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slide1

Treatment of Psychological DisordersC:\Users\mburt\Desktop\AP Psych\psych disorders\video\Sheldon the Therapist - The Big Bang Theory.mp4

introduction
Introduction
  • History of treatment - Maltreatment of the insane throughout the ages was the result of irrational views. Many patients were subjected to strange, debilitating, & downright dangerous treatments. C:\Users\mburt\Desktop\AP Psych\Therapy\239_Early_Treatment_Mental_Disorders.mp4
    • Philippe Pinel: France
    • Dorothea Dix: US/CA
    • founded humane movements to care for the mentally sick.
therapies
Therapies

Psychotherapy involves an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and a mental patient.

Biomedical therapyuses drugs or other procedures that act on the patient’s nervous system, treating his or her psychological disorders.

AnEclectic approachuses various forms of healing techniques depending upon the client’s unique problems.

psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis
  • PsychoanalysisSigmund Freud’s therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient’s free associations, resistances, dreams, & transferences – & the therapist’s interpretations of them – released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight.
  • When energy devoted to id-ego-superego conflicts is released, the patient’s anxiety lessens.
  • - 4:09 C:\Users\mburt\Desktop\AP Psych\psych disorders\video\Application of Psychoanalytic Therapy.flv
  • Aims of therapy
    • Childhood impulses & conflicts
psychoanalysis methods
PsychoanalysisMethods
  • Free association
  • Resistancein psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
    • Interpretation in psychoanalysis, analyst’s noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, & other significant behaviors & events in order to promote insight of the meaning
  • Dream analysis
  • Transference
psychoanalysis methods at work
Psychoanalysis: Methods at work

During free association, the patient edits his thoughts, resisting his or her feelings to express emotions. Such resistance becomes important in the analysis of conflict-driven anxiety.

Eventually the patient opens up & reveals his or her innermost private thoughts, developing positive or negative feelings (transference) towards the therapist. C:\Users\mburt\Desktop\AP Psych\psych disorders\video\Psychoanalysis - explained.mp4

slide8
Psychoanalysis C:\Users\mburt\Desktop\AP Psych\Therapy\247_Psychodynamic_Therapies.mp4 Psychodynamic Therapy
  • therapy deriving from the Freud’s psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces & childhood experiences, & that seeks to enhance self-insight
    • Aims of psychodynamic therapy ….understand symptoms & themes across important relationships in a patient’s life.
    • Similarities & Differences to psychoanalysis

Interpersonal psychotherapy, a variation of psychodynamic therapy, is effective in treating depression. It focuses on symptom relief here & now, not an overall personality change.

humanistic therapies
Humanistic Therapies
  • Insight therapies a variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client’s awareness of underlying motives & defenses. focus more on:
    • the present rather than the past
    • conscious rather than the unconscious
    • taking immediate responsibility
    • promoting growth instead of curing
humanistic therapies1
Humanistic Therapies
  • Client-centered therapy(AKA person-centered therapy.) Humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate client’s growth.
    • Nondirective therapy
    • Genuineness, acceptance, & empathy
    • Active listeningempathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, & clarifies.
      • Paraphrase
      • Invite clarification
      • Reflect feelings
    • Unconditional positive regard
slide11
Behavior Therapies C:\Users\mburt\Desktop\AP Psych\Therapy\244_Cognitive_and_Behavioral_Therapies.mp4
  • Behavior Therapy- therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors. Focus: the ACTION, not the thought patterns associated with the behavior, doesn’t look for the “inner cause”
    • Classical conditioning techniques
      • We learn various behaviors & emotions via classical conditioning
    • Operant conditioning techniques
      • Behavior modification – reinforces desired behaviors & withholding reinforcement for undesired behaviors or punishments
behavior therapies classical conditioning therapies
Behavior TherapiesClassical Conditioning Therapies

Counterconditioningbehavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; Includes 242_Drug_Addiction.mp4

  • Exposure therapies behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; Includes
    • Systematic desensitization
    • Virtual reality exposure therapy
  • Aversive conditioningassociates unpleasant state (e.g. nausea) with unwanted behavior (e.g. alcohol).
slide15

Behavior TherapiesAversion Therapy

Short term success

(66%)

Long term less successful (33%)

Often used in combo with other treatments

behavior therapies operant conditioning
Behavior TherapiesOperant Conditioning
  • Behavior modification- reinforce desired behaviors withholding reinforcement for undesired behavior or punishment. Can work b/c a behavior strongly influenced by consequences. (effective with autism, retardation, schizophrenia). Rewards used to modify behavior vary from praise, to attention to more concrete rewards, food.
    • Raises ethical Questions
    • Token economyoperant conditioning procedure. People earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior & can later exchange tokens for various privileges/treats. Successful in various settings, cultures, & many mental disorders.
cognitive therapies
Cognitive Therapies
  • Cognitive therapythat teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking & acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene btwn events & our emotional reactions
    • Aaron Beck’s therapy for depression
      • Catastrophizing beliefs- recurring negative themes of loss, rejection, abandonment, self-blaming & over generalizing that perpetuate existing feelings of depression
    • Cognitive-behavioral therapypopular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) w/ behavior therapy (changing behavior). Seeks to restructure thinking (retrain) people to restructure negative thinking 249_OCD.mp4
beck s therapy for depression
Beck’s Therapy for Depression

Aaron Beck (1979) suggests that depressed patients believe that they can never be happy (thinking) and thus associate minor failings (e.g. failing a test [event]) in life as major causes for their depression.

Beck believes that cognitions such as “I can never be happy” need to change in order for depressed patients to recover. This change is brought about by gently questioning patients.

cognitive therapy
Cognitive Therapy

Teaches people adaptive ways of thinking & acting based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events & our emotional reactions.

stress inoculation training
Stress Inoculation Training

Meichenbaum trained people to restructure their thinking in stressful situations.

“Relax, the exam may be hard, but it will be hard for everyone else too. I studied harder than most people. Besides, I don’t need a perfect score to get a good grade.”

group family therapies
Group & Family Therapies

Utilized by all Therapy Types accept Psychoanalysis

Group Therapy

  • saves therapists’ time & client’s money.
  • As is often no less effective than individual therapy
  • Occurs 1 time a week for about 90 minutes
  • Unique benefit: the social context allows people both to discover that others have problems similar to their own & to receive feedback as they try out new ways of behaving

Family therapy

  • treats the family as a system
  • guides family members toward positive relationships & improved communication.
slide22

Group & Family Therapies

  • Methods & Goals & Participation
    • Family therapists work with family groups to heal relationships and to mobilize family resources
    • to help family members discover the role they play within their family’s social system
    • To open up communication within the family or the help family members discover new ways of preventing or resolving conflicts
    • Self-help support groups are widely used & require a high live of involvement for success
      • Great for stigmatized illnesses (AIDS, Alcoholism, Anorexia, etc)
evaluating therapies
Evaluating Therapies

Who do people turn to for help with psychological difficulties?

is psychotherapy effective
Is Psychotherapy Effective?

It is difficult to gauge the effectiveness of psychotherapy because there are different levels upon which its effectiveness can be measured.

  • Does the patient sense improvement?
  • Does the therapist feel the patient has improved?
  • How do friends and family feel about the patient’s improvement?
client s perceptions
Client’s Perceptions

If you ask clients about their experiences of getting into therapy, they often overestimate its effectiveness. Critics however remain skeptical.

  • Clients enter therapy in crisis, but crisis may subside over the natural course of time (regression to normalcy).
  • Clients may need to believe the therapy was worth the effort.
  • Clients generally speak kindly of their therapists.
clinician s perceptions
Clinician’s Perceptions

Like clients, clinicians believe in therapy’s success. They believe the client is better off after therapy than if the client had not taken part in therapy.

  • Clinicians are aware of failures, but they believe failures are the problem of other therapists.
  • If a client seeks another clinician, the former therapist is more likely to argue that the client has developed another psychological problem.
  • Clinicians are likely to testify to the efficacy of their therapy regardless of the outcome of treatment.
outcome research
Outcome Research

How can we objectively measure the effectiveness of psychotherapy?

is psychotherapy effective1
Is Psychotherapy Effective?

Client & Clinician perceptions of therapy’s effectiveness are vulnerably to inflation from 2 Phenomena

  • Placebo effect & Regression toward the Mean the tendency for extreme or unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average. Pg 702

Client’s perceptions- justify & overly positive (placebo effect or belief in a treatment = Placebo Treatment or expectation of relief analogous with a reward)

Clinician’s perceptions- seem to mainly recognize only other clinician’s failures 251_Therapeutic_Effectiveness.mp4

  • Outcome research
    • Meta-analysisa procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies.
outcome research1
Outcome Research

Meta-analysis of a # of studies suggests that 1000s of patients benefit more from therapy than those who did not go to therapy.

Research shows that treated patients were 80% better than untreated ones.

the relative effectiveness of different therapies
The Relative Effectiveness of Different Therapies

Which psychotherapy would be most effective for treating a particular & specific problem?

evaluating alternative therapies
Evaluating Alternative Therapies

Eye movement desensitization & reprocessing (EMDR) therapist attempts to unlock & reprocess previous frozen traumatic memories by waving a finger in front of the eyes of the client.

    • EMDR has not held up under scientific testing.
  • Light exposure therapy
    • Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) a form of depression, has been effectively treated by light exposure therapy.
    • This form of therapy has been scientifically validated.
commonalities among psychotherapies
Commonalities Among Psychotherapies

Three commonalities shared by all forms of psychotherapies are the following:

  • Hope for demoralized people
  • A fresh perspective
  • An empathic, trusting, caring relationship
culture values in psychotherapy
Culture & Values in Psychotherapy

Psychotherapists may differ from each other & from clients in their personal beliefs, values, & cultural backgrounds.

A therapist search should include visiting two or more therapists to judge which one makes the client feel more comfortable.

therapists their training
Therapists & Their Training

Clinical psychologists: They have PhDs mostly. They are experts in research, assessment, and therapy, all of which is verified through a supervised internship.

Clinical or Psychiatric Social Worker (LCSW):They have a Masters of Social Work. Postgraduate supervision prepares some social workers to offer psychotherapy, mostly to people with everyday personal and family problems.

therapists their training1
Therapists & Their Training

Counselors:Pastoral counselors or abuse counselors work with problems arising from family relations, spouse and child abusers & their victims, & substance abusers.

Psychiatrists:They are physicians who specialize in the treatment of psychological disorders. Not all psychiatrists have extensive training in psychotherapy, but as MDs they can prescribe medications.

introduction1
Introduction
  • Biomedical therapy - prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient’s nervous system.
    • Drug therapy
    • Brain Stimulation (Electroconvulsive therapy), Magnetic impulses
    • Psychosurgery
    • Psychiatrist
drug therapies
Drug Therapies
  • Psychopharmacologythe study of the effects of drugs on mind & behavior

Factors to consider with drug therapy

    • Normal recovery rate of untreated patients
    • Recovery due to Placebo effect
      • Double blind procedure

To test the effectiveness of a drug, patients are tested with the drug & a placebo. 2 groups of patients & medical health professionals are unaware of who is taking the drug & who is taking the placebo.

In such studies several drugs have proven useful in treating Psych Disorders`

slide46

Drug Therapies

Psychopharmacology is the study of drug effects on mind & behavior.

drug therapies1
Drug Therapies

However, many patients are left homeless on the streets due to their ill-preparedness to cope independently outside in society.

Les Snider/ The Image Works

drug therapies2
Drug Therapies
  • Antipsychotic drugsdrugs used to treat schizophrenia & other forms of severe thought disorder
    • Psychoses
    • Chlorpromazine (Thorazine)classical antipsychotic : remove a number of positive symptoms associated with schizophrenia, such as agitation, delusions, & hallucinations (dampens the responsiveness to irrelevant stimuli)
    • Patients with negative symptoms, (withdrawal or apathy) often do not respond well to these drugs
drug therapies3
Drug Therapies

Antipsychotic drugs

  • Dopamine–Block this neurotransmitter. Molecules are small enough to occupy the dopamine receptor sites, blocking its activity. This reinforces the belief that overactive dopamine system contributes to schizophrenia.
  • Side Effects : tremors, sluggishness, twitches, & Tardivedyskinesia involuntary movements of the facial muscles/tongue/limbs; possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of drugs that target certain dopamine receptors. (D2 receptors)

NEW GENERATION of Anti psychotic drugs- target D1 receptors & have fewer side effect. BUT these drugs (clorazipine, Risperdal, Zyprxa) not more effective & increase risk of obesity & diabetes & require extreme monitoring to manage the proper dosage

atypical antipsychotic
Atypical Antipsychotic

Clozapine (Clozaril) blocks receptors for dopamine & serotonin to remove the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Eg. apathy, jumbled thoughts, concentration difficulties, & difficulties in interacting with others

Also helps those with positive symptoms that did not respond to other drugs.

Side Effect:

May cause toxic effect on white blood cells

drug therapies antianxiety drugs
Drug TherapiesAntianxiety Drugs
  • Antianxiety drugsdrugs used to control anxiety & agitation
    • Xanax, Ativan, D-cycloserine
    • Physiological dependence
antianxiety drugs
Antianxiety Drugs

Antianxiety drugs (Xanax & Ativan) depress the central nervous system & reduce anxiety & tension by elevating the levels of the Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter.

drug therapies antidepressant drugs
Drug TherapiesAntidepressant Drugs
  • Antidepressant drugsdrugs used to treat depression; also increasingly prescribed for anxiety. Different types work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters.
    • Use with mood & anxiety disorders
    • Fluoxetine (Prozac), Paxil
      • Selective-serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)
      • Neurogenesis
    • Side effects of anti- depressants
slide57

Drug TherapiesAntidepressant Drugs

Antidepressant drugs like Prozac, Zoloft, & Paxil are Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) that improve the mood by elevating levels of serotonin by inhibiting reuptake.

drug therapies mood stabilizing medications
Drug TherapiesMood-Stabilizing Medications
  • Mood-stabilizing medications
    • Lithium
    • Depakote

Lithium Carbonate, a common salt, has been used to stabilize manic episodes in bipolar disorders.

It moderates the levels of norepinephrine & glutamate neurotransmitters.

brain stimulation electroconvulsive therapy
Brain StimulationElectroconvulsive Therapy
  • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) used for severely depressed patients who do not respond to drugs.
    • Procedure- The patient is anesthetized &given a muscle relaxant. Patients usually get a 100 volt shock that relieves them of depression.
    • Severe depression
    • Problems/side effects
brain stimulation alternative neurostimulation therapies
Brain StimulationAlternative Neurostimulation Therapies
  • Magnetic Stimulation
    • Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulations (rTMS)- the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the prefrontal regions brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity
  • Deep-Brain Stimulation
psychosurgery
Psychosurgery

Psychosurgery was popular even in Neolithic times.

Although used sparingly today, about 200 such

operations do take place in the US alone.

http://www.epub.org.br

psychosurgery1
Psychosurgery

Psychosurgery is used as a last resort in alleviating psychological disturbances.

Psychosurgery is irreversible. Removal of brain tissue changes the mind.

psychosurgery2
Psychosurgery
  • Psychosurgerysurgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
    • Lobotomya now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain
      • History
      • Procedure
      • Side effects
      • Use today
preventing psychological disorders
Preventing Psychological Disorders

“It is better to prevent than cure.”

Peruvian Folk Wisdom

Preventing psychological disorders means removing the factors that affect society.

Those factors may be poverty, meaningless work, constant criticism, unemployment, racism, & sexism.

therapeutic life style change
Therapeutic Life-Style Change
  • Integrated biopsychosocial system
  • Therapeutic life-style change
    • Aerobic exercise
    • Adequate sleep
    • Light exposure
    • Social connection
    • Anti-rumination
    • Nutritional supplements
preventing psychological disorders2
Preventing Psychological Disorders
  • Resiliencethe personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma.
  • Preventing psychological disorders
teacher information
Teacher Information
  • Types of Files
    • This presentation has been saved as a “basic” Powerpoint file. While this file format placed a few limitations on the presentation, it insured the file would be compatible with the many versions of Powerpoint teachers use. To add functionality to the presentation, teachers may want to save the file for their specific version of Powerpoint.
  • Animation
    • Once again, to insure compatibility with all versions of Powerpoint, none of the slides are animated. To increase student interest, it is suggested teachers animate the slides wherever possible.
  • Adding slides to this presentation
    • Teachers are encouraged to adapt this presentation to their personal teaching style. To help keep a sense of continuity, blank slides which can be copied and pasted to a specific location in the presentation follow this “Teacher Information” section.
teacher information1
Teacher Information
  • Hyperlink Slides - This presentation contain two types of hyperlinks. Hyperlinks can be identified by the text being underlined and a different color (usually purple).
    • Unit subsections hyperlinks: Immediately after the unit title slide, a page (slide #3) can be found listing all of the unit’s subsections. While in slide show mode, clicking on any of these hyperlinks will take the user directly to the beginning of that subsection. This allows teachers quick access to each subsection.
    • Bold print term hyperlinks: Every bold print term from the unit is included in this presentation as a hyperlink. While in slide show mode, clicking on any of the hyperlinks will take the user to a slide containing the formal definition of the term. Clicking on the “arrow” in the bottom left corner of the definition slide will take the user back to the original point in the presentation.

These hyperlinks were included for teachers who want students to see or copy down the exact definition as stated in the text. Most teachers prefer the definitions not be included to prevent students from only “copying down what is on the screen” and not actively listening to the presentation.

For teachers who continually use the Bold Print Term Hyperlinks option, please contact the author using the email address on the next slide to learn a technique to expedite the returning to the original point in the presentation.

teacher information2
Teacher Information
  • Continuity slides
    • Throughout this presentation there are slides, usually of graphics or tables, that build on one another. These are included for three purposes.
      • By presenting information in small chunks, students will find it easier to process and remember the concepts.
      • By continually changing slides, students will stay interested in the presentation.
      • To facilitate class discussion and critical thinking. Students should be encouraged to think about “what might come next” in the series of slides.
  • Please feel free to contact me at [email protected] with any questions, concerns, suggestions, etc. regarding these presentations.

Kent Korek

Germantown High School

Germantown, WI 53022

262-253-3400

[email protected]

division title green print subdivision title blue print1
Division title (green print)subdivision title (blue print)

Use this slide to add a table, chart, clip art, picture, diagram, or video clip. Delete this box when finished

definition slide
Definition Slide

= add definition here

eclectic approach
Eclectic Approach

= an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client’s problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy.

psychotherapy
Psychotherapy

= treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth.

psychoanalysis1
Psychoanalysis

= Sigmund Freud’s therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient’s free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences – and the therapist’s interpretations of them – released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight.

resistance
Resistance

= in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material.

interpretation
Interpretation

= in psychoanalysis, the analyst’s noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight.

transference
Transference

= in psychoanalysis, the patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent).

psychodynamic therapy
Psychodynamic Therapy

= therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight.

insight therapies
Insight Therapies

= a variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client’s awareness of underlying motives and defenses.

client centered therapy
Client-centered Therapy

= a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate client’s growth. (Also called person-centered therapy.)

active listening
Active Listening

= empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Roger’s client-centered therapy.

unconditional positive regard
Unconditional Positive Regard

= a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients to develop self-awareness and self-acceptance.

behavior therapy
Behavior Therapy

= therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors.

counterconditioning
Counterconditioning

= a behavior therapy procedure that used classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning.

exposure therapies
Exposure Therapies

= behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid.

systematic desensitization
Systematic Desensitization

= a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.

virtual reality exposure therapy
Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy

= an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking.

aversive conditioning
Aversive Conditioning

= a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol).

token economy
Token Economy

= an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.

cognitive therapy1
Cognitive Therapy

= therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions.

cognitive behavioral therapy
Cognitive-behavioral Therapy

= a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior).

family therapy
Family Therapy

= therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual’s unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members.

regression toward the mean
Regression Toward the Mean

= the tendency for extreme or unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average.

meta analysis
Meta-analysis

= a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies.

evidence based practice
Evidence-based Practice

= clinical decision-making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences.

biomedical therapy
Biomedical Therapy

= prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient’s nervous system.

psychopharmacology
Psychopharmacology

= the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior.

antipsychotic drugs
Antipsychotic Drugs

= drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder.

tardive dyskinesia
Tardive Dyskinesia

= involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target certain dopamine receptors.

antianxiety drugs1
Antianxiety Drugs

= drugs used to control anxiety and agitation.

antidepressant drugs
Antidepressant Drugs

= drugs used to treat depression; also increasingly prescribed for anxiety. Different types work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters.

electroconvulsive therapy ect
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

= a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient.

repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation rtms
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)

= the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity.

psychosurgery3
Psychosurgery

= surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior.

lobotomy
Lobotomy

= a now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain.

resilience
Resilience

= the personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma.

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