Radiation protection in diagnostic and interventional radiology
Download
1 / 41

RADIATION PROTECTION IN - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 668 Views
  • Updated On :

IAEA Standard S yllabus C ourse on Radiation Protection in D iagnostic and I nterventional R adiology RADIATION PROTECTION IN DIAGNOSTIC AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY L 0. Principles of Radiation Protection and Motivation for the Course Introduction

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'RADIATION PROTECTION IN' - issac


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Radiation protection in diagnostic and interventional radiology l.jpg

IAEA Standard Syllabus Course on Radiation Protection in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

RADIATION PROTECTION INDIAGNOSTIC ANDINTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY

L 0. Principles of Radiation Protection and Motivation for the Course


Introduction l.jpg
Introduction

  • Subject matter motivation for radioprotection and quality assurance in diagnostic and interventional radiology

  • Give an overview of different contributions of radiation exposure, the principles of radiation protection

  • Specifity of the medical exposure

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Slide3 l.jpg

Is there RADIATION in this room?

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Radiation we live with l.jpg
Radiation - We live with

Natural Radiation: Cosmic rays, radiation within our body, in food we eat, water we drink, house we live in, lawn, building material etc.

Human Body: K-40, Ra-226, Ra-228

e.g. a man with 70 kg wt. 140 gm of K 140 x 0.012%= 0.0168 gm of K-40 0.1 Ci of K-4

28,000 photons emitted/min

(T1/2 of K-40 = 1.3 billion yrs)

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


K 40 estimate for lean body mass l.jpg
K-40 Estimate for Lean Body Mass

  • Body weight = Fat + lean body mass

  • K-40 directly related to lean body mass

  • Whole body counter used

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Radiation we live with6 l.jpg
Radiation - We live with

Earth: Top 1m of 0.1 acre garden

=1200 kg of K of which K-40 =1.28 Kg

= +3.6 Kg of Th + 1 Kg Ur

Gy/yr

New Delhi 700

Bangalore 825

Bombay 424

Kerala 4000

(in narrow coastal strip)

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Radiation we live with8 l.jpg
Radiation - We live with

Dose equivalent=0.315 mSv/yr

Total dose from Natural sources = 1.0 to 3.0 mSv/yr

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Radiation from natural sources l.jpg
Radiation from Natural Sources

  • Normally 1-3 mSv/year

  • In areas of high background, 3-13 mSv/year

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Slide10 l.jpg

DO WE NEED

RADIATION

PROTECTION ?

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Drinking hot coffee l.jpg
Drinking Hot Coffee

Excess Temperature = 60º - 37 = 23º

1 sip = 3ml

3x 23 = 69 calories

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Lethal dose 4gy l.jpg
Lethal Dose= 4Gy

X-ray

LD 50/60 = 4 Gy

For man of 70 kg

Energy absorbed = 4 x 70 = 280 Joules

= 280/418= 67 calories

= 1 sip

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology



Slide15 l.jpg

SO WE NEED

RADIATION

PROTECTION

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Slide16 l.jpg

Radiation

We live with

1-3 mSv

Can kill

4000 mSv

Where to stop, where is the safe point?

What are the effects of radiation?

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


What can radiation do l.jpg
What can radiationdo?

Death

Cancer

Skin Burns

Cataract

Infertility

Genetic effects

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Slide18 l.jpg

CAN X-RAY

CAUSE

DEATH?

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Slide19 l.jpg

Deterministic effects

Effect

Cancer

Genetic

Prob  dose

Cataract

infertility

erythema

epilation

Dose

500 mSv cataract

150 mSv for sterility (temporary-males)

2500 mSv for ovarian

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Objectives of radiation protection l.jpg
OBJECTIVES OF RADIATION PROTECTION

  • PREVENTION of deterministic effect

  • LIMITING the probability of stochastic effect

    HOW? Up to what point?

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Slide21 l.jpg

OPTIMIZATION principle

To what extent OPTIMIZATION ?

Over-stretching OPTIMIZA …………………… TION

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Features of some epidemiological studies of radiation induced cancer risks l.jpg
Features of some epidemiological studies of radiation-induced cancer risks

Life Span Study Massachusetts Children in

(LSS) of Ankylosing tuberculosis patients Israel irradiated

Japanese atomic Spondylitis given chest for ringworm UK National Registry for

bomb survivors Study (ASS) fluoroscopies of the scalp Radiation Workers

Parameter (Shimizu et al) (Weiss et al) (Boice et al) (Ron et al) (Kendall et al)

Population 75991 14109 2573 10834 95217

size (with DS86 doses)

Period of 5-55 years Up to over Up to over 50 years Up to 32 years Up to 40 years

follow-up following exposure 50 years

(mean 25.2 (mean 30 years) (mean 26 years)

years)

Ranges of:

(a) ages at All Virtually all Under 15 to over 40 0-15 years 18-64 years

exposure  15 years

(b) sexes Similar numbers of 83.5% male Female Similar number of 92% male

males and females males and females

© ethnic Japanese Western (UK) Western (N. American) African and Asian Western (UK)

groups

Setting in War Medical:ther- Medical:diagnostic Medical:therapy Occupational

which apy for non- for non-malignant

exposure malignant disease

was received disease

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Features of some epidemiological studies of radiation induced cancer risks cont l.jpg
Features of some epidemiological studies of radiation-induced cancer risks (cont.)

Life Span Study Massachusetts Children in

(LSS) of Ankylosing tuberculosis patients Israel irradiated

Japanese atomic Spondylitis given chest for ringworm UK National Registry

bomb survivors Study (ASS) fluoroscopies of the scalp for Radiation Workers

Parameter (Shimizu et al) (Weiss et al) (Boice et al) (Ron et al) (Kendall et al)

Range of All All (but Mainly breast & lung mainly brain, All

organs mainly those bone marrow,

irradiated in proximity thyroid, skin

to spine and breast

Availability Organ doses: Mean organ Organ doses: Brain, thyroid & Individual whole-body

of dose individual basis doses: indiv. Individual basis skin doses: external doses

estimates only for red individual basis

bone marrow

at present

Range dose Mainly 0-4 Gy Mainly 0-20 Gy Mainly 0-3 Gy Brain: 0-6 Gy Mainly 0-0.5 Sv

(mean 1.5 Gy) (mean 0.034 Sv)

Thyroid:0-0.5 Gy

(mean 0.09 Gy)

Dose rate High High High, but highly High Low

fractionated

Radiation Mainly low-LET Low-LET Low-LET Low-LET Mainly low-LET

Quality

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Dose limits icrp 60 l.jpg

Occupational Public radiation-induced cancer risks (cont.)

Effective dose 20 mSv/yr averaged* 1 mSv in a yr

over 5 yrs.

Annual equivalent

dose to

Lens of eye 150 mSv 15 mSv

Skin 500 mSv 50 mSv

Hands & Feet 500 mSv

* with further provision that dose in any single yr > 30 mSv (AERB) and =50 mSv (ICRP)

N.B.: M.P.D. 1931 = 500 mSv, 1947=150 mSv, 1977=50 mSv &

in 1990=20 mSv

Dose Limits (ICRP 60)

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Change s in dose limit icrp safe levels l.jpg
Change radiation-induced cancer risks (cont.)s in Dose Limit (ICRP) (Safe levels)

mSv

Year

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Slide26 l.jpg

WHAT IS radiation-induced cancer risks (cont.)

BASIS FOR

DOSE LIMITS?

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Slide28 l.jpg

WHY radiation-induced cancer risks (cont.)

REDUCTION IN

DOSE LIMITS?

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Slide29 l.jpg

PRINCIPLES radiation-induced cancer risks (cont.)

OF

RADIATION

PROTECTION

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Slide30 l.jpg

  • Justification of practices radiation-induced cancer risks (cont.)

  • Optimization of protection by keeping exposure as low as reasonably achievable

  • Dose limits for occupational

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Slide31 l.jpg

HOW TO APPLY radiation-induced cancer risks (cont.)

THESE PRINCIPLES IN

DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY?

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Slide32 l.jpg

RADIOGRAPHY radiation-induced cancer risks (cont.)

How much time one works with radiation?

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Radiation on time l.jpg
Radiation ON Time radiation-induced cancer risks (cont.)

Workload=100 exposures/day

CxR = 50x50 m sec = 2500 = 2.5

LS = 50x800 m sec = 40000=40s

Total time = 45 sec/day

Not greater than 1 min/day

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Slide34 l.jpg

Staff Doses radiation-induced cancer risks (cont.)

Dose limit ICRP = 20 mSv/yr.

Radiography work  0.1 mS/yr.

i.e. 1/200th of dose limit

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Radiation doses in radiological exam as multiple of chest x ray l.jpg

Relative Dose Received radiation-induced cancer risks (cont.)

mSv

Arm, head,ankle & foot (1)

.05

Head & Neck (3)

0.15

0.49

Head CT (10)

0.92

Thoracic Spine (18)

Mammography, Cystography (20)

1.0

Pelvis (24)

1.22

Abdomen, Hip, Upper & lower femur (28)

1.4

Ba Swallow (30)

1.5

Obsteric abdomen (34)

1.7

Lumbo-sacral area (43)

2.15

Cholangiography (52)

2.59

Lumber Myelography (60)

3.0

Lower abdomen CT male (72)

3.61

Upper Abdomen CT (73)

3.67

Ba Meal (76)

Angio-head, Angio-peripheral (80)

3.8

Urography (87)

4.0

Angio-abdominal (120)

4.36

Chest CT (136)

6.0

Lower Abd. CT fem. (142)

6.8

Ba enema (154)

7.13

Lymphan. (180)

7.69

9.0

0

50

100

150

200

number of chest x-rays

Radiation Doses in Radiological Exam. (as multiple of chest x-ray)

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Slide36 l.jpg

IS IT POSSIBLE TO GET radiation-induced cancer risks (cont.)

DETERMINISTIC EFFECTS IN

RADIOGRAPHIC WORK ?

For staff, for patient..??

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Slide37 l.jpg

Radiography radiation-induced cancer risks (cont.)

Risk of

Staff

Patient

Public

Death

Skin burn

Infertility

Cataract

Cancer

Genetic effect

×

×

×

×

U

U

×

×

×

×

U

U

×

×

×

×

U

U

U: unlikely

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Slide38 l.jpg

FLUOROSCOPY radiation-induced cancer risks (cont.)

AND

CT

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Fluoroscopy l.jpg
Fluoroscopy radiation-induced cancer risks (cont.)

Barium study: 3-6 min/pt x 8 patients/d

=40 min/d

ANGIOGRAPHY

  • Diagnostic = 50 min/d

  • Therapeutic = 2-5 hr/d

    CT = 10-45 min/d

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Slide40 l.jpg

Fluoroscopy radiation-induced cancer risks (cont.)(excl. ther angio)

Risk of

Staff

Patient

Public

Death

Skin burn

Infertility

Cataract

Cancer

Genetic effect

×

×

×

×

U

U

×

×

×

×

U

U

×

×

×

×

U

U

U: unlikely

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


Summary l.jpg
Summary radiation-induced cancer risks (cont.)

  • Radiation we live with

  • Radiation that can be lethal

  • Radiation effects

  • Dose limits

  • Principles of protection

  • Application of protection principles in diagnostic radiology

Introduction to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology


ad