Unit xii the classical symphony
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Unit XII The Classical Symphony. Chapter 36 Beethoven and the Symphony in Transition. Ludwig van Beethoven. 1770-1827 Bridged the Classic and Romantic eras single-handedly and established for all time the place of the independent artist Was championed by powerful Viennese patrons.

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Unit xii the classical symphony

Unit XIIThe Classical Symphony

Chapter 36

Beethoven and the Symphony in Transition


Ludwig van beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven

  • 1770-1827

  • Bridged the Classic and Romantic eras single-handedly and established for all time the place of the independent artist

  • Was championed by powerful Viennese patrons


Three periods imitation
Three Periods - Imitation

  • Reflected the classical elements he inherited form Haydn and Mozart


Three periods experimentation
Three Periods - Experimentation

  • More closely aligned with the characteristics of the nineteenth century

  • strong dynamic contrasts

  • explosive accents


Three periods experimentation1
Three Periods - Experimentation

  • longer movements

    • First movement -- expanded dimensions, especially of the coda and development, which he made dynamic center of the form.

    • Second movement -- hymnic character

    • Third movement -- substituted the rhymically vital scherzo for the minuet

    • Fourth movement -- enlarged to comparable size and scope with the first movement


Three periods introspection
Three Periods - Introspection

  • Rigidly pared away all nonessential elements from his compositional techniques.

  • More chromatic harmonies


Music
Music

  • 32 Sonatas - spanning his career.

  • 9 symphonies which take on the stature of spiritual dramas. No composer since can compose a symphony not indebted to Beethovens’.

  • 5 piano concertos including the 5th in E flat, the Emperor.

  • Many influential string quartets


Music1
Music

  • In vocal music, Beethoven:

    • Establishes the song cycle in An die ferne Geliebte

    • Leaves one masterpiece rescue opera (very political), Fidelio; first called Leonora

    • Two great masses

    • An oratorio, Christ on the Mount of Olives

    • The Ninth Symphony, which breaks the predetermined symphonic mold forever.


Fifth symphony in c minor op 67

Fifth Symphony in C minor, Op. 67

Bound by the motive "Fate knocks at the door“

Listening Guide 21, pp. 202-205 (CD 2/4-28)


First movement allegro con brio
First Movement Allegro con brio

  • Opening 4 note motive not only creates the materials for the first theme group, but serves as a rhythmic motive unifying the whole symphony

  • Note extremely short bridge based on theme 1

  • Even Theme 2 is accompanied by the rhythmic motive which pervades this movement


First movement allegro con brio1
First Movement -- Allegro con brio

  • Powerful dynamic changes and abrupt contrasts are characteristic of Beethoven's style

  • Note solo oboe in Recapitulation between Theme 1 and 2! Furthermore, the second theme continues in C major to the end!


Second movement andante con moto in a flat major
SecondMovement -- Andante con moto in A flat major

  • Theme and variations.

  • All procedures of variation used:

    • melodic outline

    • harmony

    • rhythm

    • tempo

    • dynamics

    • register

    • key

    • mode

    • types of accompaniment


Second movement andante con moto in a flat major1
SecondMovement -- Andante con moto in A flat major

  • Two related themes used, the second employing the Fate motive.


Third movement scherzo in c minor
Third Movement -- Scherzo in C minor

  • Note use of rocket theme in this scherzo

  • Trio shifts to C major -- “cosmic laughter” theme

  • The scherzo on return is reorchestrated

  • The Fate motive appears in the tympani


Fourth movement allegro in c major
Fourth Movement -- Allegro in C Major

  • The scherzo moves without interruption into this triumphal movement in a monumental sonata form.

  • Exposition

    Theme I Bridge Theme II Codetta

    C Major----------------- G Major------


Fourth movement allegro in c major1
Fourth Movement -- Allegro in C Major

  • Note transformed Fate theme in the Second Theme group

  • Note literal return of the scherzo in this movement and insistence of the Fate motive which returns; both of these give symphony a cyclicalform


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