroxiphium grayanumMaui

Argyroxiphium virescensMaui

Argyroxiphium sanwicenseM&H

Argyroxiphium kauenseHawaii

http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/images/redrocktarweed4.jpg


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Not all cladograms tell the same story!

http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/images/ger_arb.jpg

Geranium arboreum

Geranium (pandemic) OG

arboreum E. Maui subalpine

multiflorumE. Maui subalpine

cuneatumHawaii sub-alpine

tridensE. Maui alpine

hanaenseE. Maui bog

humileW. Maui bog

kauaiense Kauai bog

http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/images/ger_han_cu.jpg

http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/images/ger_cun_cu.jpg

Geranium colonized “late” E. Maui and radiated and migrated, speciating most recently on Kauai with ecological correlations!

Geranium cuneatum

Geranium hanaense


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Tetramolopium colonized “late” E. Maui and radiated and migrated to the other islands

humileE. Maui

capillare W. Maui

remyiW. Maui, Lanai

rockiiMolokai

sylvaeMolokai, Maui

tenerrimumOahu

arenariumE. Maui

consanguineumHawaii

conyzoidesMaui Nui, Hawaii

lepidolumE. Maui, Lanai, Oahu

http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/images/tet_hum.jpg

Not all cladograms tell the same story!

Tetramolopium humile


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