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Westward Expansion and the Mexican War. HIS 103. Trails to the West. Mexico loosely controlled northern provinces John Frémont & Kit Carson explored Rockies in 1840s Oregon Country jointly ruled by Britain & U.S. Buchanan-Pakenham Treaty (1846) divided Oregon in half at 49 th parallel.

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trails to the west
Trails to the West
  • Mexico loosely controlled northern provinces
  • John Frémont & Kit Carson explored Rockies in 1840s
  • Oregon Country jointly ruled by Britain & U.S.
    • Buchanan-Pakenham Treaty (1846) divided Oregon in half at 49th parallel

Copyright 2000, Bedford/St. Martin’s Press

manifest destiny
Manifest Destiny
  • Coined by N.Y. journalist John O’Sullivan in 1845
  • Symbolized belief that superior white, Christian civilization was destined to rule continent
  • Jackson’s Indian removal policy meant to clear the way for this
  • Ft. Laramie Conference (1851) began process of confining Plains Indians to reservations

American Progress, by

John Gast (1872)

the lone star republic
The Lone Star Republic
  • Adams-Onís Treaty (1819) settled boundary with Mexico & added Florida
  • Mexico permitted American settlement, 1824-1830
    • Organized by empresarios like Stephen Austin
    • 20,000 Americans in Texas by 1830
  • Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna became dictator of Mexico in 1834
  • Sam Houston led Texas Revolution in 1836
    • The Alamo (Feb. 23 – March 6, 1836) & Goliad Massacre (March 20) spurred rebels
    • Santa Anna captured at San Jacinto (April 21) & forced to grant Texas independence

Copyright 2000, Bedford/St. Martin’s Press

The Alamo

slide5
San Jacinto Monument

Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

annexing texas
Annexing Texas
  • Jackson tried to buy all of northern Mexico in 1835, but refused to submit annexation treaty in 1836
  • John Quincy Adams staged 3-week filibuster in 1838 to prevent annexation
  • 1844 annexation treaty defeated when Secretary of State John Calhoun explicitly linked it to defense & expansion of slavery
  • Became key issue in 1844 campaign
    • James Polk demanded Oregon & Texas
    • Henry Clay backpedaled at last minute, costing him N.Y. & election
  • Lame-duck Congress passed joint resolution annexing Texas in 1845

Sam Houston

polk provokes a war
Polk Provokes a War
  • John Slidell sent to Mexico, Dec. 1845
    • Offered $25 million for California, New Mexico & territory north of Rio Grande
    • Rejected by resentful Mexican gov’t
  • Polk ordered Gen. Zachary Taylor’s troops to north bank of Rio Grande
    • Nueces River was boundary
    • Claimed “American blood shed on American soil”
  • Whigs opposed war, but voted to fund it to show patriotism
the mexican war 1846 1848
The Mexican War (1846-1848)
  • Taylor’s army won battles of Monterrey (Sept. 1846) & Buena Vista (Feb. 1847)
  • Winfield Scott led amphibious invasion that captured Mexico City in Sept. 1847
  • John Frémont & Stephen Kearny conquered California & New Mexico

Copyright 2000, Bedford/St. Martin’s Press

the results
The Results
  • The cost of war:
    • 12,876 U.S. soldiers dead
    • $98 million
    • Junior officers became Civil War generals
  • Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo (1848):
    • U.S. acquired California, New Mexico & rest of Texas (over 500,000 square miles)
    • 75,000 inhabitants would become U.S. citizens if they chose to stay
    • U.S. paid Mexico $15 million & assumed $3.25 million in U.S. citizens’ claims against Mexico

Gen. Zachary Taylor

Gen. Winfield Scott

war politicized slavery issue
War Politicized Slavery Issue
  • Wilmot Proviso
    • David Wilmot was a Pennsylvania Democrat
    • Banned slavery in all territories acquired from Mexico
  • Calhoun Resolutions
    • John C. Calhoun argued territories were common possession of all states & citizens
    • Forbidding slave owners to bring slaves into territories violated 5th Amendment
  • Popular Sovereignty
    • Lewis Cass was a Michigan Whig turned Democrat
    • Argued each territory should decide slavery issue for itself

David Wilmot

Lewis Cass

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