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The Use and Effects of an Interactive Personal Response System (PRS) in General Chemistry. Daniel Lewicki Russell Sage College Troy, New York [email protected] Outline. Introduction PRS in the Classroom Achievement Study Sample Method Results Discussion Attitude Survey & Results

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The Use and Effects of an Interactive Personal Response System (PRS) in General Chemistry

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The Use and Effects of an Interactive Personal Response System (PRS) in General Chemistry

Daniel Lewicki

Russell Sage College

Troy, New York

[email protected]


Outline

  • Introduction

  • PRS in the Classroom

  • Achievement Study

    • Sample

    • Method

    • Results

    • Discussion

  • Attitude Survey & Results

  • Future Plans


Rationale for Using PRS in the Classroom

A student response system is designed to make the classroom into more of a learner-centered environment by:

  • Increasing activity & decreasing passivity.

  • Allowing students to express their knowledge & understanding w/o inhibitors.

  • Initiating discussion since each respondent has a vested interest in the outcome.

  • Providing feedback on the reception of teaching activities.//


The PRS System

The PRS system consists of:

  • Handheld input devices (clickers).

  • A classroom receiver that receives student transmissions.

  • A lap top computer (or desktop) with software to process the responses.

  • A projector for displaying the slides and results.


How I use the PRS in the class?

  • To review for weekly quizzes.

  • To permit students to respond individually or follow a pattern of question  discussion  answer with a partner.

  • To follow the sequence of PRS question  demonstration PRS question  discussion.

  • To evaluate students level of class participation.

  • To encourage students to “take risks” in order to assess misconceptions.

  • To assess conceptual understanding or behavioral skills at different levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy.//


Any substance composed of only one type of atom is called a(n)

  • compound

  • element

  • formula

  • mixture


Which of the following is a chemical property?

  • Substance is liquid at room temperature.

  • Substance is very dense.

  • Substance is combustible.

  • Substance is blue in color.


Convert 500 mL to liters.

  • 0.005 L

  • 0.5 L

  • 5 L

  • 50 L


In an atom that is a negatively charged ion, the number of electrons must be____.

  • Greater than the number of protons.

  • Equal to the number of protons.

  • Less than the number of protons.

  • More than the number of neutrons.

  • I don’t have a clue.


Which of the following is not true regarding gases?

  • When the pressure upon a gas increases, its volume decreases if the temperature is held constant.

  • When the temperature of a gas decreases, its volume increases if the pressure is held constant.

  • Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules.

  • The molecules of a gas are in constant, rapid motion.


Types of Questions

  • Yes/No

  • True/False

  • Yes/Abstain/No

  • Likert-type (4, 5, 7 scale)

  • Generic choice (2-10 choices)


What were the perceived benefits of the PRS?

  • Encourage Ss to be active thinkers.

  • Provide opportunities for immediate feedback from Ss which helped with pacing.

  • Help the class dynamics by making it easier for the instructor to interact with all of the students not just the one who raises her hand.

  • Help students to remain alert and anxious.

  • Have a positive effect on achievement.//


The Effect on Achievement as measured by weekly quiz scores

  • Sample

  • Method: “Equivalent Materials, Pretest, Posttest Design”

  • Over the course of 10 weeks students were given weekly objective-type quizzes that were each worth 10 points. Questions spanned all of Bloom’s taxonomy.

  • Control group, N=22: Mean raw score on 10 quizzes before using PRS = 70 (SD = 12)

  • Experimental group, N=22: Mean raw score on 22 quizzes after using PRS = 76 (SD = 12)

  • t-test for non-independent samples

  • t = 3.966, p<.05, df = 21

  • Effect Size = 0.5

  • Conclusion: The null hypothesis was rejected.T-test results revealed a significant difference between control group (not using PRS for review) and the experimental group (using PRS for review) for mean cumulative General Chemistry quiz scores.//


How did students feel about using PRS in class?

Used PRS and asked students to respond to a number of statements relating to the use of the system.


How much did you like having the PRS transmitters in this class?

0

  • Liked them a lot.

  • Somewhat liked them.

  • Neutral

  • Somewhat disliked them.

  • Disliked them a lot.


If you had a choice, would you have preferred this class use or not use the PRS system?

0

  • Greatly prefer the class with transmitters.

  • Somewhat prefer the class with the transmitters.

  • Neutral- either way is fine.

  • Somewhat prefer the class without the transmitters.

  • Greatly prefer the class without the transmitters.


Do you feel that the in-class response system helped you understand the topics that were reviewed?

0

  • Helped a lot.

  • Helped a little.

  • If didn’t help or hurt.

  • Hindered learning a little.

  • Hindered learning a lot.


Was the PRS easy to use?

0

  • Yes.

  • Somewhat yes.

  • Neutral

  • Somewhat no.

  • No.


Was the use of PRS a good use of class time?

0

  • Definitely yes.

  • Somewhat yes.

  • Neutral- neither yes or no

  • Somewhat no.

  • Definitely no.


Did the in-class response system help you stay involved/interested/awake in class?

0

  • Helped a lot.

  • Helped a little.

  • If didn’t help or hurt.

  • Hindered a little.

  • Hindered a lot.


Did using PRS make the instructor more effective?

0

  • Yes

  • A little more effective.

  • Neutral- neither yes or no.

  • A little less effective.

  • No.


Would you like other instructors to use the PRS System? (assuming you don’t have to buy a transmitter for each class)

0

  • I definitely want other instructors to use PRS.

  • I somewhat want other instructors to use PRS.

  • I’m neutral- no preference.

  • I somewhat don’t want other instructors to use PRS.

  • I definitely don’t want other instructors to use PRS.


What are some implementation considerations?

  • Teaching style will need to change.

  • The pacing of presentations changes.

  • There is an increase in class preparation time.

  • There is an increase in formative assessment.

  • Cost considerations.

  • Management of materials and set up.//


The Future

  • Increase data bank of questions that span Bloom’s taxonomy for all topics.

  • Keep track of individual student responses over the entire year.

  • Use PRS with pre-service teacher education.

  • Use PRS with POGIL techniques.//


Thanks

  • Froman Fellowship Grant

  • General Chem Students

  • You all for listening!


Questions?


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