which e business is right for your supply chain
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Which E-Business is Right for Your Supply Chain?. What is E-Business?. E-business is a collection of business models and processes motivated by Internet technology, and focusing on improving the extended enterprise performance

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what is e business
What is E-Business?
  • E-business is a collection of business models and processes motivated by Internet technology, and focusing on improving the extended enterprise performance
  • E-commerce is the ability to perform major commerce transactions electronically
    • e-commerce is part of e-Business
    • Internet technology is the driver of the business change
    • The focus is on the extended enterprise:
      • Intra-organizational
      • Business to Consumer (B2C)
      • Business to Business (B2B)
  • The Internet can have a huge impact on supply chain performance.
what is e business3
What is E-Business?
  • Business transacted over the Internet
    • Is product information displayed on the Internet?
    • Is negotiation over the Internet?
    • Is the order placed over the Internet?
    • Is the order tracked over the Internet?
    • Is the order fulfilled over the Internet?
    • Is payment transacted over the Internet?
the retail industry
The Retail Industry
  • Brick-and-mortar companies establish virtual retail stores
    • Wal-Mart, K-Mart, Barnes & Noble, Circuit City
  • An effective approach - hybrid stocking strategy
    • High volume/fast moving products for local storage
    • Low volume/slow moving products for browsing and purchase on line (risk pooling)
  • Danger of channel conflict
existing channels for business
Existing Channels for Business
  • Product information
    • Physical stores, EDI, catalogs, face to face, Negotiation
    • Face to face, phone, fax, sealed bids, …
  • Order placement
    • Physical store, EDI, phone, fax, face to face, …
  • Order tracking
    • EDI, phone, fax, …
  • Order fulfillment
    • Customer pick up, physical delivery
potential revenue opportunities from e business
Potential Revenue Opportunities from E-Business
  • Direct sales to customers
  • 24 hour access for order placement
  • Information aggregation
  • Information sharing in supply chain
  • Flexibility on pricing and promotion
  • Price and service discrimination
  • Faster time to market
  • Efficient funds transfer - reduce working capital
potential cost opportunities from e business
Potential Cost Opportunities from E-Business
  • Direct customer contact for manufacturers
  • Coordination in the supply chain
  • Customer participation
  • Postpone product differentiation to after order is placed
  • Downloadable product
  • Reduce facility costs
  • Geographical centralization and resulting reduction in inventories
basic evaluation framework
Basic evaluation framework
  • How does going on line impact revenues?
  • How does going on line impact costs?
    • Facility (site + personnel)
    • Inventory
    • Transportation
    • Information
  • Should the e-commerce channel position itself for efficiency or responsiveness?
  • Who in the supply chain can extract most value?
  • Is the value to existing players or new entrants?
the computer industry dell on line
The Computer Industry: Dell on-line

Customer Order and

Manufacturing Cycle

Procurement cycle




Order Arrives

potential opportunities exploited by dell
Potential opportunities exploited by Dell
  • Revenue opportunities
    • 24 hour access for order placement
    • Direct sales
    • Providing customization and large selection information
    • Flexibility on pricing and promotion
    • Faster time to market
    • Efficient funds transfer - reduce working capital
  • Revenue negatives
    • Longer response time than store and no help with selection
potential opportunities exploited by dell11
Potential opportunities exploited by Dell
  • Cost opportunities
    • Direct sales eliminating intermediary
    • Customer participation: Call center & catalog costs
    • Information sharing in supply chain
    • Reduce facility costs
    • Geographical Centralization and reduced inventories
    • Postpone product differentiation to after order is placed using product platforms and common components
  • Outbound transportation costs increase
  • Significant, but must be combined with component commonality, and build to order. Must move product customization to pull phase of supply chain and hold inventories as common components during the push phase
  • Opportunity most significant for new, hard to forecast products
  • Complements strength of existing retail channels
retailing amazon com



Warehouse (?)





Retail Store

Retailing: Amazon.com



Amazon Supply Chain

Bookstore Supply Chain

potential opportunities exploited by amazon
Potential opportunities exploited by Amazon
  • Revenue opportunities
    • 24 hour access for order placement
    • Providing large selection and other information
    • Attract customers who do not want to go to store
    • Flexibility on pricing
    • Efficient funds transfer
  • Revenue negatives
    • Intermediary (distributor) reduces margin
    • Longer response time than bookstore
potential opportunities exploited by amazon15
Potential opportunities exploited by Amazon
  • Cost opportunities
    • Reduce facility costs
    • Geographical centralization and reduced inventories: Most effective for low volume, hard to forecast books, least effective for high volume best sellers
  • Cost increases
    • Outbound transportation costs increase
    • Handling cost increase
  • Going on-line, by itself, offers lower cost advantages (may be some disadvantages) than in Dell model given current form of books
  • Cost and availability advantages are more significant for low volume books
  • On-line channel has significant cost benefit if books are downloadable
how should bookstore chains react
How should bookstore chains react?
  • An on line channel allows it to match Amazon’s revenue advantages
  • Use a hybrid approach in stocking and pricing
    • High volume books for local storage
    • Low volume books for browsing and purchase on line
    • Pricing varies by delivery and pick up option
grocery on line

Warehouse (?)




Grocery on-line


Online Grocer


On-Line Supply Chain

Supermarket Supply Chain

potential opportunities for on line grocer
Potential opportunities for on line grocer
  • Revenue opportunities
    • Attract customers who do not want to go to supermarket
    • Out of town customers for specialty items
    • Menus and other value added
  • Cost opportunities
    • Reduced facility costs (sites as well as checkout clerks)
    • Inventory savings from centralization (primarily for slow moving, specialty items)
added costs for online grocer
Added costs for online grocer
  • Additional outbound transportation cost: Have to cover the last mile to the customer
  • Additional picking and packing costs
  • Negligible opportunity to compete on cost, except maybe for specialized low volume items
  • Competition has to be on convenience or some other form of value added
  • To lower delivery cost disadvantage, must be more than on-line grocery
  • Greatest opportunity may be for supermarket chains to expand value offering
key messages

All are achieved if product is downloadable

Key Messages
  • Some supply chains are better suited to exploit the cost benefits of going on-line
    • Ability to increase processes in pull phase
    • Ability to delay product differentiation
    • Big inventory benefit from geographical centralization
    • Significant facility cost reduction on centralization
    • Transport to customer is a small fraction of product cost
b2b w w grainger
B2B: W.W. Grainger
  • Revenue opportunities
    • 24 hour access for order placement
    • Large selection information with simple search
    • Display of substitutable products
    • Flexibility on pricing and promotion
    • Ability to alert customer of order status
    • Faster time to market
b2b w w grainger24
B2B: W.W. Grainger
  • Cost opportunities
    • Reduced order taking costs
    • Reduced order placement costs for customers
    • Reduced error because of multiple data entry
    • Reduced catalog costs
b2b freemarkets
B2B: FreeMarkets
  • The worldwide market for direct materials procurement is approximately $5 trillion, with the U.S. segment at approximately $1 trillion

Morgan Stanley Dean Witter Internet Industry Research

FreeMarkets is a B2B Internet company that creates online auctions for procurers of direct materials

  • MSDW Claim: FreeMarkets’ clients typically achieve savings of 2% to 25%
b2b matching base demand and capacity
B2B: Matching Base Demand and Capacity
  • Potential opportunities
    • Ability to reach more bidders and get lower unit price
  • Key questions
    • What does it do to total cost of material?
    • How many bidders do you need to achieve this?
    • How does this impact cooperative relationships within supply chain?
    • Does intermediary provide any value?
b2b matching demand shortage and surplus capacity
B2B: Matching Demand Shortage and Surplus Capacity
  • Potential opportunities
    • Ability to aggregate and display all available surplus capacity
    • Better match of surplus capacity and unmet demand

Best provided by an intermediary

  • Key issue
    • Total cost (product + transportation + …) must be accounted for in the auction
key messages28
Key Messages
  • Significant B2B opportunity to use Internet to reduce cost and improve efficiency of existing processes
  • Significant B2B opportunity to improve collaboration within existing supply chains
  • Auction opportunity for B2B is primarily for matching demand shortage with surplus capacity, not for base load
e business opportunities
E-business Opportunities:
  • Reduce Facility Costs
    • Eliminate retail/distributor sites
  • Reduce Inventory Costs
    • Apply the risk-pooling concept
      • Centralized stocking
      • Postponement of product differentiation
  • Use Dynamic Pricing Strategies to Improve Supply Chain Performance
e business opportunities30
E-business Opportunities:
  • Supply Chain Visibility
    • Reduction in the Bullwhip Effect
      • Reduction in Inventory
      • Improved service level
      • Better utilization of Resources
    • Improve supply chain performance
      • Provide key performance measures
      • Identify and alert when violations occur
      • Allow planning based on global supply chain data
distribution strategies
Distribution Strategies
  • Warehousing
  • Direct Shipping
    • No DC needed
    • Lead times reduced
    • “smaller trucks”
    • no risk pooling effects
  • Cross-Docking
cross docking
Cross Docking
  • In 1979
    • Kmart had 1891 stores and average revenues per store of $7.25 million
    • Wal-Mart was a small niche retailer in the South with only 229 stores and average revenues under $3.5 million
  • 10 Years later
    • Wal-Mart had
      • highest sales per square foot of any discount retailer
      • highest inventory turnover of any discount retailer
      • Highest operating profit of any discount retailer.
      • Today Wal-Mart is the largest and highest profit retailer in the world
    • Kmart ????
what accounts for wal mart s remarkable success
What accounts for Wal-Mart’s remarkable success
  • A focus on satisfying customer needs
    • providing customers access to goods when and where they want them
    • cost structures that enable competitive pricing
  • This was achieved by way the company replenished inventory the centerpiece of its strategy.
  • Wal-Mart employed a logistics technique known as cross-docking
    • goods are continuously delivered to warehouses where they are dispatched to stores without ever sitting in inventory.
  • This strategy reduced Wal-Mart’s cost of sales significantly and made it possible to offer everyday low prices to their customers.
characteristics of cross docking
Characteristics of Cross-Docking:
  • Goods spend at most 48 hours in the warehouse
  • Cross Docking avoids inventory and handling costs,
  • Wal-Mart delivers about 85% of its goods through its warehouse system, compared to about 50% for Kmart
  • Stores trigger orders for products.
industry benchmarks number of distribution centers
Industry Benchmarks:Number of Distribution Centers

Food Companies




# of





- High margin product

- Service not important (or

easy to ship express)

- Inventory expensive

relative to transportation

- Low margin product

- Service very important

- Outbound transportation

expensive relative to inbound

Sources: CLM 1999, Herbert W. Davis & Co; LogicTools

e fulfillment
  • How have strategies changed?
    • From shipping cases to single items
    • From shipping to a relatively small number of stores to individual end users
  • What is the difference between on-line and catalogue selling?
  • Consider for instance Land’s End which has both channels