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Why Johnny Cannot Operate Jacob Perry, MD University of Kentucky College of Medicine Department of Surgery Grand Rounds October 28 th , 2009 Disclaimers Before we get started: Not intended to hurt anyone’s feelings IS intended to be a discussion about resident education

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Why johnny cannot operate l.jpg

Why Johnny Cannot Operate

Jacob Perry, MD

University of Kentucky College of Medicine

Department of Surgery

Grand Rounds

October 28th, 2009



Before we get started l.jpg
Before we get started:

  • Not intended to hurt anyone’s feelings

  • IS intended to be a discussion about resident education

  • Some of this will sound familiar

  • No personal agenda

  • Discussion of 80 hour work weeks and rest periods

  • If you behave, I will continue

    Do NOT freak out

    (I have no financial disclosures)


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Why Johnny Cannot Operate

  • Richard H. Bell Jr., MD

  • Assistant Executive Director, American Board of Surgery (ABS)

  • Presidential Address:

    • Central Surgical Society Meeting, May 2009

  • Article printed:

    • Surgery, Sep 2009; 146(533-42)

*

*Now has mustache


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Why Johnny Cannot Operate

“I CONSIDER THE PERFORMANCE OF SURGICAL OPERATIONS to be the MOST complex psychomotor activity that human beings are called upon to perform. In the arts, athletics, games, and other realms of human activity, I have found nothing that matches the difficulty of surgery.”


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Rate of Complication

  • 13% morbidity all comers in US surgery

  • 2% postoperative mortality

  • Spawned “Patient safety movement”

  • 2/3 of death & disability due to intraoperative complication

  • Intraoperative Mistakes:

    • 63.5% = Error in technique

    • 29% = Error in judgment

  • Both types can be attributed to LACK OF EXPERIENCE



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Source Unknown doctors?

“You were always a good doctor, just had bad hair”


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Where to start? doctors?

  • Operative Skill is learned, not innate

  • Current operative experience of general surgery residents vs. surgical expertise

  • Teaching and learning in the OR

  • Transferable skills?

  • Where do we go from here?


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Learned Operative Skill doctors?

Operative Skill (at least):

  • Technical skills

  • Visio-spatial and tactile skills

  • Determination of pathologic vs. normal conditions

  • Ability to make good judgments

    No traits are possessed A PRIORI:

  • Some may be born to BECOME surgeons, but

    NO ONE IS BORN A SURGEON


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    n. An ordinary fellow from another town - doctors?Mark Twain

    n. A man fifty miles from home with a briefcase - Will Rogers

    Expert


    Expertise l.jpg
    Expertise doctors?

    EXPERTISE: n, the mechanisms underlying the superior achievement of an expert

    i.e. "one who has acquired special skill in or knowledge of a particular subject through professional training and practical experience”

    • - K Anders Ericsson, FSU Cognitive and Expertise Lab



    Competency based on dreyfus model l.jpg
    Competency doctors?(based on Dreyfus model)

    • Novice

    • Advanced Beginner

    • Competent *BARE MINIMUM

    • Proficient *GOAL @ END OF 5 YRS

    • Expert

      • 10,000 hours of dedicated practice

      • 8 hours per day x 5 years!



    Operative experience of new general surgery residents l.jpg

    Hot topic at ACS/AAST meetings this year doctors?

    Generally perceived as poor nowadays by the “old guard”*

    Begs the question:

    Can Johnny Operate?

    Operative Experience of “New” General Surgery Residents

    *Anecdotal, but just ask any of ‘em. They will tell you all about it


    Are residents competent l.jpg
    Are residents competent? doctors?

    • Surgical residency program directors

    • Rank 300 ACGME index cases according to necessity for competency

    • A = “essential”

    • B = “should be”

    • C = “not necessary”

    • 121 operations were “essential” components of GS resident training by majority of PD’s (n=114/254)


    Results l.jpg
    Results… doctors?

    • Review of ACGME op log for 2005 graduating chief residents

    • Of 121 “essential” cases:

      • #1: lap ccy; median (M) cases reported= 84/resident

      • #38: M<5 cases

      • #74: M< 2 cases


    Were shocking l.jpg
    …were shocking doctors?

    • 52% (63/121) “essential” cases: mode number of cases/resident = ZERO

    • Cases such as:

      • CBDE

      • Transanal excision

      • Whipple

      • Anal Fistulotomy


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    Could the data be skewed? doctors?

    • Most cases reported were bottom heavy

    • e.g. Parathyroidectomy mean <10, Mode 4

    YIKES!!!


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    Operative Experience doctors?

    • 70% agree/strongly agree they are happy with their operative experience

    • Per Dr. Bell (anecdotally)

      • Chiefs & Attendings concerned about skill set and independent operative skill of graduating residents

      • Fellowship directors are “unimpressed” by the quality of applicant’s surgical skill…

    • Will residents be the source of agitation for change in the operative experience?

      • According to Bell, No. Instead increased number to pursue fellowships

      • I ask, “Why not?”


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    Sure, why not? doctors?

    So… we need to do more parathyroidectomies?


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    10,000 hours to becoming an expert doctors?

    • 80hrs x 49wks x 5yrs = 19600hrs/residency

    • Dr. Bell’s method:

      1. 121 essential cases x hour value per case

      2. Mean number of cases x hour value per case

    • The global data:

      • # hrs OR on “essential” cases/resident = 1,148

      • 6% of 80-hour work week = ½ day in OR/wk

      • Chung, et al., reported 2793 hours (14%)

        in OR when ALL cases included


    The uk data l.jpg
    The UK data doctors?

    • Caseload per M&M data

    • Hours per case (my best guess)

    • 80-hour work week

    • Double scrub cases count for both residents

    • Limitations:

      • 4 residents on vacation

      • 4 services not represented (SGR/TXP/STJ/MHD)

      • Poor M&M recording


    The uk results l.jpg
    The UK Results doctors?

    OR time per resident (n=16):

    Overall 9.1 h/wk/res = 11.4%

    PGY5 11.5 h/wk/res = 14.4%

    PGY4 16.5 h/wk/res = 20.1%

    PGY3 5.5h/wk/res = 6.5%

    PGY2 1.16h/wk/res = 1.5%

    PGY1 0.3h/wk/res = 0.4%


    1 st annual gabriel bietz busiest resident award l.jpg
    1 doctors?st annual Gabriel Bietz busiest resident award

    21.5 hrs/wk = 26.9%

    The Enterprise thanks Gabe for single handedly doubling the workload at UK Good Samaritan


    Uk data by service l.jpg

    SGB 44.75 hr = 11.2% doctors?

    Endo 2.5 = 3.1%

    PDS 17.75 = 22.2%

    SGG 11.5 = 4.8%

    SGO 12.5 = 15.7%

    CT 4.5 = 5.6%

    VAGS 11 = 13%

    VAVASC 11.5 = 14.3%

    Caveats:

    - No breast “fellow”

    - No vascular junior

    - Only one Categorical on PDS (intern vacation)

    - VAGS PGY3 on vacation

    UK Data by service


    Conclusions about uk l.jpg
    Conclusions about UK doctors?

    • We Own Johnny

    • Overall, above average amount of time in OR

    • Juniors underrepresented in data because of Morehead, but still lacking OR time

    • Does not tell us much about what is actually going on in the OR




    Dearth of information l.jpg
    Dearth of information doctors?

    • Relative lack of papers written on teaching of residents in operating room

    • Recent trend of evaluating skill acquisition in simulation labs (minimally invasive labs, technical skills) in the literature

    • Surgical education vs. Surgical teaching


    Ideal world l.jpg

    According to Bell: doctors?

    Resident comes prepared

    Practiced on simulator

    Resident briefed by attending day prior

    “Read a book”

    Post-Op debriefing

    Standardized grading tool & National database

    Feedback analysis on attending teaching and resident learning

    Video review and note taking post-op to review difficult areas & improve in future

    Ideal world


    Current world l.jpg
    Current world doctors?

    According to Bell:

    • Unprepared resident

    • Uninformed about patient

    • Uneducated about steps of operation

    • Goes through motions

    • Feedback: “good job” & “make the incision look nice”

    • Resident moves on to lunch, flirting with nurses, whatever…

    • Lather, rinse, repeat.


    Somewhere in between l.jpg

    Somewhere in between doctors?

    Reality?


    Obstacles to learning l.jpg
    Obstacles to learning doctors?

    • Bad timing/change in practices

    • Ideas of teaching/learning at odds

    • Minimal scientific studies

    • Poor/useless assessment tools

    • Outside influences

      • Pressure to produce

    • Supervision of teaching

      • Who is watching those who watch the residents?

    • 80 hour work week




    Pugh et al l.jpg
    Pugh et al doctors?.

    • Asked Attendings @ ACS:

      • Which areas do residents need to study to be better prepared to perform an operation?

    • Asked Residents @ ACS:

      • What do you need to understand better to be prepared to perform an operation?


    The rankings l.jpg
    The Rankings doctors?


    So what does that mean l.jpg
    So what does that mean? doctors?

    a) Are we all just too incompatible?

    b) Do we have to break up?

    c) Are residents untrainable?

    d) Are attendings bad at teaching?

    e) NONE OF THE ABOVE


    Transferable skills l.jpg
    Transferable skills doctors?

    • Idea that skills can be transferred between procedures

    • e.g. Ileocolic 2 layer anastamosis  esophagogastric 2 layer anastomosis

    • Parathyroidectomy  thyroidectomy

    • Maybe it is the same…

    • But what about mobilizing right vs left colon?


    Read a book l.jpg
    Read a book! doctors?

    • Not good enough

    • Research shows we need multiple exposures to procedures to develop rich, detailed mental models

    • Even “master surgeons” can do it all because, for the most part, they have done it all!


    Where do we go from here l.jpg
    Where do we go from here? doctors?

    • National, accurate electronic data collection on resident case loads

      • Can be built into computerized case records

    • Interim evaluations of resident operative experience

      • UK already does this (good job, Dr. Endean)

    • National standard change for case requirements

      • Current index requirement >10 % of previous

      • No repercussions for individuals, just programs


    Where do we go from here44 l.jpg
    Where do we go from here? doctors?

    • Make operative skill a required, testable competency

      • They actually used to do this

      • Too expensive, subjective for PPPHs/administrators

      • Should be the job of the residency right?

    • Study and improve teaching in the operating room

      • This is a fascinating idea

      • Video evidence is abundant

      • Resident opinions are abundant too…


    Where do we go from here45 l.jpg
    Where do we go from here? doctors?

    • Scheme for teaching

      • Briefing, intraoperative teaching, debriefing

      • S.C.O.R.E. modules

    • Standardized, validated resident evaluation tools

      • Pay attention to them

    • Simulation

      • Seems to work pretty well for laparoscopy

      • Don’t confuse learning with teaching

      • Pie in the sky?


    Slide46 l.jpg

    MRB doctors?



    Maximum resident benefit48 l.jpg
    Maximum Resident Benefit doctors?

    Those days are long gone…

    • Hospital regulations on supervision

    • Malpractice

      • Has been identified as a potential factor in decreased resident volumes

    • Pressure to be efficient

      • Long operative times are bad

        • More infections (thanks Levi)

        • More money

      • Decreased operative times/staffing issues


    Slide49 l.jpg
    MRB doctors?

    • Can’t just operate on everyone who rolls in…

    • Other things to do

      • Lots of clinic

      • 80 hours

      • Call coverage

      • ESS/trauma workups

      • Research

    Do not fall asleep near this man


    Slide50 l.jpg

    Resident case logs show decreasing number of 1st assist & teaching cases

    Bell suggests, (and I personally agree) allowing modest increase in operative times & resident autonomy in training facilities

    Supervision determined by resident operative ability

    The short term benefits of faster/”safer” surgery may be detrimental to development of proficient surgical residents

    MRB


    Slide51 l.jpg
    MRB teaching cases

    • Necessary to identify and maximize good teaching behaviors.

    • Evaluations of teachings need to fulfill 4 criteria

      • New Knowledge

      • Value

      • How to change

      • Motivation


    Characteristics of good teaching l.jpg
    Characteristics of good teaching teaching cases

    • Answers questions clearly

    • Confident in role as surgeon and teacher

    • Provides feedback without belittling

    • Remains calm and courteous

    • Exhibits fairness toward House officers, no favorites

    • Role models good interaction w/ OR staff

    • Explains reasons for actions/decisions

    • Allows learners to feel pathology

    • Demonstrates respect for patient

    • Teaches with enthusiasm


    80 hours l.jpg
    80 hours teaching cases

    YES!!!


    80 hours54 l.jpg
    80 hours teaching cases

    • Enacted in 2003

    • Will not be reduced in near future

    • Alterations in duty hours to be studied and implemented by 2011

    • Have destroyed attendings’ will to live.

    • Make residents look soft


    Does 80 hrs hurt residents l.jpg
    Does 80-hrs hurt residents? teaching cases

    • According to Most:

      • Decreased sense of responsibility

      • Decreased ownership

      • Less motivation

      • Weaker work ethic when entering residency

      • Decreased learning due to outside lives

    • According to Bell:

      • Further limits time available to be in the OR


    According to me l.jpg
    According to me teaching cases

    • Agree with some of the previous

    • Changes the way we are perceived by older surgeons

    • Does limit patient care time

      Limits OR time, and thus experience

    • Does NOT make me less motivated.

    • No change in sense of patient ownership

    • Duty hours not residents’ choice

      • Average age of US congressman= 56.7y, senators=61.7

      • Average age of ACGME task force on resident duty hours?

        • Actually I don’t know, but not < 35, guaranteed!


    Future directions l.jpg
    Future directions teaching cases

    • Increasing operative exposure (esp for juniors)

    • Attend to teaching in the OR

    • Will everyone have to specialize?

    • SCORE/Simulation

    • Longer residencies?

    • Maybe they should study what we do here…


    So why can t johnny operate l.jpg
    So, Why Can’t Johnny Operate? teaching cases

    He is inexperienced

    He didn’t come to UK


    References l.jpg
    References teaching cases

    • Bell, RH, Why Johnny Cannot Operate, Surgery Sep 2009; 146(533-42)

    • A.A. Gawande, M.J. Zinner, D.M. Studdert and T.A. Brennan, Analysis of errors reported by surgeons at three teaching hospitals, Surgery133 (2003), pp. 614–621.

    • P.J. Fabri and J.L. Zayas-Castro, Human error, not communication and systems, underlies surgical complications, Surgery144 (2008), pp. 557–563.

    • K.A. Ericsson, Deliberate practice and acquisition of expert performance: a general overview, Acad Emerg Med151 (2008), pp. 988–994.

    • R.H. Bell Jr., T.W. Biester, A.W. Tabuenca, R.S. Rhodes, J.B. Cofer and L.D. Britt et al., Operative experience of residents in US general surgery programs: a gap between expectation and experience, Ann Surg249 (2009), pp. 719–724.

    • R.S. Chung, How much time do surgical residents need to learn operative surgery?, Am J Surg190 (2005), pp. 351–353


    More references l.jpg
    More References teaching cases

    • C.M. Pugh, D.A. DaRosa, D. Glenn and R.H. Bell Jr., A comparison of faculty and resident perception of resident learning needs in the operating room, J Surg Educ64 (2007), pp. 250–255.

    • J.C. Kairys, K. McGuire, A. Crawford and C.J. Yeo, Cumulative operative experience is decreasing during general surgery residency: a worrisome trend for surgical trainees?, J Am Coll Surg206 (2008), pp. 804–813.

    • R.H. Bell, Surgical council on resident education: a new organization devoted to graduate surgical education, J Am Coll Surg204 (2007), pp. 341–346.

    • .L. Larson, R.G. Williams, J. Ketchum, M.L. Boehler and G.L. Dunnington, Feasibility, reliability and validity of an operative performance rating system for evaluating surgical residents, Surgery138 (2005), pp. 640–649.

    • Iwaszkiewicz M, Darosa DA, Risucci DA. Efforts to enhance operating room teaching J Surg Educ. 2008 Nov-Dec;65(6):436-40.

    • S.S. Cox and M.S. Swanson, Identification of teaching excellence in operating room and clinic settings, Am J Surg183 (2002), pp. 251–255.

    • Procter LD, Davenport DL, Bernard AC et al. General Surgical Operative Duration is Associated with Increased-Risk Adjusted Infectious Complication Rates and Length of Hospital Stay. JACS. In Press, January 2009.


    Questions comments l.jpg
    Questions, Comments? teaching cases


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