Traditional vs. Problem Based Approaches to Teaching Introductory Physics
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Traditional vs. Problem Based Approaches to Teaching Introductory Physics 2001 Science Educators’ Conference. David P. Wick Clarkson University Acknowledgements: Michael W. Ramsdell

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Traditional vs. Problem Based Approaches to Teaching Introductory Physics2001 Science Educators’ Conference

David P. Wick

Clarkson University

Acknowledgements: Michael W. Ramsdell

Joseph Hruska


A set of goals established by the a merican a ssociation of p hysics t eachers
A Set of Goals Established by the Introductory PhysicsAmerican Association of Physics Teachers

  • A strong program should emphasize experiential learning, open-ended problem solving and development of analytic and collaborative learning skills.

  • Students should have the opportunity to experience all aspects of scientific analysis including the design, development and executionof a successful experimental investigation.


  • Students should have access to experiences that encourage the development of verbal and mathematical models used to mimic the natural world.

  • A strong program should provide exposure to experimental, theoretical and numericaldevelopment, allowing students to truly master a variety of basic skills in problem solving and data analysis.

    [i]American Association of Physic Teachers, "Goals of the Introductory

    Physics Laboratory," Am. J. Phys. 66, 483-485 (1998).


Outstanding challenges for the scientific community are to: the development of

  • Find innovative methods for achieving these goals.

  • Develop tools for assessing the performance of our students and the effectiveness of our methods.


Physics education research is a work in progress
Physics Education Research is a work in progress… the development of

  • PER has logged over three decades worth of scientific investigation with attention given to:

    - Identification of student misconceptions.

    - Development of pedagogical strategies to provide a

    more effective learning experience for students.

    - Assessment of educational approaches.


Misconceptions or preconceptions
Misconceptions or Preconceptions? the development of

  • Student minds are not blank slates.

  • Many students defend their beliefs from the high seat of experience.

    Student difficulties are not reflections of “stupidity”, but rather deeply rooted and seemingly logical consequences of perception reinforced with personal experience.

    [2]Aarons, A. B.,Teaching Introductory Physics, John Wiley & Sons (1997).

  • Examples are well documented.


Example the concept of velocity
Example: the development of The Concept of Velocity

Ball A

Ball B

Question: Do these two balls ever have the same speed?

Study: 300 student interviews at University of Washington

(calculus-based physics course).

Misconception: The balls have the same speed at the moment one

40% passes or is next to the other. Students associate

“same speed” with “passing” or “same position.”

[3]McDermott, L. C.,“Research on Conceptual Understanding in Mechanics,” Phys.

Today, 37, 24-32 (1984).


Example velocity vs speed
Example: the development of Velocity vs. Speed

Question: A ball is thrown vertically upward from ground level

with an initial speed vo. The ball reaches a maximum

height d and returns to ground level. Which statement

is TRUE?

43% A)     The initial velocity is equal to the final velocity;

32% B)The average velocity for the entire flight is zero;

9% C)     The acceleration on the way down is greater than the

acceleration on the way up;

16% D)     The average acceleration for the entire flight is zero.

Study: 500 student responses at Clarkson University – Exam I

(calculus-based physics course).

Misconceptions: “Velocity” and “Speed” are interchangeable.

Acceleration depends on direction of motion.


We must eliminate misconceptions but students will only accept a scientific concept if
We must eliminate misconceptions, but students will only accept a scientific concept if:

  • They understand the concept.

  • It is believable.

  • It is useful.

  • It conflicts with their current beliefs.

    “Understanding the way students and scientists think is the key to developing more effective methods of science teaching and is itself an intellectual challenge.”

    [4]Reif, F.,“Scientific Approaches to Science Education,” Phys. Today, 39, 48-53 (1986).


Current strategies interactive engagement
Current Strategies: accept a scientific concept if:Interactive Engagement

  • Lecture-based (Peer instruction, Interactive Lectures, …)

  • Recitation-based (Tutorials, Cooperative Problem Solving, …)

  • Lab-based (Projects, Problems, Simulations, …)

  • Combination (Physics by Inquiry, Workshop Physics, Physics Studio …)

    [5]Redish, E.,“New Models of Learning and Teaching,” Conference of Physics Department Chairs (1997).


A typical first-exam grade distribution in accept a scientific concept if:Physics I at Clarkson University:

The bi-modal nature is indicative

of a well prepared and an ill

prepared group.


Traditional laboratory experience
Traditional Laboratory Experience accept a scientific concept if:

Typical Laboratory Manual Contains:

Title

Apparatus – Description of equipment

Introduction – Theory, figures, equations

Procedure – Step 1, Step 2, …

Tables and Graphs, etc.


Current approach lab recitation based
Current Approach accept a scientific concept if:: Lab/Recitation-based

  • Modification of the traditional laboratory / recitationto incorporate a problem based learning experience with an emphasis on open-ended problem solving.

  • Provide students with the opportunity to:

    - Formulate verbal models

    - Develop mathematical models (theoretical and numerical)

    - Design experimental procedures

    - Test the predictive capability of their models.


Problem based learning physics team design program
Problem Based Learning accept a scientific concept if:Physics Team Design Program

  • Current Participation: 10-15 % of class

  • Lecture Component – Traditional

  • Lab/Recitation Component – Problem Based

    “Modeling is the name of the game in the Newtonian

    World”

    [6]Hestenes, David,“Modeling Games in the Newtonian World,”

    Am. J. Phys. 60, 732-748 (1992).


Traditional vs problem based approaches
Traditional vs. Problem Based Approaches accept a scientific concept if:

  • Physics I – Modeling the Motion of a

    Matchbox Car

  • Physics II – Modeling the Motion of an

    Electric Train


Assessment force concepts inventory
Assessment: accept a scientific concept if:Force Concepts Inventory

  • David Hestenes (Arizona State University) and others have developed a quantitativeassessment tool for checking a student's understanding of basic concepts in physics.

  • FCI topics cover the fundamental issues and concepts in Newtonian dynamics.

  • FCI distractors (wrong answers) are “malicious” -- they are based on research that exploits students' most common misconceptions.


Results of the fci are disappointing
Results of the accept a scientific concept if:FCI are Disappointing!

  • Richard Hake (Indiana University) conducted a study of 62 classes (6542 students) from around the country. He showed that for a wide range of initial pre-test scores, the fractional gain is similar for classes of similar instructional method.

  • For Traditionalclasses: h ~ 0.23 +/- 0.04

  • For IE classes: h ~ 0.48 +/-0.14

    [7]Hake, Richard,“Interactive Engagement vs. Traditional Methods,”

    Am. J. Phys. 65, (1995).


Force concepts inventory fci
Force Concepts Inventory accept a scientific concept if:(FCI)


Team design produced significantly higher gains than traditional labs
Team Design Produced Significantly Higher Gains Than accept a scientific concept if:Traditional Labs


Comparison group team design produced significantly higher gains than a comparison group
Comparison Group? accept a scientific concept if:Team Design Produced Significantly Higher Gains Than a Comparison Group


Best of the rest high sat team design even produced higher gains than the high sat group
Best of the Rest? accept a scientific concept if:– High SATTeam Design Even Produced Higher Gains Than the High SAT Group


Comparison table
Comparison Table accept a scientific concept if:


Comparison table1
Comparison Table accept a scientific concept if:


Comparison table2
Comparison Table accept a scientific concept if:


Matchbox car project
Matchbox Car Project accept a scientific concept if:


Modeling the motion of a matchbox tm car
“Modeling the Motion of a Matchbox accept a scientific concept if:TM Car”

Problem Statement:

Develop a theoretical model describing the motion of a MatchboxTM car racing down an arbitrarily shaped track. Your model should describe the velocity of the car at any point along the track. (Identify the most important effects that should be included in this model).

Design an experimental procedure to evaluate the predictive capability of your model.


Facts: accept a scientific concept if:A typical MatchboxTM car has a die-cast body, two axles, and four hard plastic wheels, with a total mass (m) of approx. 50 g. The combined mass of the wheels is less than 3 % of the total mass of the car.

The plastic wheels rotate on the axle through direct contact with a sliding type motion. Air resistance can be accentuated by mounting a shield of varying area.


Developing a theoretical model
Developing a Theoretical Model accept a scientific concept if:

  • Consider the forces acting on the car:

    Frictional Model

    Drag Force Model

  • Applying Newton’s Second Law will allow us to develop a model for the velocity of the car.


Case by Case Assumptions accept a scientific concept if:

Case Agravitational potential andkinetic energies

Case Bsliding friction

Case Ctrack shape

Case Dair resistance


Hierarchical structure of solutions
Hierarchical Structure of Solutions accept a scientific concept if:

This multi-level approach illustrates how each successive stage in model development provides a correction to the previous one.


Designing an experimental procedure
Designing an Experimental Procedure accept a scientific concept if:

Measuring friction and air drag

We can extract values for and kby measuring

the velocity of the car at different points along a flat,

horizontal track using a series of photogates.


Experimental results for a level track
Experimental Results for a Level Track accept a scientific concept if:

0.049 (No Shield)

k=1.48 x 10-4(kg/m) (No Shield)


What about an arbitrary track
What About an Arbitrary Track? accept a scientific concept if:


Comparing theory to experiment
Comparing Theory to Experiment accept a scientific concept if:


Sample challenge session
Sample Challenge Session accept a scientific concept if:

Goal:Predict where your car will first come momentarily to rest.


Electric train project
Electric Train Project accept a scientific concept if:


Model rocket project
Model Rocket Project accept a scientific concept if:


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