The global village international and comparative media systems
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The Global Village: International and Comparative Media Systems. International Media Systems. Global Print Media – Newspapers General or financial The International Herald Tribune USA Today International WorldPaper The Financial Times of London The Economist The Wall Street Journal.

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The Global Village: International and Comparative Media Systems

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The global village international and comparative media systems

The Global Village: International and Comparative Media Systems


International media systems

International Media Systems

  • Global Print Media – Newspapers

    • General or financial

    • The International Herald Tribune

    • USA Today International

    • WorldPaper

    • The Financial Times of London

    • The Economist

    • The Wall Street Journal


International media systems1

International Media Systems

  • Global Print Media – Wire Services

    • International flow of news dominated by global wire services

    • Reuters

    • Associated Press

    • Agence France Presse

    • ITAR-TASS

    • New York Times Syndicate

    • Los Angeles Times Syndicate


International media systems2

International Media Systems

  • Global Print Media – Magazines

    • Reader’s Digest – 49 editions in 200 countries

    • Time (International)– 190 countries

    • Newsweek (International)– ½ M readers

    • Cosmopolitan – 41 countries

    • Popular Mechanics (Spanish version)

      – Latin America

    • Business Week


International media systems3

International Media Systems

  • Global Broadcasting

  • Shortwave or partnerships with local FM

  • 150 countries broadcast internationally

    • BBC World Service

    • Voice of America

    • Radio China International

    • Deutsche Welle (“German Wave”)

    • Radio France International

    • Growing rapidly: global news, sports, and music channels (CNNi, CNBC, BBC World, MTV, ESPNi)


International media systems4

International Media Systems

  • Film and TV

  • Internationally, USA dominates

    • Box office (½ revenue of average film)

    • Videocassette and DVD ($20B+ in 2004)

    • TV programs (non-prime-time)

    • TV program format licenses (Jeopardy, Temptation Island)

  • Cross-border spillover


World media online

World Media Online

  • Web radio stations

  • Newspapers and magazines

    • New York TimesLe Monde

    • Die WeltLondon Times

    • Asahi ShimbunSydney Morning Herald

    • Asia WeekBeat

    • Tokyo JournalArt Bin

  • Email and newsgroups enable informal exchange of news and culture

  • WWW access not globally accessible


Comparative media systems

Comparative Media Systems

  • Authoritarian Theory

    • 16th Century England

    • Parallel with development of printing press

    • The ruling elite guides the low-intelligence masses

    • Public dissent and criticism are a threat

    • Compliance of the press through

      • LicensingCensorship Exclusive printing rights

      • Punishment of government critics


Comparative media systems1

Comparative Media Systems

  • Libertarian Theory

    • Diametrically opposed to authoritarian beliefs

    • Matched freewheeling, rugged early America

    • Assumes people are intelligent creatures

    • Government exists to serve the individual

    • Citizens need to hear all sides of an issue

    • Government serves best when it serves least

    • The press should be free from control

    • Four theories of the Press (1956)


Comparative media systems2

Comparative Media Systems

  • Social Responsibility Theory

    • Press has right to criticize government

    • Press also has responsibility to preserve democracy

      • Properly informing the public

      • Responding to society’s needs and interests

    • Press not free to do as it pleases

    • Government may regulate press in the public interest (example: FCC and broadcasting)

    • Many Western nations use this approach


Comparative media systems3

Comparative Media Systems

  • The Communist Theory

    • Media are owned by the people (represented by the state)

    • The purpose of the media is to support the Marxist system and achieve the goals of the state

    • Works best in a tightly controlled society

    • Example: use of spillover by BBC, VOA, CNN, and others into Communist countries


Comparative media systems4

Comparative Media Systems

  • The Developmental Theory

    • Government can mobilize the media to serve national goals in economic and social development

    • Goals include:

    • Information must be managed by the government

    • Primarily used in non-democratic developing countries

    • Losing ground to the social responsibility approach

eradication of disease

economic self-sufficiency

political integration

raising literacy levels


Comparative media systems5

Comparative Media Systems

Figure 17-1 Theories of Media-Government Relationships


Comparative media systems6

Comparative Media Systems

Figure 17-2 Typology of Media Ownership and Control


Comparative media systems7

Comparative Media Systems

  • Role of the media in various countries

    • Developmental – develop and build; support government; provide technical information

    • Communist – propaganda, persuasion, and education

    • Social responsibility – inform, entertain, government watchdog and adversary, consumer support, free marketplace of ideas

  • Economic Differences


Comparative media systems8

Comparative Media Systems

  • Economic Differences

    • USA – advertising, little government support

    • Western Europe

      • Some indirect subsidies

      • Scandinavia – direct support of newspapers by political parties

      • U.K. – BBC is state-charted, independents sell advertising

    • Communist – direct support by government, plus advertising

    • Less-developed countries – developmental journalism


Examples of other systems

Examples of Other Systems

  • Japan

    • Social responsibility model

    • 127M people; literacy nearly 100%

    • 120 newspapers with 69M total circulation

      • Yomiuri ShimbunAsahi Shimbun

    • Several news and business magazines

    • Nippon Hoso Kyokai patterned after BBC; yearly license fee imposed on all TV sets

    • 5 commercial channels and 2 cable

    • Pioneers in DBS and HDTV

    • Media-rich overall


Examples of other systems1

Examples of Other Systems

  • Mexico

    • Developmental model

    • 106M people; literacy rate 90%

    • 300 daily papers with 10M total circulation

      • Excelsior (Mexico City)

    • 200 magazines, best-known is Vanidades (Televisia)

    • Government has controlled media through

      • Supply of newsprint Broadcasting permits

      • Bribing journalists

    • Radio and TV based on U.S. system

    • Produces telenovelas for Latin America

    • Significant media content flow to USA


Examples of other systems2

Examples of Other Systems

  • China

    • Communist model

    • 2000 newspapers with 200M circulation

    • Several national newspapers

      • People’s Daily Xinmin Evening News China Daily

    • 100 financial newspapers; 10,000 magazines

    • Rural population relies on radio

    • 650 radio stations reach 95% of population

    • TV penetration at 90%

    • Limits on imports, foreign news, satellite dishes

    • Internet penetration 7%


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