Temperature
Download
1 / 22

Temperature - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 173 Views
  • Updated On :

Temperature. Temperature=average KE of molecules , or average speed of molecules: . Warm air is less dense, cool air is more dense. Temperature Scales. Kelvin scale. Based on absolute zero—temperature at which all motion stops -273 o C= -459 o F= 0 o K Centigrade (Celsius)

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Temperature' - issac


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Temperature l.jpg
Temperature

  • Temperature=average KE of molecules, or average speed of molecules:

Warm air is less dense, cool air is more dense


Temperature scales l.jpg
Temperature Scales

  • Kelvin scale. Based on absolute zero—temperature at which all motion stops

    • -273o C= -459o F= 0o K

  • Centigrade (Celsius)

    • Water freezes at 0oC and boils at 100oC

  • Fahrenheit

    • Water freezes at 32oF and boils at 212oF….

  • Converting oC to oF: Double the C temperature and then add 30…close ‘nuff most of the time

oC*1.8 + 32=oF


Slide3 l.jpg

Influences on Temperature

  • Latitude

  • Altitude

  • Atmospheric circulation-weather

    • -clouds,wind

  • Contrasts between land and water

  • Warm and cold ocean currents

  • Local impacts on temperature


  • Slide4 l.jpg

    LATITUDE—Remember how the seasons work

    Isotherms: Lines of equal

    temperature


    Slide5 l.jpg

    Latitude

    23 Jun. 2007


    Slide6 l.jpg

    ALTITUDE

    Remember that temperature decreases with height in the troposphere

    Temp A > Temp B

    Temp C >Temp B

    Why??

    C

    B

    A


    Daily temperatures weather l.jpg
    Daily temperatures & weather

    • When solar energy in > longwave energy out—temperature rises

    • Maximum occurs in late afternoon...clouds, haze, humidity, and ground cover control timing and maximum value

    • Minimum occurs just before sunrise

    Radiational

    Cooling

    Solar

    Heating


    Slide8 l.jpg

    Seasons (pp.43-50)

    Know and understand figure2-11 and 2-12 on p.44

    September 22-23

    March 21-22

    December 21-22

    June 21-22






    Lag in seasonal temperatures l.jpg
    Lag in seasonal temperatures

    • Most incoming radiation occurs on Jun 21st, but hottest air temperatures happen in July/Aug

    • Similar opposite case with winter solstice

      • Time lag caused by earth’s surface specific heat


    Slide14 l.jpg


    Daily temperature variations l.jpg
    Daily Temperature Variations from sun each year—opposite in the lower latitudes

    • Daytime warming—begins as conduction in layer nearest warm ground

      • On a calm day, convection can’t influence the lowest portion of the air—can get temperature profile like this:


    Effects of winds on lower atmospheric temperatures l.jpg
    Effects of winds on lower atmospheric temperatures from sun each year—opposite in the lower latitudes

    Check out the wind

    Chill chart on

    Page 83!

    • Wind causes “forced convection”—much more efficient vertical transfer of heat

    • Therefore surface is cooler than expected as upper level cool air mixes with surface warm air


    Day night radiation differences l.jpg
    Day – Night Radiation Differences from sun each year—opposite in the lower latitudes

    • During day, the absorption gain from the sun’s short wave radiation is greater than the earth’s long wave radiation loss, so temperature rises.

    • During night, the earth’s long wave radiation loss is greater, so temperature falls.


    Radiation inversion l.jpg
    Radiation Inversion from sun each year—opposite in the lower latitudes

    • Air temperature usually decreases with height (lapse rate)

    • At night, ground cools, and air near ground can become much cooler than air above—radiation inversion forms

      • Temperature increases with height—usually not much higher than 300 feet above the ground

      • Extremely stable conditions —fog often forms as air reaches Dew Point temperature

    • Long nights, calm winds, dry and cloud-free atmosphere are most favorable conditions for inversion formation


    Formation of radiation inversion l.jpg
    Formation of Radiation Inversion from sun each year—opposite in the lower latitudes

    How does the nighttime temperature profile change on a windy night?


    Slide20 l.jpg

    Impact of clouds on daily temperature from sun each year—opposite in the lower latitudes

    During the nighttime, clouds

    Cause outgoing longwave radiation

    To be trapped. Therefore

    Temperature is warmer than on a

    Clear night.

    During the day solar radiation is blocked by clouds

    Therefore temperature is cooler at the surface than

    On a clear day.


    Slide21 l.jpg

    Land vs. coast from sun each year—opposite in the lower latitudes

    Water holds heat longer therefore it heats up slower and cools down slower than

    The land.

    If you live near a large body of water, it will act like insulation.

    During the day, water will heat slowly

    And take heat away from the coastal

    City.

    During the night, water will release heat

    slowly and keep the coastal city warmer.

    Temp Ft. Walton Beach < Temp. Crestview

    Temp Ft. Walton Beach > Temp. Crestview


    Slide22 l.jpg

    Forecast: Cooler or Warmer?? from sun each year—opposite in the lower latitudes

    • Daytime: Coastal city vs. Inland city?

    • Nighttime: Coastal city vs. Inland city?

    • Daytime: city with clear skies vs. city with cloudy skies

    • Nighttime: city with clear skies vs. city with cloudy skies

    • Daytime: city at 6,000ft vs. city at sea level

    • Nighttime: city at 300ft vs. city at sea level


    ad