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Achieving Real-time Pulse-to-pulse PRI Prediction. By Rémi Gauvin B.A.Sc. Computer Engineering MC Countermeasures Inc. Objectives. Radars and Current ECM Overview What is PRI Prediction and its Benefits? How PRI Prediction is Achieved Results Obtained Conclusion and Future Look.

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Achieving real time pulse to pulse pri prediction l.jpg

Achieving Real-time Pulse-to-pulse PRI Prediction

By Rémi Gauvin

B.A.Sc. Computer Engineering

MC Countermeasures Inc.


Objectives l.jpg
Objectives

  • Radars and Current ECM Overview

  • What is PRI Prediction and its Benefits?

  • How PRI Prediction is Achieved

  • Results Obtained

  • Conclusion and Future Look

Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com


Introduction on radars l.jpg
Introduction on Radars

  • Pulsed Doppler Illuminator

    • Constant PRI

  • High PRI Pulsed Doppler

    • Constant PRI and Dwell-Shift

  • Medium PRF Pulsed Doppler

    • Staggered PRI (few stagger levels)

  • Low PRI Pulsed Doppler

    • Staggered PRI

  • Low PRF Radars

    • Complex PRI Patterns

Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com


Pri pattern modulations l.jpg
PRI Pattern Modulations

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Current ecm noise jamming l.jpg
Current ECM: Noise Jamming

  • Noise masks out the target return

  • Good against older non-coherent radars with wide instantaneous bandwidth

  • Unsuccessful against:

    • Burst-to-burst RF agile radars

    • Coherent processing Radars with narrow bandwidth Doppler filtering

  • Noise jamming with fast tuning oscillator may be ineffective due to low tuning accuracy

Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com


Current ecm deception using analog delay lines l.jpg
Current ECM: Deception Using Analog Delay Lines

  • Analog delay lines holds the Radar pulse to create a delayed copy

  • Down range false targets only

  • RGPO: Range Gate Pull Out technique

    • Radar’s MTI Filter follows the false target instead of the target return.

  • Noise accumulates quickly in the delay line making the technique limited to only a few s

Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com


Current ecm deception using drfm s l.jpg
Current ECM: DeceptionUsing DRFM’s

  • Digital Radar Frequency Memory (DRFM)

  • Store the Radar pulse indefinitely

  • False Target Position can be anywhere for constant PRI modulation

  • Range Gate Pull Out and Range Gate Pull In Technique are possible

  • Problem: Non Constant PRI Modulation Limits the False Target Position to Down Range

Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com


Solution pri prediction l.jpg
Solution: PRI Prediction

  • Pulse Repetition Interval (PRI) Prediction consists of estimating the time of arrival (TOA) of the next Radar pulse

  • Paired with a DRFM based system a PRI Predictor can produce targets over the full PRI range

Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com


Constant pri l.jpg
Constant PRI

False Target can be positioned anywhere with or without prediction

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Non constant pri without prediction l.jpg
Non Constant PRIwithout Prediction

Without prediction the false target position is limited to down range for non-constant pattern modulation

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Non constant pri with prediction l.jpg
Non Constant PRIwith Prediction

With prediction the false target can now be positioned correctly anywhere regardless of pattern modulation

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Other advantages of pri prediction fades l.jpg
Other Advantages of PRI Prediction : Fades

  • Production of false targets during signal fades or receiver blanking

  • Even though the video signal is blanked the false targets are still produced in their correct position

Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com


Other advantages of pri prediction filtering l.jpg
Other Advantages of PRI Prediction: Filtering

  • Knowing when the next pulse should occur allows the system to write only valid pulses in the DRFM and trigger false targets only on valid pulses

  • Improved filtering of multiple signals with the use of time gating principles

Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com


Difficulties in pri prediction l.jpg
Difficulties in PRI Prediction

  • Data rate (PRI’s range for 2 s to 15 ms)

  • Corrupt data

    • PRI pattern containing extra pulses

    • PRI pattern missing pulses

  • Interleaved patterns

    • Multiple radars in band

    • Noise in band

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To make pri prediction work l.jpg
To Make PRI Prediction Work

  • A System must:

    • Track various modulation type such as: Constants, Dwell-Shifts, Staggered, Linear-Sliding and Wobulated (Sinusoidal)

    • Base prediction on real-time data

    • Perform real-time pulse-to-pulse analysis and prediction

    • Have minimal sensitivity to spurious and missing pulses

    • Have the ability to keep track through signal fades

Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com


Multiple thread solution l.jpg
Multiple Thread Solution

  • MC-CM Adaptive Prediction Scheme

    • The system has a Multiple Instruction Single Data (MISD) Structure and runs a variety of predictive algorithms on different threads

    • The algorithms learns the pattern and issues predictions in real-time on pulse-to-pulse basis

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Typical prediction process l.jpg
Typical Prediction Process

  • Predictions for upcoming PRI’s originate from associating individual weights to different PRI’s accumulated over the last while

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Multiple thread solution 2 l.jpg
Multiple Thread Solution (2)

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Pri prediction system l.jpg
PRI Prediction System

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Available form factors l.jpg

4 x 4 inches

USB Interface

3 x 3 inches

Serial Interface

Available Form Factors

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Performance vs constants dwell shifts and sliding l.jpg
Performance vs. Constants, Dwell-Shifts and Sliding

  • Accurately tracks the PRI after a few pulses

  • PRI can range from 2s to 15 ms

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Performance vs staggered l.jpg
Performance vs. Staggered

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Performance vs wobulated l.jpg
Performance vs. Wobulated

  • Tracks after 100 to 150 PRI’s (Typically)

  • Min PRI of 75 us, Max Deviation +/- 50 %

  • As little as 4 PRI per cycle required

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Random pulse drop outs l.jpg
Random Pulse Drop Outs

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Conclusion l.jpg
Conclusion

  • PRI Prediction improves ECM Effectiveness

    • False target production is possible over full range of the PRI regardless of the PRI pattern modulation

    • Can produce false targets during signal fades and receiver blanking.

    • Sorts unwanted information from DRFM with time gating principles

Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com


Future l.jpg
Future

  • What is next:

    • Pulse de-interleaving using RF data to isolate a single emitter out of many

    • Tracking and jamming multiple emitters simultaneously or in a time shared fashion

    • Improved tracking and acquisition of various modulation types in a corrupt environment

Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com


Acknowledgements l.jpg
Acknowledgements

Special thanks to :

  • Scott McDonald

  • Ken McRitchie

  • Dan Grise

    For information, resources and work performed

    on the PRI Predictor line of systems

Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com


Questions l.jpg
? Questions ?

For further information, please feel free to contact us at:

MC Countermeasures Inc.

39 Robertson Road, Suite 256

Nepean, Ontario, K2H 8R2 Canada

Tel: +1 (613) 721-1552

Fax: +1 (613) 721-1553

http://www.mc-cm.com

[email protected]

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com


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