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Sewage and Effluent Treatment. 2-4 November 2002 Seán Moran -The first few slides. Day One: 2 November 2002. Overview: Wastewater Engineering Wastewater Characteristics Wastewater Treatment Considerations Overview: Wastewater Treatment Plant Design

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sewage and effluent treatment

Sewage and Effluent Treatment

2-4 November 2002

Seán Moran

-The first few slides

day one 2 november 2002
Day One: 2 November 2002
  • Overview: Wastewater Engineering
  • Wastewater Characteristics
  • Wastewater Treatment Considerations
  • Overview: Wastewater Treatment Plant Design
  • Physical, Chemical and Biological Processes
overview wastewater engineering
Overview: Wastewater Engineering
  • Wastewater Treatment
    • Wastewater is the water used by a community
    • Collected and treated prior to discharge
    • Standards of treatment vary but are generally becoming more stringent
    • Treatment is a process of removal of smaller and smaller particles
overview wastewater engineering1
Overview: Wastewater Engineering
  • Sludge Treatment
    • Sludges are the product of biological treatment of wastewater
    • Sludges comprise solids found in wastewater plus organisms used in the treatment process
    • Disposal is a major issue
    • Various disposal techniques are used but each has advantages and disadvantages
overview wastewater engineering2
Overview: Wastewater Engineering
  • Water Disposal and Re-Use
    • Wastewater treatment generates a Cleaned Water Stream
    • Cleaned water is often discharged to a larger body of water for dilution
    • Alternatively, cleaned water my be re-used for irrigation or rarely drinking water production
wastewater characteristics
Wastewater Characteristics

Characteristics are normally estimated by empirical methods

  • Wastewater Flows
    • Flows arise from households, industry, infiltration and storm flows
    • Flows are considered in both hydraulic and process design
    • Levels of treatment may vary for different flowrates
wastewater characteristics1
Wastewater Characteristics
  • Wastewater Flows
    • There is a variety of methods for estimating flowrates
    • However there may be great variability in the factors which affect flowrates from region to region
    • Different multiples of the Dry Weather Flow will receive each level of treatment
wastewater characteristics2
Wastewater Characteristics
  • Wastewater Composition
    • Key design issues:
      • Solids: density, particle size, level of Volatile Suspended Solids
      • Biochemical Oxygen Demand
      • Temperature
      • Ammonia
      • Nutrient levels
wastewater characteristics3
Wastewater Characteristics
  • Wastewater Treatment Considerations
    • Objective: to maintain or improve the quality of the receiving body of water
    • Treatment stages:
      • Preliminary
      • Primary
      • Secondary
      • Tertiary
wastewater characteristics4
Wastewater Characteristics
  • Applicability and Selection of Methods
    • Different processes are used to treat wastewater depending on the contaminants present
    • Similarly, different processes are used to treat sludges, depending on the objective of treatment
overview wastewater treatment plant design
Overview: Wastewater Treatment Plant Design
  • Flowrate and Mass Loading
    • Wastewater feed is not specified, therefore the plant must be able to treat whatever the wastewater contains
    • Plant design will take account of historical flows and loadings, but must also be able to deal with expansion
    • Plant must also be able to deal with a range of flow and load conditions, plus peak upstream flow conditions (eg storms)
overview wastewater treatment plant design1
Overview: Wastewater Treatment Plant Design
  • Selection of Design Flowrates
    • Domestic: based on a flow per head. Varies between countries
    • Industrial: Based on records of discharge consents and of metered supplies
    • Infiltration/Exfiltration: based on a % of the domestic flow
    • Peaking Factors: Depends on size of community
overview wastewater treatment plant design2
Overview: Wastewater Treatment Plant Design
  • Selection of Design Flowrates
    • Upstream Flow Equalisation
      • Plants are not normally designed to treat total peak arisings
      • Instead, hydraulic controls will direct flows above plant capabilities to storm system on larger works
overview wastewater treatment plant design3
Overview: Wastewater Treatment Plant Design
  • Selection of Design Flowrates
    • Upstream Flow Equalisation
      • UK maximum flow to treatment plant is determined by Formula A:
      • Formula A = PG+E+I+1360P+2E l/d

P=population

G=average daily consumption per head l/h/d

E=Industrial & commercial discharges to sewer l/d

I=infiltration l/d

overview wastewater treatment plant design4
Overview: Wastewater Treatment Plant Design
  • Selection of Design Flowrates
    • Upstream Flow Equalisation
      • For larger works with storm tanks, only “Full Treatment Flow” (FTF) will receive full treatment.

FTF=3PG+3E+I

      • Formula A-FTF will pass to storm tanks
overview wastewater treatment plant design5
Overview: Wastewater Treatment Plant Design
  • Selection of Design Mass Loadings
    • Average mass loadings for BOD and Suspended Solids are commonly determined by Population Equivalent (PE)
    • Design mass loadings are more complex and must take account of seasonal, diurnal and industrial load variations
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