Robert mills gagn 1916 2002
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Robert Mills Gagn é (1916- 2002). Scholar Teacher Mentor. Career Highlights. High School in North Andover, MA 1937: A.B. in psychology, Yale University 1940: Ph.D. in psychology, Brown University 1940: Faculty, Connecticut College for Women

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Robert Mills Gagn é (1916- 2002)

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Robert mills gagn 1916 2002

Robert Mills Gagné (1916- 2002)

  • Scholar

  • Teacher

  • Mentor


Career highlights

Career Highlights

  • High School in North Andover, MA

  • 1937: A.B. in psychology, Yale University

  • 1940: Ph.D. in psychology, Brown University

  • 1940: Faculty, Connecticut College for Women

  • 1941 – 45: U.S. Army – research in aviation psychology, perceptual abilities, and human engineering

  • 1945 – 49: Penn State and Connecticut College – research in transfer of training in multi-discrimination motor tasks


Career highlights1

Career Highlights

  • 1949 – 1958: U.S. Air Force – director of research related to military training

  • 1958 – 1962: Professor, Princeton University – developed theory of learning hierarchies

  • 1958 – 1961: Consultant to U.S. Dept. of Defense

  • 1962 – 1965: Director of Research, American Institutes for Research

  • 1964 – 1966: Consultant to U.S. Dept. of Education

  • 1966 – 1969: Professor, U.C. Berkeley

  • 1969 – 1986: Florida State University


Major contributions theory

Major Contributions: Theory

  • Created a unified theory of instruction *

  • Studied learning in real life situations

  • Bridged the paradigm shift between behavioral and cognitive learning psychology *

  • Influenced a generation of research and theory-building (e.g., David Merrill, Charlie Reigeluth)

  • Published 148 works (at least)


Major contributions practice

Major Contributions: Practice

  • Profoundly influenced instructional design for K-12 education, military, and business/industry

  • Led major curriculum development projects

    • AAAS: Science – A Process Approach

    • University of MD: Mathematics Project

  • Founded and designed the instructional systems graduate program at Florida State University

  • Engineered the ISD Model (Systems Approach) *


Instructional design models

Instructional Design Models

Five “Families”:

Behavioral

Cognitive (Information Processing)

Cognitive (Discovery)

Humanistic

Social


Behavioral models

Behavioral Models

  • Reinforce it!


Behavioral models1

Behavioral Models

  • Attend only to behavior (observable)

  • Specify behavior to be learned

  • Analyze final behavior into smaller components

  • Provide repeated practice and feedback

  • Use shaping techniques as needed

  • Provide reinforcement for correct responses


Cognitive models information processing

Cognitive Models(Information Processing)

  • Pour it in!


Cognitive models information processing1

Cognitive Models(Information Processing)

  • Attend to internal learning processes as well as behavior

  • Compare learning to computer information processing (e.g., storage, retrieval)

  • Provide external support for each stage of internal processing: attention, expectancy, recall of related content, organization of content, storage, practice and feedback, retrieval, retention, transfer


Isd features

ISD Features

  • Training is geared to specific needs.

  • Learning outcomes are specifiedin advance.

  • Solution is engineered, using research-based principles of learning and instruction.

  • Learning outcomes are measured.

  • Revisions are based on data.


Isd addie steps and outputs

ISD “ADDIE” Steps and Outputs

(Medsker Version)

Analyze

Design

Develop

Implement

Evaluate

  • Performance Requirements

  • Training Requirements

  • Learning Maps

  • Objectives

  • Exercises & Tests

  • Strategies

  • Media Choices

  • Design Document

  • Draft Courseware

  • Formative Evaluation Results

  • Revised Courseware

  • Trained People

  • Training Results

  • Performance Results


Who uses isd

Who Uses ISD?

  • U.S. Military Services

  • U.S. Federal Agencies

  • Large Businesses

  • Training and Consulting Firms


Systematically designed instruction

Systematically Designed Instruction

  • Valid Meets a real need

  • Reliably EffectiveConsistently achieves objectives

  • EfficientMinimizes training time and cost

  • DocumentedFacilitates maintenance


Gagn s theory of instruction

Gagné’s Theory of Instruction

  • Learning outcomes may be classified by types or domains, which cross subject matter disciplines.

  • Learning outcomes may be analyzed into component and prerequisite skills, which may be “mapped” to define optimal learning sequences.

  • Every complete act of learning involves predictable internal processes that may be supported by specific external instructional events.

  • Different learning outcomes require different conditions.


Gagn s taxonomy verbal information

Gagné’s Taxonomy: Verbal Information

  • Knowing “what” or “that”

  • Being able to recite, state, tell, describe, or explain

  • Learning for recall

  • Challenge is aiding retention

A.K.A. “Declarative Knowledge”


Gagn s taxonomy intellectual skills

Gagné’s Taxonomy: Intellectual Skills

  • Knowing “how”

  • Being able to classify, diagnose, solve, design, create…

  • Learning for transfer

  • Challenge is enhancing transfer

A.K.A. “Procedural Knowledge”


Gagn s taxonomy attitudes

Gagné’s Taxonomy: Attitudes

  • Personal action choices based on beliefs, feelings, values

  • Choosing a course of action

  • Three parts: belief, feeling, tendency to act

  • Challenge is changing an established attitude


Gagn s taxonomy motor skills

Gagné’s Taxonomy: Motor Skills

  • Performing a physical activity with smoothness and timing

  • Combines mental routines and physical skills

  • Challenge is improving accuracy, consistency, and/or speed


Gagn s taxonomy cognitive strategies

Gagné’s Taxonomy: Cognitive Strategies

  • Managing one’s own thinking and learning

  • May be simple or complex

  • Often used in combination with other types of learning

  • Challenge is how to build and transfer

A.K.A. “Strategic Knowledge”


Theory of instruction

Theory of Instruction

  • Learning outcomes may be classified by types or domains, which cross subject matter disciplines.

  • Learning outcomes may be analyzed into component and prerequisite skills, which may be “mapped” to define optimal learning sequences.

  • Every complete act of learning involves predictable internal processes that may be supported by specific external instructional events.

  • Different learning outcomes require different conditions.


Instructional analysis

Instructional Analysis

  • Breakdown of a Task into its Learned Components

Procedural

Hierarchical

Do 

Analyze

Teach 

Teach

AnalyzeDesignDevelopImplementEvaluate


Instructional analysis1

Instructional Analysis

  • Breakdown of a Task into its Learned Components

Combination

Procedural

Hierarchical

AnalyzeDesignDevelopImplementEvaluate


Intellectual skills learning hierarchy

Intellectual Skills Learning Hierarchy

Higher-OrderRule

“Generate” Solution

Rule

Rule

“Demonstrate”Application of Rules

Concept

Concept

“Classify” Concept


Instructional analysis benefits

Instructional Analysis Benefits

  • Complete Instruction

  • Lean, Efficient Instruction

  • Sequencing Guide

  • Formative Evaluation Guide


Theory of instruction1

Theory of Instruction

  • Learning outcomes may be classified by types or domains, which cross subject matter disciplines.

  • Learning outcomes may be analyzed into component and prerequisite skills, which may be “mapped” to define optimal learning sequences.

  • Every complete act of learning involves predictable internal processes that may be supported by specific external instructional events.

  • Different learning outcomes require different conditions.


Lesson design

Lesson Design


Handcuffing video

Handcuffing Video

The Nine Events of Instruction

Click the video screen to start the movie.


Theory of instruction2

Theory of Instruction

  • Learning outcomes may be classified by types or domains, which cross subject matter disciplines.

  • Learning outcomes may be analyzed into component and prerequisite skills, which may be “mapped” to define optimal learning sequences.

  • Every complete act of learning involves predictable internal processes that may be supported by specific external instructional events.

  • Different learning outcomes require different conditions.


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