Robert mills gagn 1916 2002
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Robert Mills Gagn é (1916- 2002). Scholar Teacher Mentor. Career Highlights. High School in North Andover, MA 1937: A.B. in psychology, Yale University 1940: Ph.D. in psychology, Brown University 1940: Faculty, Connecticut College for Women

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Robert Mills Gagn é (1916- 2002)

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Robert Mills Gagné (1916- 2002)

  • Scholar

  • Teacher

  • Mentor


Career Highlights

  • High School in North Andover, MA

  • 1937: A.B. in psychology, Yale University

  • 1940: Ph.D. in psychology, Brown University

  • 1940: Faculty, Connecticut College for Women

  • 1941 – 45: U.S. Army – research in aviation psychology, perceptual abilities, and human engineering

  • 1945 – 49: Penn State and Connecticut College – research in transfer of training in multi-discrimination motor tasks


Career Highlights

  • 1949 – 1958: U.S. Air Force – director of research related to military training

  • 1958 – 1962: Professor, Princeton University – developed theory of learning hierarchies

  • 1958 – 1961: Consultant to U.S. Dept. of Defense

  • 1962 – 1965: Director of Research, American Institutes for Research

  • 1964 – 1966: Consultant to U.S. Dept. of Education

  • 1966 – 1969: Professor, U.C. Berkeley

  • 1969 – 1986: Florida State University


Major Contributions: Theory

  • Created a unified theory of instruction *

  • Studied learning in real life situations

  • Bridged the paradigm shift between behavioral and cognitive learning psychology *

  • Influenced a generation of research and theory-building (e.g., David Merrill, Charlie Reigeluth)

  • Published 148 works (at least)


Major Contributions: Practice

  • Profoundly influenced instructional design for K-12 education, military, and business/industry

  • Led major curriculum development projects

    • AAAS: Science – A Process Approach

    • University of MD: Mathematics Project

  • Founded and designed the instructional systems graduate program at Florida State University

  • Engineered the ISD Model (Systems Approach) *


Instructional Design Models

Five “Families”:

Behavioral

Cognitive (Information Processing)

Cognitive (Discovery)

Humanistic

Social


Behavioral Models

  • Reinforce it!


Behavioral Models

  • Attend only to behavior (observable)

  • Specify behavior to be learned

  • Analyze final behavior into smaller components

  • Provide repeated practice and feedback

  • Use shaping techniques as needed

  • Provide reinforcement for correct responses


Cognitive Models(Information Processing)

  • Pour it in!


Cognitive Models(Information Processing)

  • Attend to internal learning processes as well as behavior

  • Compare learning to computer information processing (e.g., storage, retrieval)

  • Provide external support for each stage of internal processing: attention, expectancy, recall of related content, organization of content, storage, practice and feedback, retrieval, retention, transfer


ISD Features

  • Training is geared to specific needs.

  • Learning outcomes are specifiedin advance.

  • Solution is engineered, using research-based principles of learning and instruction.

  • Learning outcomes are measured.

  • Revisions are based on data.


ISD “ADDIE” Steps and Outputs

(Medsker Version)

Analyze

Design

Develop

Implement

Evaluate

  • Performance Requirements

  • Training Requirements

  • Learning Maps

  • Objectives

  • Exercises & Tests

  • Strategies

  • Media Choices

  • Design Document

  • Draft Courseware

  • Formative Evaluation Results

  • Revised Courseware

  • Trained People

  • Training Results

  • Performance Results


Who Uses ISD?

  • U.S. Military Services

  • U.S. Federal Agencies

  • Large Businesses

  • Training and Consulting Firms


Systematically Designed Instruction

  • Valid Meets a real need

  • Reliably EffectiveConsistently achieves objectives

  • EfficientMinimizes training time and cost

  • DocumentedFacilitates maintenance


Gagné’s Theory of Instruction

  • Learning outcomes may be classified by types or domains, which cross subject matter disciplines.

  • Learning outcomes may be analyzed into component and prerequisite skills, which may be “mapped” to define optimal learning sequences.

  • Every complete act of learning involves predictable internal processes that may be supported by specific external instructional events.

  • Different learning outcomes require different conditions.


Gagné’s Taxonomy: Verbal Information

  • Knowing “what” or “that”

  • Being able to recite, state, tell, describe, or explain

  • Learning for recall

  • Challenge is aiding retention

A.K.A. “Declarative Knowledge”


Gagné’s Taxonomy: Intellectual Skills

  • Knowing “how”

  • Being able to classify, diagnose, solve, design, create…

  • Learning for transfer

  • Challenge is enhancing transfer

A.K.A. “Procedural Knowledge”


Gagné’s Taxonomy: Attitudes

  • Personal action choices based on beliefs, feelings, values

  • Choosing a course of action

  • Three parts: belief, feeling, tendency to act

  • Challenge is changing an established attitude


Gagné’s Taxonomy: Motor Skills

  • Performing a physical activity with smoothness and timing

  • Combines mental routines and physical skills

  • Challenge is improving accuracy, consistency, and/or speed


Gagné’s Taxonomy: Cognitive Strategies

  • Managing one’s own thinking and learning

  • May be simple or complex

  • Often used in combination with other types of learning

  • Challenge is how to build and transfer

A.K.A. “Strategic Knowledge”


Theory of Instruction

  • Learning outcomes may be classified by types or domains, which cross subject matter disciplines.

  • Learning outcomes may be analyzed into component and prerequisite skills, which may be “mapped” to define optimal learning sequences.

  • Every complete act of learning involves predictable internal processes that may be supported by specific external instructional events.

  • Different learning outcomes require different conditions.


Instructional Analysis

  • Breakdown of a Task into its Learned Components

Procedural

Hierarchical

Do 

Analyze

Teach 

Teach

AnalyzeDesignDevelopImplementEvaluate


Instructional Analysis

  • Breakdown of a Task into its Learned Components

Combination

Procedural

Hierarchical

AnalyzeDesignDevelopImplementEvaluate


Intellectual Skills Learning Hierarchy

Higher-OrderRule

“Generate” Solution

Rule

Rule

“Demonstrate”Application of Rules

Concept

Concept

“Classify” Concept


Instructional Analysis Benefits

  • Complete Instruction

  • Lean, Efficient Instruction

  • Sequencing Guide

  • Formative Evaluation Guide


Theory of Instruction

  • Learning outcomes may be classified by types or domains, which cross subject matter disciplines.

  • Learning outcomes may be analyzed into component and prerequisite skills, which may be “mapped” to define optimal learning sequences.

  • Every complete act of learning involves predictable internal processes that may be supported by specific external instructional events.

  • Different learning outcomes require different conditions.


Lesson Design


Handcuffing Video

The Nine Events of Instruction

Click the video screen to start the movie.


Theory of Instruction

  • Learning outcomes may be classified by types or domains, which cross subject matter disciplines.

  • Learning outcomes may be analyzed into component and prerequisite skills, which may be “mapped” to define optimal learning sequences.

  • Every complete act of learning involves predictable internal processes that may be supported by specific external instructional events.

  • Different learning outcomes require different conditions.


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