NORTH AFRICA AND SOUTHWEST ASIA TODAY CHAPTER 4. Section 4-1 North Africa (pages 100–104). Did You Know???.
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NORTH AFRICA AND SOUTHWEST ASIA TODAY CHAPTER 4
Section 4-1North Africa (pages 100–104)
A common misconception about the Sahara, the world’s largest desert, is that a majority of its 3 1⁄2 million square miles is covered by sand. Most of this land, which is roughly equal to the size of the United States, is covered by rocky plateaus and gravelly plains, not sand.
A. Egypt is about the same size as Texas and New Mexico together, yet most of it is desert.
B. The Nile River supplies 85 percent of the country’s water.
C. Dams and channels control the river’s flow and its use for farming and generating electric power.
D. The Suez Canal is one of the world’s most important waterways. Ships use the canal to pass from the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea, thereby avoiding traveling all the way around Africa.
E. About 40 percent of Egypt’s people work in agriculture raising sugar cane, grains, vegetables, fruits, and cotton.
F. Egyptian factories make food products, textiles, and consumer goods. Egypt’s main energy resource is oil. Another important industry is tourism.
A. Except for the coastal lowlands, Libya is a desert with only a few oases. An oasis is a green area in a desert fed by underground water.
B. The Sahara covers more than 90 percent of Libya.
C. Libya has no permanent rivers, but aquifers lie beneath the vast desert. Aquifers are underground rock layers that store large amounts of water.
D. Poor soil and a hot climate mean that Libya has to import about three-fourths of its food.
E. The discovery of oil in Libya in 1959 brought the country great wealth.
F. Almost all of Libya’s 5 million people have mixed Arab and Berber heritage. Eighty-six percent of Libyans live along the Mediterranean coast.
G. Libya is a Muslim country, and most of its people speak Arabic.
H. In 1969 a military officer named Muammar al-Qaddhafi overthrew the king and became a dictator. For many years, the United States and other democratic nations have accused Qaddhafi of encouraging terrorism.
A. Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco form a region known as the Maghreb. These three countries make up the westernmost part of the Arabic-speaking Muslim world.
B. Tunisia is North Africa’s smallest country.
C. Tunisian farmers grow wheat, olives, fruits, and vegetables. Fishing is also an important industry. Tunisian factories produce food products, textiles, and oil products. Tourism is a growing industry.
D. Tunisia’s largest city today is Tunis, the capital city of more than 1 million people.
E. Algeria is the largest country in North Africa.
F. Algeria must import much of its food, which it pays for by selling oil and natural gas.
G. Algeria became a French possession in 1834, so many people in Algeria’s cities speak French as well as Arabic. In 1962, Algeria won its freedom from France.
H. Today, Algeria is a republic, with a strong president and a legislature. Since the early 1990s, however, there have been conflicts between the government and Muslim political parties.
I. Farmers in Morocco grow sugar beets, grains, fruits, and vegetables for sale to Europe during the winter. Morocco is a leading producer of phosphates, used in fertilizers. Tourism is also important to Morocco.
J. Morocco’s traditional culture is based on Arab, Berber, and African traditions.
K. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy.
Notes 4-2Southwest Asia: Turkey and Israel (pages 105–108)
Turkey is home to some of the oldest permanent human settlements. In Çatal Hüyük, Turkey, archaeologists have unearthed some of the oldest known examples of pottery, textiles, and plastered walls. Some of these artifacts date back to 7000 B.C.
A. Turkey has a unique location—it bridges the continents of Asia and Europe. Three important waterways—the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles—separate the Asian and European parts.
B. Turkey’s climate varies throughout the country, from hot, dry summers and cold, snowy winters in the central plateau to hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters on the coast.
C. Turkish farmers grow cotton, fruits, and wheat, and raise livestock. Turkey has many mineral resources such as coal, copper, and iron. Tourism is also a growing industry.
D. About 98percent of Turkey’s nearly 66 million people are Muslims.
E. The Kurds, an ethnic group who make up about 20 percent of Turkey’s people have demanded their own independent state.
F. Almost 70 percent of Turkey’s people live in cities or towns.
G. Istanbul began as a Greek port called Byzantium. Later it was renamed Constantinople. When the Ottomans conquered the city in the 1400s, they renamed it Istanbul.
H. Turkey has been a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) since 1952 and is seeking to join the European Union.
A. Israel is completely in Southwest Asia, but was founded by immigrants who came in large part from Europe, Central Asia, and the United States.
B. Israel includes the mountains of Galilee, the Golan Heights, the Dead Sea, the desert of Negev, and the Jordan River.
C. Israel’s best farmland stretches along the Mediterranean coastal plain and produces citrus fruits, such as oranges, grapefruits, and lemons.
D. In very dry areas, Israel uses computers to release specific amounts of water from undergroundtubes to the roots of plants. As a result of technology, Israel’s farmers are able to export some food to other countries.
E. Some Israelis live in farm settlements called kibbutzes, where property is shared. Other people live in moshavs where they share in farming, production, and selling, but may own private property as well.
F. Israel’s skilled workforce produces electronicproducts, clothing, chemicals, food products, and machinery. Diamondcutting and polishing is also a major industry.
G. Eightypercent of Israel’s people are Jews and the other 20percent are Palestinians, who are Arabic. There are many conflicts between these two groups.
Notes 4-3Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Arabia (pages 110–114)
The northern segment of the Jordan Valley, known in Arabic as the Ghor, is Jordan’s most fertile region. It contains the Jordan River and extends from the country’s northern border south to the Dead Sea. Several degrees warmer than the rest of the country, its year-round mild climate, fertile soils, higher winter rainfall, and extensive summer irrigation have made the Ghor the food bowl of Jordan.
A. Syria’s land includes fertile coastal plains and valleys along the Mediterranean Sea, and vast deserts covering the eastern regions.
B. Agriculture is Syria’s main economic activity. Farmers raise mostly cotton, wheat, and fruits. The Euphrates River provides water for irrigation as well as hydroelectric power.
C. Almost half of Syria’s 16 million people live in rural areas. A few are Bedouins—nomadic desert people who follow a traditional way of life.
D. Damascus, the capital, is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. It was founded more than 5,000 years ago.
E. Islam has deeply influenced Syria’s traditional arts and buildings.
F. Syria became an independent country in 1946.
G. Since the 1960s, one political party has controlled Syria’s government, and it does not allow many political freedoms. As of May 2000, Syria was one of seven nations named by the U.S. government as being “statesponsors” of terrorism.
A. Because Lebanon is so small, you can swim in the warm Mediterranean Sea, then play in the snow in the mountains, both in the sameday.
B. More than 80 percent of Lebanon’s nearly 4.1 million people live in coastal urban areas.
C. About 70 percent of the Lebanese are ArabMuslims and most of the rest are Arab Christians. Conflict between these groups led to a civilwar lasting from 1975 to 1991.
D. Arabic is the most widely spoken language. French is also an official language because France ruled Lebanon until its independence in the 1940s.
A. Jordan stretches from the fertile Jordan River valley in the west to dry rugged country in the east
B. The country lacks water resources, but small amounts of irrigated farmland lie in the Jordan River Valley.
C. Jordan also lacks energyresources. Most people work in service and manufacturing industries.
D. Most of Jordan’s 5.2 million people are ArabMuslims. They include more than 1 million Palestinian refugees.
E. Jordan became independent from GreatBritain in 1946 and now has a constitutionalmonarchy.
A. SaudiArabia is the largest country in Southwest Asia.
B. The country is covered by vast deserts and has no rivers or permanent bodies of water.
C. Saudi Arabia holds about 25percent of the world’s oil and the nation belongs to the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Today the 11 OPEC countries supply more than 40percent of the world’s oil. By increasing or reducing supply, they are able to influence world oil prices.
D. Oil has helped Saudi Arabia boost its standard of living. Aware that someday its oil will run out, the government is trying to broaden its economy through industry and agriculture.
E. The capital and largest city, Riyadh, sits amid a large oasis in the center of the country.
F. Makkah (Mecca), in western Saudi Arabia, is Islam’s holiest city. About 2 million Muslims from around the world visit Makkah each year.
Notes 4-4Iraq, Iran, and Afghanistan (pages 122–125)
Iraqis eat a varied diet that includes vegetables, rice, flat bread, meat, fish, and dates. Bread and rice are the main foods at many meals. Grilled lamb, chicken, and fish are popular. Sanbusak, a traditional Iraqi dish, consists of moon-shaped dough stuffed with cheese or meat. Popular beverages in Iraq include tea, coffee, and fruit juices.
A. The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers are the major geographic features of Iraq.
B. Between the two rivers is an alluvial plain—an area that is built up by rich fertile soil left by river floods. Most farming takes place there.
C. Oil is the country’s major export.
D. About 70 percent of Iraq’s 23.6 million people live in urban areas.
E. Muslim Arabs make up the largest group in Iraq’s population. The second largest group consists of another Muslim people, the Kurds, who want to form their own country.
F. In 1958 the last king was overthrown. A recent leader, SaddamHussein, was a dictator who ruled with an iron hand.
G. In 1990, partly because of a dispute over oil, Iraq invaded neighboring Kuwait. By April of 1991, at the end of the PersianGulfWar, a United Nations force led by the UnitedStates pushed Iraqi troops out of Kuwait.
A. Iran is an oil-rich nation, but is trying to become less dependent on oil earnings.
B. It has limited supplies of water, and less than 12 percent of its land can be farmed.
C. More than half of Iran’s 66.1 million people are Persians, not Arabs or Turks. They speak Farsi, or Persian.
D. Nearly 98 percent of Iran’s people practice some form of Islam.
E. In 1979 Muslim religious leaders overthrew the last monarchy, and Iran now has an Islamic republic, a government run by Muslim religious leaders. The government has introduced laws based on its understanding of the Quran and have forbidden many westerncustoms.
A. Afghanistan is a landlocked nation mostly covered with the rugged peaks of the Hindu Kush mountain range.
B. The country’s 26 million people are divided into about 20 different ethnicgroups.
C. After a Soviet invasion, followed by civil war, the Taliban took control of the government, enforcing strict Islamic religious laws.
D. In October 2001, the United States accused the Taliban of supporting terrorists and began bombing Taliban forces.
E. By mid-November the Taliban government had collapsed and the United States began to work with local leaders to form a new government.