Treatment of Psychological Disorders C:\Users\mburt\Desktop\AP Psych\psych disorders\video\Sheldon the Therapist - The Big Bang Theory.mp4. Introduction.
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Treatment of Psychological DisordersC:\Users\mburt\Desktop\AP Psych\psych disorders\video\Sheldon the Therapist - The Big Bang Theory.mp4
Psychotherapy involves an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and a mental patient.
Biomedical therapyuses drugs or other procedures that act on the patient’s nervous system, treating his or her psychological disorders.
AnEclectic approachuses various forms of healing techniques depending upon the client’s unique problems.
During free association, the patient edits his thoughts, resisting his or her feelings to express emotions. Such resistance becomes important in the analysis of conflict-driven anxiety.
Eventually the patient opens up & reveals his or her innermost private thoughts, developing positive or negative feelings (transference) towards the therapist. C:\Users\mburt\Desktop\AP Psych\psych disorders\video\Psychoanalysis - explained.mp4
Interpersonal psychotherapy, a variation of psychodynamic therapy, is effective in treating depression. It focuses on symptom relief here & now, not an overall personality change.
Counterconditioningbehavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; Includes 242_Drug_Addiction.mp4
Behavior TherapiesAversion Therapy
Short term success
Long term less successful (33%)
Often used in combo with other treatments
Aaron Beck (1979) suggests that depressed patients believe that they can never be happy (thinking) and thus associate minor failings (e.g. failing a test [event]) in life as major causes for their depression.
Beck believes that cognitions such as “I can never be happy” need to change in order for depressed patients to recover. This change is brought about by gently questioning patients.
Teaches people adaptive ways of thinking & acting based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events & our emotional reactions.
Meichenbaum trained people to restructure their thinking in stressful situations.
“Relax, the exam may be hard, but it will be hard for everyone else too. I studied harder than most people. Besides, I don’t need a perfect score to get a good grade.”
Utilized by all Therapy Types accept Psychoanalysis
Who do people turn to for help with psychological difficulties?
It is difficult to gauge the effectiveness of psychotherapy because there are different levels upon which its effectiveness can be measured.
If you ask clients about their experiences of getting into therapy, they often overestimate its effectiveness. Critics however remain skeptical.
Like clients, clinicians believe in therapy’s success. They believe the client is better off after therapy than if the client had not taken part in therapy.
How can we objectively measure the effectiveness of psychotherapy?
Client & Clinician perceptions of therapy’s effectiveness are vulnerably to inflation from 2 Phenomena
Client’s perceptions- justify & overly positive (placebo effect or belief in a treatment = Placebo Treatment or expectation of relief analogous with a reward)
Clinician’s perceptions- seem to mainly recognize only other clinician’s failures 251_Therapeutic_Effectiveness.mp4
Meta-analysis of a # of studies suggests that 1000s of patients benefit more from therapy than those who did not go to therapy.
Research shows that treated patients were 80% better than untreated ones.
Which psychotherapy would be most effective for treating a particular & specific problem?
Eye movement desensitization & reprocessing (EMDR) therapist attempts to unlock & reprocess previous frozen traumatic memories by waving a finger in front of the eyes of the client.
Three commonalities shared by all forms of psychotherapies are the following:
Psychotherapists may differ from each other & from clients in their personal beliefs, values, & cultural backgrounds.
A therapist search should include visiting two or more therapists to judge which one makes the client feel more comfortable.
Clinical psychologists: They have PhDs mostly. They are experts in research, assessment, and therapy, all of which is verified through a supervised internship.
Clinical or Psychiatric Social Worker (LCSW):They have a Masters of Social Work. Postgraduate supervision prepares some social workers to offer psychotherapy, mostly to people with everyday personal and family problems.
Counselors:Pastoral counselors or abuse counselors work with problems arising from family relations, spouse and child abusers & their victims, & substance abusers.
Psychiatrists:They are physicians who specialize in the treatment of psychological disorders. Not all psychiatrists have extensive training in psychotherapy, but as MDs they can prescribe medications.
Factors to consider with drug therapy
To test the effectiveness of a drug, patients are tested with the drug & a placebo. 2 groups of patients & medical health professionals are unaware of who is taking the drug & who is taking the placebo.
In such studies several drugs have proven useful in treating Psych Disorders`
Psychopharmacology is the study of drug effects on mind & behavior.
However, many patients are left homeless on the streets due to their ill-preparedness to cope independently outside in society.
Les Snider/ The Image Works
NEW GENERATION of Anti psychotic drugs- target D1 receptors & have fewer side effect. BUT these drugs (clorazipine, Risperdal, Zyprxa) not more effective & increase risk of obesity & diabetes & require extreme monitoring to manage the proper dosage
Clozapine (Clozaril) blocks receptors for dopamine & serotonin to remove the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Eg. apathy, jumbled thoughts, concentration difficulties, & difficulties in interacting with others
Also helps those with positive symptoms that did not respond to other drugs.
May cause toxic effect on white blood cells
Antianxiety drugs (Xanax & Ativan) depress the central nervous system & reduce anxiety & tension by elevating the levels of the Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter.
Drug TherapiesAntidepressant Drugs
Antidepressant drugs like Prozac, Zoloft, & Paxil are Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) that improve the mood by elevating levels of serotonin by inhibiting reuptake.
Lithium Carbonate, a common salt, has been used to stabilize manic episodes in bipolar disorders.
It moderates the levels of norepinephrine & glutamate neurotransmitters.
Brain StimulationAlternative Neurostimulation Therapies
Psychosurgery was popular even in Neolithic times.
Although used sparingly today, about 200 such
operations do take place in the US alone.
Psychosurgery is used as a last resort in alleviating psychological disturbances.
Psychosurgery is irreversible. Removal of brain tissue changes the mind.
“It is better to prevent than cure.”
Peruvian Folk Wisdom
Preventing psychological disorders means removing the factors that affect society.
Those factors may be poverty, meaningless work, constant criticism, unemployment, racism, & sexism.
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= an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client’s problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy.
= treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth.
= Sigmund Freud’s therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient’s free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences – and the therapist’s interpretations of them – released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight.
= in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material.
= in psychoanalysis, the analyst’s noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight.
= in psychoanalysis, the patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent).
= therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight.
= a variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client’s awareness of underlying motives and defenses.
= a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate client’s growth. (Also called person-centered therapy.)
= empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Roger’s client-centered therapy.
= a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients to develop self-awareness and self-acceptance.
= therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors.
= a behavior therapy procedure that used classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning.
= behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid.
= a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.
= an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking.
= a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol).
= an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.
= therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions.
= a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior).
= therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual’s unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members.
= the tendency for extreme or unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average.
= a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies.
= clinical decision-making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences.
= prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient’s nervous system.
= the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior.
= drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder.
= involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target certain dopamine receptors.
= drugs used to control anxiety and agitation.
= drugs used to treat depression; also increasingly prescribed for anxiety. Different types work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters.
= a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient.
= the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity.
= surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior.
= a now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain.
= the personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma.