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Chapter 14: Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood

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Chapter 14: Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood. The Transition from Adolescence to Adulthood. The transition to adulthood: Occurs in adolescence. Begins in biology and ends in culture. Is usually marked by full-time employment.

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slide1
Chapter 14:

Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood

slide2
The Transition

from

Adolescence

to Adulthood

slide3
The transition to adulthood:
    • Occurs in adolescence.
    • Begins in biology and ends in culture.
    • Is usually marked by full-time employment.
    • Is marked by economic independence.
    • Involves accepting responsibility and consequences for one’s behaviors and choices.
    • Is influenced by self-perceptions.
  • College graduates are increasingly returning to live with parents while seeking economic independence.
slide5
Adult status in developing countries is often marked by marriage occurring much earlier than in the United States.
  • Personal and social assets linked to emerging adulthood sense of well-being:
    • Intellectual skills.
    • Psychological skills.
    • Social skills.
  • Transition from high school to college:
    • Has positive and negative aspects.
    • Can be very stressful.
slide6
Sources of stress can be:
    • Academic (exams, grades, competition).
    • Personal (relationships, parental conflicts).
    • Economic (balancing work, school).
    • Psychological (emotional situations).
  • There are many ways, good and bad, to cope.
  • An increasing number of people are seeking higher education, as the U.S. is a more educated country.
  • What makes college students happy?
slide9
Early adulthood:
    • Average peak physical performance is between ages 19 and 26 (under 30), and this includes athletes.
    • Usually during this time people are healthiest.
    • Most college students know what behaviors will prevent illness and promote health.
    • This is a time when most pleasures involve physical resources.
  • Gender and ethnicity are related to health behaviors and beliefs.
slide10
Substance abuse in young adulthood:
    • Heavy binge drinking in college affects academic performance and personal life.
    • Binge drinking increases risk of having unprotected sex.
    • Use of alcohol and drugs lessens in the mid-twenties for most.
  • Globally, differences in alcohol use are affected by culture, religion, and gender.
slide11

45

40

19-20

23-24

35

27-28

30

15-16

25

20

15

10

5

0

13-14

17-18

21-22

25-26

29-30

Age (years)

Binge Drinking in the Adolescence –Early Adulthood Transition

Percentage participants

Figure 14.6

slide12
Alcoholism: a disorder that impairs one’s life:
    • One in nine of those who drink becomes an alcoholic.
    • Genetics and environmental factors are involved.
    • By age 65, the “one-third rule” applies—one-third recover whether or not they are in a treatment program.
    • Certain factors can predict a recovery.
    • Various strategies exist for reducing alcohol use.
  • Fewer people smoke today than in the past:
    • More is known about the risks of smoking.
    • Nicotine addiction prevents many from quitting.
    • Health risks decrease when one quits smoking.
slide13
Addiction:
    • Strong dependency on alcohol, drugs, tobacco.
    • Withdrawal symptoms affect physical functioning.
  • There are 2 ways of looking at addiction:
    • Disease model stresses biological influences.
    • Life-process model stresses habitual behavior in relationships and with regard to one’s environment.
slide15
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs):
    • A variety of different diseases contracted primarily through sex.
    • Affect about 1 of every 6 U.S. adults.
    • AIDS has had a greater impact than any other:
      • HIV destroys the body’s immune system.
      • It is a global epidemic causing high death rates and fear; the greatest concerns are in Africa.
      • U.S. deaths are declining.
      • There are strategies to protect against AIDS.
slide17
Sexual harassment and rape involve the use of power.
  • Rape: sexual intercourse without consent:
    • Definitions vary among U.S. states.
    • Victims are often reluctant to report it.
    • It occurs most frequently in large cities.
    • Actual rates are unknown.
    • Male social training is blamed for high rates in U.S., almost 200,000 rapes reported annually.
  • Rape is a traumatic experience for victims and those close to them; recovery varies among victims.
slide18
There is increasing concern about acquaintance or date rape:
    • Coercive sex with a person known by the victim.
    • Rates appear highest for adolescent and college freshman women.
    • Strategies exist to reduce risks of date rape.
  • Sexual harassment takes many forms in many settings:
    • It involves use of power for sexual exploitation.
    • More women than men are victims.
    • Victims can suffer serious psychological damage.
    • It is illegal and can be eliminated.
slide20
Piaget: adolescents and adults think qualitatively in the same way—formal operational thought.
  • Others believe idealism decreases as young adults enter world of work and face constraints of reality.
  • Perry: as the young move into adulthood, dualistic/absolute thinking changes into reflective/relativistic thinking.
  • Some believe cognitive changes in young adults create a postformal stage of thought—qualitatively different from Piaget’s stage of formal operational thought.
slide21
Creativity peaks in adulthood as evidenced by some existing great works in the arts and science.
  • Decline begins in the 50s but varies by domain and individual characteristics.
  • Creative people have been found to experience a heightened state of pleasure when engaging in absorbing mental and physical challenges.
  • A creative life includes cultivating one’s curiosity through a variety of behavioral strategies.
slide22
Careers

and

Work

slide23
Many developmental changes occur during work and career, including changes in one’s personality and value system.
  • Holland proposed 6 basic career-related personalities, but people are more complex and varied than this.
  • A more important aspect of choosing a career is matching it up with a diversity of important values.
  • The Occupational Outlook Handbook, revised every two years, assists with monitoring new jobs and growth.
  • Education is essential to getting a high-paying job.
slide24

Realistic: doing things (manual activities)

Conventional: working with details (clerical tasks)

Investigative: thinking (intellectual professions)

Enterprising: persuading others (sales & management)

Artistic: creating with materials (jobs rare)

Social: helping people (teaching & counseling)

Holland’s Model of Personality Types and Career Choices

Fig. 14.10

slide25
Work defines people in many fundamental ways, and most spend about 1/3 of their lives working full-time.
  • Work settings are linked to stress and health problems; and yet, inability to work for an extended period causes emotional stress and low self-esteem.
  • Most college students work 26 hours or more per week.
  • Colleges offer co-op and internship programs that provide work experiences in many occupational areas.
slide26

60

50

40

30

20

Percentage who reported a negative influence on their grades

10

0

1 - 15

16 - 20

35 or more

Hours worked per week

The Relation of Hours Worked Per Week in College to Grades

Fig. 14.11

slide27
Unemployment creates stress and increases feelings of helplessness in both men and women, but intensity varies among individuals based on additional factors.
  • Dual-career couples make up the majority of workers in American society:
    • Division of responsibility for family had changed.
    • Social attitudes and values are changing.
  • Single-earner married families are the minority of workers in American society.
  • The workplace has become increasingly diverse.
slide28

Changes in the Percentage of U.S. Traditional and Dual-Career Couples

45

Dual-earner couples

40

35

Percentage

30

25

20

Traditional couples

15

1967

1971

1975

1979

1983

1987

1991

1995

1999

Year

Fig. 14.12

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