North africa and southwest asia today chapter 4
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NORTH AFRICA AND SOUTHWEST ASIA TODAY CHAPTER 4. Section 4-1 North Africa (pages 100–104). Did You Know???.

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NORTH AFRICA AND SOUTHWEST ASIA TODAY CHAPTER 4

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North africa and southwest asia today chapter 4

NORTH AFRICA AND SOUTHWEST ASIA TODAY CHAPTER 4


Section 4 1 north africa pages 100 104

Section 4-1North Africa (pages 100–104)


Did you know

Did You Know???

A common misconception about the Sahara, the world’s largest desert, is that a majority of its 3 1⁄2 million square miles is covered by sand. Most of this land, which is roughly equal to the size of the United States, is covered by rocky plateaus and gravelly plains, not sand.


I egypt pages 100 101

I. Egypt (pages 100–101)

A. Egypt is about the same size as Texas and New Mexico together, yet most of it is desert.


I egypt pages 100 1011

I. Egypt (pages 100–101)

B. The Nile River supplies 85 percent of the country’s water.


I egypt pages 100 1012

I. Egypt (pages 100–101)

C. Dams and channels control the river’s flow and its use for farming and generating electric power.


I egypt pages 100 1013

I. Egypt (pages 100–101)

D. The Suez Canal is one of the world’s most important waterways. Ships use the canal to pass from the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea, thereby avoiding traveling all the way around Africa.


I egypt pages 100 1014

I. Egypt (pages 100–101)

E. About 40 percent of Egypt’s people work in agriculture raising sugar cane, grains, vegetables, fruits, and cotton.


I egypt pages 100 1015

I. Egypt (pages 100–101)

F. Egyptian factories make food products, textiles, and consumer goods. Egypt’s main energy resource is oil. Another important industry is tourism.


Ii libya pages 101 102

II. Libya (pages 101–102)

A. Except for the coastal lowlands, Libya is a desert with only a few oases. An oasis is a green area in a desert fed by underground water.


Ii libya pages 101 1021

II. Libya (pages 101–102)

B. The Sahara covers more than 90 percent of Libya.


Ii libya pages 101 1022

II. Libya (pages 101–102)

C. Libya has no permanent rivers, but aquifers lie beneath the vast desert. Aquifers are underground rock layers that store large amounts of water.


Ii libya pages 101 1023

II. Libya (pages 101–102)

D. Poor soil and a hot climate mean that Libya has to import about three-fourths of its food.


Ii libya pages 101 1024

II. Libya (pages 101–102)

E. The discovery of oil in Libya in 1959 brought the country great wealth.


Ii libya pages 101 1025

II. Libya (pages 101–102)

F. Almost all of Libya’s 5 million people have mixed Arab and Berber heritage. Eighty-six percent of Libyans live along the Mediterranean coast.


Ii libya pages 101 1026

II. Libya (pages 101–102)

G. Libya is a Muslim country, and most of its people speak Arabic.


Ii libya pages 101 1027

II. Libya (pages 101–102)

H. In 1969 a military officer named Muammar al-Qaddhafi overthrew the king and became a dictator. For many years, the United States and other democratic nations have accused Qaddhafi of encouraging terrorism.


Iii the maghreb pages 102 104

III. The Maghreb (pages 102–104)

A. Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco form a region known as the Maghreb. These three countries make up the westernmost part of the Arabic-speaking Muslim world.


Iii the maghreb pages 102 1041

III. The Maghreb (pages 102–104)

B. Tunisia is North Africa’s smallest country.


Iii the maghreb pages 102 1042

III. The Maghreb (pages 102–104)

C. Tunisian farmers grow wheat, olives, fruits, and vegetables. Fishing is also an important industry. Tunisian factories produce food products, textiles, and oil products. Tourism is a growing industry.


Iii the maghreb pages 102 1043

III. The Maghreb (pages 102–104)

D. Tunisia’s largest city today is Tunis, the capital city of more than 1 million people.


Iii the maghreb pages 102 1044

III. The Maghreb (pages 102–104)

E. Algeria is the largest country in North Africa.


Iii the maghreb pages 102 1045

III. The Maghreb (pages 102–104)

F. Algeria must import much of its food, which it pays for by selling oil and natural gas.


Iii the maghreb pages 102 1046

III. The Maghreb (pages 102–104)

G. Algeria became a French possession in 1834, so many people in Algeria’s cities speak French as well as Arabic. In 1962, Algeria won its freedom from France.


Iii the maghreb pages 102 1047

III. The Maghreb (pages 102–104)

H. Today, Algeria is a republic, with a strong president and a legislature. Since the early 1990s, however, there have been conflicts between the government and Muslim political parties.


Iii the maghreb pages 102 1048

III. The Maghreb (pages 102–104)

I. Farmers in Morocco grow sugar beets, grains, fruits, and vegetables for sale to Europe during the winter. Morocco is a leading producer of phosphates, used in fertilizers. Tourism is also important to Morocco.


Iii the maghreb pages 102 1049

III. The Maghreb (pages 102–104)

J. Morocco’s traditional culture is based on Arab, Berber, and African traditions.


Iii the maghreb pages 102 10410

III. The Maghreb (pages 102–104)

K. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy.


Notes 4 2 southwest asia turkey and israel pages 105 108

Notes 4-2Southwest Asia: Turkey and Israel (pages 105–108)


Did you know1

Did You Know???

Turkey is home to some of the oldest permanent human settlements. In Çatal Hüyük, Turkey, archaeologists have unearthed some of the oldest known examples of pottery, textiles, and plastered walls. Some of these artifacts date back to 7000 B.C.


I turkey pages 105 106

I. Turkey (pages 105–106)

A. Turkey has a unique location—it bridges the continents of Asia and Europe. Three important waterways—the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles—separate the Asian and European parts.


I turkey pages 105 1061

I. Turkey (pages 105–106)

B. Turkey’s climate varies throughout the country, from hot, dry summers and cold, snowy winters in the central plateau to hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters on the coast.


I turkey pages 105 1062

I. Turkey (pages 105–106)

C. Turkish farmers grow cotton, fruits, and wheat, and raise livestock. Turkey has many mineral resources such as coal, copper, and iron. Tourism is also a growing industry.


I turkey pages 105 1063

I. Turkey (pages 105–106)

D. About 98percent of Turkey’s nearly 66 million people are Muslims.


I turkey pages 105 1064

I. Turkey (pages 105–106)

E. The Kurds, an ethnic group who make up about 20 percent of Turkey’s people have demanded their own independent state.


I turkey pages 105 1065

I. Turkey (pages 105–106)

F. Almost 70 percent of Turkey’s people live in cities or towns.


I turkey pages 105 1066

I. Turkey (pages 105–106)

G. Istanbul began as a Greek port called Byzantium. Later it was renamed Constantinople. When the Ottomans conquered the city in the 1400s, they renamed it Istanbul.


I turkey pages 105 1067

I. Turkey (pages 105–106)

H. Turkey has been a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) since 1952 and is seeking to join the European Union.


Ii israel pages 107 108

II. Israel (pages 107–108)

A. Israel is completely in Southwest Asia, but was founded by immigrants who came in large part from Europe, Central Asia, and the United States.


Ii israel pages 107 1081

II. Israel (pages 107–108)

B. Israel includes the mountains of Galilee, the Golan Heights, the Dead Sea, the desert of Negev, and the Jordan River.


Ii israel pages 107 1082

II. Israel (pages 107–108)

C. Israel’s best farmland stretches along the Mediterranean coastal plain and produces citrus fruits, such as oranges, grapefruits, and lemons.


Ii israel pages 107 1083

II. Israel (pages 107–108)

D. In very dry areas, Israel uses computers to release specific amounts of water from undergroundtubes to the roots of plants. As a result of technology, Israel’s farmers are able to export some food to other countries.


Ii israel pages 107 1084

II. Israel (pages 107–108)

E. Some Israelis live in farm settlements called kibbutzes, where property is shared. Other people live in moshavs where they share in farming, production, and selling, but may own private property as well.


Ii israel pages 107 1085

II. Israel (pages 107–108)

F. Israel’s skilled workforce produces electronicproducts, clothing, chemicals, food products, and machinery. Diamondcutting and polishing is also a major industry.


Ii israel pages 107 1086

II. Israel (pages 107–108)

G. Eightypercent of Israel’s people are Jews and the other 20percent are Palestinians, who are Arabic. There are many conflicts between these two groups.


Notes 4 3 syria lebanon jordan and arabia pages 110 114

Notes 4-3Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Arabia (pages 110–114)


Did you know2

Did You Know???

The northern segment of the Jordan Valley, known in Arabic as the Ghor, is Jordan’s most fertile region. It contains the Jordan River and extends from the country’s northern border south to the Dead Sea. Several degrees warmer than the rest of the country, its year-round mild climate, fertile soils, higher winter rainfall, and extensive summer irrigation have made the Ghor the food bowl of Jordan.


I syria pages 110 111

I. Syria (pages 110–111)

A. Syria’s land includes fertile coastal plains and valleys along the Mediterranean Sea, and vast deserts covering the eastern regions.


I syria pages 110 1111

I. Syria (pages 110–111)

B. Agriculture is Syria’s main economic activity. Farmers raise mostly cotton, wheat, and fruits. The Euphrates River provides water for irrigation as well as hydroelectric power.


I syria pages 110 1112

I. Syria (pages 110–111)

C. Almost half of Syria’s 16 million people live in rural areas. A few are Bedouins—nomadic desert people who follow a traditional way of life.


I syria pages 110 1113

I. Syria (pages 110–111)

D. Damascus, the capital, is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. It was founded more than 5,000 years ago.


I syria pages 110 1114

I. Syria (pages 110–111)

E. Islam has deeply influenced Syria’s traditional arts and buildings.


I syria pages 110 1115

I. Syria (pages 110–111)

F. Syria became an independent country in 1946.


I syria pages 110 1116

I. Syria (pages 110–111)

G. Since the 1960s, one political party has controlled Syria’s government, and it does not allow many political freedoms. As of May 2000, Syria was one of seven nations named by the U.S. government as being “statesponsors” of terrorism.


Ii lebanon pages 111 112

II. Lebanon (pages 111–112)

A. Because Lebanon is so small, you can swim in the warm Mediterranean Sea, then play in the snow in the mountains, both in the sameday.


Ii lebanon pages 111 1121

II. Lebanon (pages 111–112)

B. More than 80 percent of Lebanon’s nearly 4.1 million people live in coastal urban areas.


Ii lebanon pages 111 1122

II. Lebanon (pages 111–112)

C. About 70 percent of the Lebanese are ArabMuslims and most of the rest are Arab Christians. Conflict between these groups led to a civilwar lasting from 1975 to 1991.


Ii lebanon pages 111 1123

II. Lebanon (pages 111–112)

D. Arabic is the most widely spoken language. French is also an official language because France ruled Lebanon until its independence in the 1940s.


Iii jordan page 112

III. Jordan (page 112)

A. Jordan stretches from the fertile Jordan River valley in the west to dry rugged country in the east


Iii jordan page 1121

III. Jordan (page 112)

B. The country lacks water resources, but small amounts of irrigated farmland lie in the Jordan River Valley.


Iii jordan page 1122

III. Jordan (page 112)

C. Jordan also lacks energyresources. Most people work in service and manufacturing industries.


Iii jordan page 1123

III. Jordan (page 112)

D. Most of Jordan’s 5.2 million people are ArabMuslims. They include more than 1 million Palestinian refugees.


Iii jordan page 1124

III. Jordan (page 112)

E. Jordan became independent from GreatBritain in 1946 and now has a constitutionalmonarchy.


Iv saudi arabia pages 113 114

IV. Saudi Arabia (pages 113–114)

A. SaudiArabia is the largest country in Southwest Asia.


Iv saudi arabia pages 113 1141

IV. Saudi Arabia (pages 113–114)

B. The country is covered by vast deserts and has no rivers or permanent bodies of water.


Iv saudi arabia pages 113 1142

IV. Saudi Arabia (pages 113–114)

C. Saudi Arabia holds about 25percent of the world’s oil and the nation belongs to the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Today the 11 OPEC countries supply more than 40percent of the world’s oil. By increasing or reducing supply, they are able to influence world oil prices.


Iv saudi arabia pages 113 1143

IV. Saudi Arabia (pages 113–114)

D. Oil has helped Saudi Arabia boost its standard of living. Aware that someday its oil will run out, the government is trying to broaden its economy through industry and agriculture.


Iv saudi arabia pages 113 1144

IV. Saudi Arabia (pages 113–114)

E. The capital and largest city, Riyadh, sits amid a large oasis in the center of the country.


Iv saudi arabia pages 113 1145

IV. Saudi Arabia (pages 113–114)

F. Makkah (Mecca), in western Saudi Arabia, is Islam’s holiest city. About 2 million Muslims from around the world visit Makkah each year.


Notes 4 4 iraq iran and afghanistan pages 122 125

Notes 4-4Iraq, Iran, and Afghanistan (pages 122–125)


Did you know3

Did You Know???

Iraqis eat a varied diet that includes vegetables, rice, flat bread, meat, fish, and dates. Bread and rice are the main foods at many meals. Grilled lamb, chicken, and fish are popular. Sanbusak, a traditional Iraqi dish, consists of moon-shaped dough stuffed with cheese or meat. Popular beverages in Iraq include tea, coffee, and fruit juices.


I iraq pages 122 123

I. Iraq (pages 122–123)

A. The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers are the major geographic features of Iraq.


I iraq pages 122 1231

I. Iraq (pages 122–123)

B. Between the two rivers is an alluvial plain—an area that is built up by rich fertile soil left by river floods. Most farming takes place there.


I iraq pages 122 1232

I. Iraq (pages 122–123)

C. Oil is the country’s major export.


I iraq pages 122 1233

I. Iraq (pages 122–123)

D. About 70 percent of Iraq’s 23.6 million people live in urban areas.


I iraq pages 122 1234

I. Iraq (pages 122–123)

E. Muslim Arabs make up the largest group in Iraq’s population. The second largest group consists of another Muslim people, the Kurds, who want to form their own country.


I iraq pages 122 1235

I. Iraq (pages 122–123)

F. In 1958 the last king was overthrown. A recent leader, SaddamHussein, was a dictator who ruled with an iron hand.


I iraq pages 122 1236

I. Iraq (pages 122–123)

G. In 1990, partly because of a dispute over oil, Iraq invaded neighboring Kuwait. By April of 1991, at the end of the PersianGulfWar, a United Nations force led by the UnitedStates pushed Iraqi troops out of Kuwait.


Ii iran page 124

II. Iran (page 124)

A. Iran is an oil-rich nation, but is trying to become less dependent on oil earnings.


Ii iran page 1241

II. Iran (page 124)

B. It has limited supplies of water, and less than 12 percent of its land can be farmed.


Ii iran page 1242

II. Iran (page 124)

C. More than half of Iran’s 66.1 million people are Persians, not Arabs or Turks. They speak Farsi, or Persian.


Ii iran page 1243

II. Iran (page 124)

D. Nearly 98 percent of Iran’s people practice some form of Islam.


Ii iran page 1244

II. Iran (page 124)

E. In 1979 Muslim religious leaders overthrew the last monarchy, and Iran now has an Islamic republic, a government run by Muslim religious leaders. The government has introduced laws based on its understanding of the Quran and have forbidden many westerncustoms.


Iii afghanistan page 125

III. Afghanistan (page 125)

A. Afghanistan is a landlocked nation mostly covered with the rugged peaks of the Hindu Kush mountain range.


Iii afghanistan page 1251

III. Afghanistan (page 125)

B. The country’s 26 million people are divided into about 20 different ethnicgroups.


Iii afghanistan page 1252

III. Afghanistan (page 125)

C. After a Soviet invasion, followed by civil war, the Taliban took control of the government, enforcing strict Islamic religious laws.


Iii afghanistan page 1253

III. Afghanistan (page 125)

D. In October 2001, the United States accused the Taliban of supporting terrorists and began bombing Taliban forces.


Iii afghanistan page 1254

III. Afghanistan (page 125)

E. By mid-November the Taliban government had collapsed and the United States began to work with local leaders to form a new government.


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