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WHAT’S IN YOUR WATER WELL? ANTHONY W. GORODY, PH.D., CPG-9798 WHAT’S IN YOUR WATER WELL? INTERPRETING LABORATORY DATA WHERE DOES YOUR WATER COME FROM? WHAT CONSTITUENTS ARE DISSOLVED IN GROUNDWATER? WHAT FACTORS CONTROL THE CONCENTRATION OF DISSOLVED CONSTITUENTS?

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What s in your water well l.jpg
WHAT’S IN YOUR WATER WELL?

ANTHONY W. GORODY, PH.D., CPG-9798


What s in your water well interpreting laboratory data l.jpg
WHAT’S IN YOUR WATER WELL?INTERPRETING LABORATORY DATA

  • WHERE DOES YOUR WATER COME FROM?

  • WHAT CONSTITUENTS ARE DISSOLVED IN GROUNDWATER?

  • WHAT FACTORS CONTROL THE CONCENTRATION OF DISSOLVED CONSTITUENTS?

  • REGULAR MAINTENANCE OF YOUR WATER WELL

    • WHAT TO LOOK FOR

    • WHAT TO DO


Where does your water come from physiographic setting l.jpg

AQUIFERS

TYPES

ALLUVIAL

BEDROCK

COLORADO

RIVER

GLENWOOD

SPRINGS

RECHARGE

RECHARGE

SILT

DIVIDE CREEK

RIFLE

RECHARGE

RECHARGE

WHERE DOES YOUR WATER COME FROM? PHYSIOGRAPHICSETTING

RECHARGE

DISCHARGE


Typical geologic map hunter mesa and gibson gulch quadrangles and water wells l.jpg
TYPICAL GEOLOGIC MAP HUNTER MESA AND GIBSON GULCH QUADRANGLES AND WATER WELLS

SHEET WASH

311

WASATCH

TERTIARY

BEDROCK

ALLUVIUM

LANDSLIDES

WIND BLOWN

SNOW MELT IS PRINCIPAL SOURCE OF RECHARGE


Idealized aquifer recharge and discharge l.jpg

SPRING QUADRANGLES AND WATER WELLS

ALLUVIAL AQUIFER

RECHARGE

INCREASING

SALINITY

IDEALIZED AQUIFER RECHARGE AND DISCHARGE

BEDROCK AQUIFER

RECHARGE

UNCONFINED

CONFINED BEDROCK AQUIFER

DISCHARGE

WATER WELL


Bedrock aquifers are discontinuous l.jpg

SANDS TEND TO BE QUADRANGLES AND WATER WELLS

DISCONTINOUS

SANDY

SANDY

SANDY

SILT AND SHALE

SILT AND SHALE

BEDROCK AQUIFERS ARE DISCONTINUOUS


Groundwater flow in bedrock funneled by discontinuous swarms of natural fractures l.jpg
GROUNDWATER FLOW IN BEDROCK FUNNELED BY DISCONTINUOUS SWARMS OF NATURAL FRACTURES

SNOW MELT IS PRINCIPAL SOURCE OF BEDROCK AQUIFER RECHARGE


Idealized aquifer recharge and discharge8 l.jpg

IRRIGATION OF NATURAL FRACTURES

SNOW-MELT

IDEALIZED AQUIFER RECHARGE AND DISCHARGE

ALLUVIAL AQUIFER

RECHARGE

WATER WELL


Typical alluvial aquifers divide creek narrow valley fill l.jpg
TYPICAL ALLUVIAL AQUIFERS: DIVIDE CREEK OF NATURAL FRACTURES NARROW VALLEY FILL


Typical alluvial aquifer texture l.jpg
TYPICAL ALLUVIAL AQUIFER TEXTURE OF NATURAL FRACTURES


Gamma ray traces of shallow subsurface show potential aquifers l.jpg

SAND OF NATURAL FRACTURES

SILTY SAND

SILTY SHALE

SHALE

GAMMA RAY TRACES OF SHALLOW SUBSURFACE SHOW POTENTIAL AQUIFERS

ALLUVIUM

BEDROCK

EACH SAND MAY OR MAY

NOT PRODUCE WATER


Typical well bore construction l.jpg
TYPICAL WELL BORE CONSTRUCTION OF NATURAL FRACTURES

SANITARY SEAL

GROUND LEVEL

Or Gravel

DEPENDING ON

CONSTRUCTION,

WATER CAN ORIGINATE FROM MULTIPLE SOURCES


Wells must be properly constructed to avoid problems with yield and water quality l.jpg
WELLS MUST BE PROPERLY CONSTRUCTED TO AVOID PROBLEMS WITH YIELD AND WATER QUALITY

  • WHAT IS SIGNIFICANCE OF DISCOLORED PAVEMENT IN WELL HOUSE?


Interpreting the source and quality of water l.jpg
INTERPRETING THE SOURCE AND QUALITY OF WATER YIELD AND WATER QUALITY

  • FIELD DATA ACQUISITION

  • FIELD SAMPLE ACQUISITION

    • LABORATORY SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    • DISSOLVED SALTS AND MINERALS

    • DISSOLVED ORGANIC COMPONENTS

  • LAB REPORTS

  • INTERPRETATION



Field measurments water level acidity conductivity dissolved oxygen turbidity smell color l.jpg
FIELD MEASURMENTS : WATER LEVEL, ACIDITY, CONDUCTIVITY YIELD AND WATER QUALITYDISSOLVED OXYGEN, TURBIDITY, SMELL, COLOR

  • SENSORS TO DETECT WATER QUALITY

    • FLOW THROUGH

    • INDIVIDUAL

  • WATER LEVEL



What laboratory data reports contain l.jpg
WHAT LABORATORY DATA REPORTS CONTAIN YIELD AND WATER QUALITY

  • GENERAL QUALITY INDICATORS: Total salt content (< 500 mg/L), Hardness (<180 mg/L), Turbidity (<20 NTU).

  • DISSOLVED MINERAL SALT COMPOSITION :

  • INORGANICHEALTH IMPURITIES: Fluoride (< 4.0 mg/L), Selenium (< 0.05 mg/L) , Nitrates (< 10 mg/L), Nitrites (<1 mg/L),

  • ORGANIC HEALTH IMPURITIES: BTEX - Benzene (<5 ppb), Toluene (<1 mg/L), Ethyl benzene (<700 ppb), Xylene (<10 mg/L),

  • NUISANCE CONSTITUENTS: Iron (< 0.3 mg/L), Manganese (< 0.05 mg/L), Sulfate (< 250 mg/L), Chlorides (< 250 mg/L);

  • BACTERIA

  • DISSOLVED NATURAL GAS


Dissolved salt and mineral concentrations used to define acceptable water quality standards l.jpg
DISSOLVED SALT AND MINERAL CONCENTRATIONS USED TO DEFINE YIELD AND WATER QUALITYACCEPTABLE WATER QUALITY STANDARDS

(mg/L)

(mg/L)

http://www.epa.gov/safewater/mcl.html


Slide20 l.jpg

ANALYSES OF DISSOLVED YIELD AND WATER QUALITYORGANIC CARBON COMPOUNDS:BTEX & MTBE

POTENTIAL CONTAMINANT

SOURCES:

LEAKY FUEL TANKS

IMPROPER DUMPING

ACCIDENTAL RELEASE

OIL AND GAS WELLS

http://www.epa.gov/safewater/mcl.html


Analyses of dissolved organic carbon compounds natural gas compounds l.jpg

Methane YIELD AND WATER QUALITY

Ethane

Propane

ISOMERS

Pentane

Isopentane

Butane

Isobutane

ANALYSES OF DISSOLVEDORGANIC CARBON COMPOUNDS:NATURAL GAS COMPOUNDS

ISOMERS


Dissolved gas concerns l.jpg
DISSOLVED GAS CONCERNS YIELD AND WATER QUALITY

  • GASEOUS HYDROCARBONS ARE NOT TOXIC

  • LIGHT HYDROCARBONS ARE SIMPLE ASPHYXIANTS

    • PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO BE AVOIDED WHEN GAS DISPLACES BREATHABLE OXYGEN

      • DIZZINESS, HEADACHES, LOSS OF JUDGEMENT:

        • METHANE 1% IN AIR

        • ETHANE: 13% IN AIR

        • BUTANE: 2% IN AIR

  • LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (LEL):

    • METHANE: 5% OF AIR VOLUME

    • ETHANE: 3% OF AIR VOLUME

    • PROPANE: 2.12 % OF AIR VOLUME

    • BUTANE: 1.6% OF AIR VOLUME


Why monitor dissolved methane concentrations l.jpg

CONFINEMENT WITHOUT VENTILATION YIELD AND WATER QUALITY

10 mg/l

EQUIVALENT TO AN 80 HOUR SHOWER

5’

250 gallons

5’

LEL METHANE

5’

125 FT3 @6000 feet and 77°F

WHY MONITOR DISSOLVED METHANE CONCENTRATIONS?

  • < 2 mg/L : below threshold for exsolution, concentration too low for forensic analysis

  • > 10 mg/L : can concentrate to LEL if allowed to accumulate in unventilated spaces

  • 22 mg/L : approximate saturation concentration at 7000 feet above sea level ; effervescent


Sources of natural gas l.jpg
SOURCES OF NATURAL GAS YIELD AND WATER QUALITY

  • NATURAL

    • THERMOGENIC

      • PRESSURE COOKING OF RAW ORGANIC MATERIAL DURING BURIAL

      • PETROLEUM SOURCE

        • ASSOCIATED WITH OIL

        • MIGRATED FROM OIL

        • SECONDARY CRACKING OF OIL

    • MICROBIAL

      • MARSH AND LANDFILL GAS: BACTERIAL FERMENTATION REACTIONS

      • GROUNDWATER GAS: REDUCTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE

    • ABIOGENIC

      • POLYMERIZATION REACTIONS

  • CONTAMINANT

    • ACCIDENTAL OIL AND GAS WELL EMISSIONS

    • ACCIDENTAL PIPELINE EMMISSIONS

    • LAND FILLS

    • LIVESTOCK FARMING




Slide27 l.jpg
65% OF ALL SITES SAMPLED IN THE SAN JUAN BASIN CONTAIN MEASURABLE AMOUNTS OF DISSOLVED MICROBIAL METHANE

2109 RECORDS

1034 WATER WELLS

445 SINGLE

589 MULTIPLE

SAN JUAN BASIN


Slide28 l.jpg

DISSOLVED METHANE IN GROUNDWATER, RATON BASIN BOTH MICROBIAL AND ASSOCIATED WITH COAL

Number

of

samples


Slide29 l.jpg

DISSOLVED METHANE MICROBIAL AND ASSOCIATED WITH COAL

FROM SHALLOW COAL OUTCROP


Thermogenic gas from producing interval in piceance basin not close to surface l.jpg

PRODUCING MICROBIAL AND ASSOCIATED WITH COAL

WELL

WATER

WELL

1 MILE

TOP OF GAS

THERMOGENIC GAS FROM PRODUCING INTERVAL IN PICEANCE BASIN NOT CLOSE TO SURFACE

SURFICIAL

DEPOSITS

WASATCH FM

MV WILLIAMS

FORK - ILES

MANCOS SHALE


Geologic structure on seismic line showing localized folding and faulting l.jpg
GEOLOGIC STRUCTURE ON SEISMIC LINE SHOWING LOCALIZED FOLDING AND FAULTING

WILLIAMS FORK

TOP GAS

ROLLINS


How do we characterize gas sources l.jpg
HOW DO WE CHARACTERIZE GAS AND FAULTINGSOURCES ?



Analyzing gas with a chromatograph l.jpg
ANALYZING GAS WITH A CHROMATOGRAPH AND FAULTING

IN THE FIELD

IN THE LABORATORY



Fingerprinting gas sources l.jpg
FINGERPRINTING GAS SOURCES AND FAULTING

COMPOSITION

  • NON HYDROCARBONS: N2, Ar, O2, CO2, H2S, He, H2

    • GAS RATIOS

      • Relative abundance of non-hydrocarbons to hydrocarbons

  • HYDROCARBONS: C1, C2, C3, nC4, iC4, nC5, iC5

    • GAS RATIOS

      • Relative abundance of hydrocarbons

    • STABLE ISOTOPES

      • Carbon

      • Deuterium


Gas ratios help to define the origin of produced gas l.jpg

PRODUCED GAS AND FAULTING

MAMM CREEK AREA

Butane

Isobutane

GAS RATIOS HELP TO DEFINE THE ORIGIN OF PRODUCED GAS:

PRODUCED GAS DENVER BASIN


Stable isotopes are useful tools used to determine the origin of fluids and gases l.jpg

Isotope AND FAULTING

12C

13C

14C

Protons

6

6

6

Neutrons

6

7

8

Abundance

98.98%

1.11%

trace

Type

Stable

Stable

Unstable

STABLE ISOTOPES ARE USEFUL TOOLSUSED TO DETERMINE THE ORIGIN OF FLUIDS AND GASES.

STABLE ISOTOPE FINGERPRINTING

Many elements can exist in different forms known as isotopes. They differ in the number of neutrons

in the nucleus but do not differ in the number

of protons. Stable isotopes are not radioactive.

Carbon Isotopes:

Hydrogen

Isotopes


Dissolved methane in groundwater near silt is of microbial origin l.jpg

MICROBIAL REDUCTION AND FAULTING

CARBON DIOXIDE

THERMOGENIC

ALTERATION

MIXING

MICROBIAL FERMENTATION

MARSH GAS

DISSOLVED METHANE IN GROUNDWATER NEAR SILTIS OF MICROBIAL ORIGIN


Pumping and drawdown where does the water come from l.jpg
PUMPING AND DRAWDOWN: AND FAULTINGWHERE DOES THE WATER COME FROM?


Principal components of groundwater in this area l.jpg

CaCO AND FAULTING3

LIME : CALCIUM AND

MAGNESIUM BICARBONATE

Na2SO4

Na2SO4

GLAUBER

SALT –

SODIUM

SULFATE

NaHCO3

SODIUM BICARBONATE

NaHCO3

NaCl

SODIUM CHLORIDE

PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS OF GROUNDWATER IN THIS AREA

COMPOSITION AND CONCENTRATION VARY WITH DEPTH


Slide42 l.jpg

DILUTE AND FAULTING

CONCENTRATED

DISSOLVED SALT AND METHANE CONCENTRATIONS IN WELL WATER PRINCIPALLY CHANGE AS A RESULT OF CHANGING MIXING RATES


Reduction in yield rates from any single aquifer will change water composition l.jpg
REDUCTION IN YIELD RATES FROM ANY SINGLE AQUIFER WILL CHANGE WATER COMPOSITION

WATER LEVEL

WHAT IF THE SODIUM-CHLORIDE

BEARING AQUIFER CARRIES

MICROBIAL METHANE?


Example of wellbore mixing and dilution l.jpg
EXAMPLE OF WELLBORE MIXING AND DILUTION WATER COMPOSITION

METHANE CONCENTRATION VARIES

PROPORTIONATELY WITH CHANGE IN AQUIFER CHEMISTRY


Factors influencing changes in aquifer yield and water quality l.jpg
FACTORS INFLUENCING CHANGES IN AQUIFER YIELD AND WATER QUALITY

  • POPULATION GROWTH

    • RATE OF RECHARGE VS. RATE OF CONSUMPTION – LOCAL DEPLETION

  • CLIMATIC VARIABILITY

    • SEASONAL CHANGES

    • LONG TERM CHANGES: E.G. DROUGHT

  • WELL BORE DAMAGE

    • FOULING: NATURAL BACTERIA




Long term drought is having a significant impact on recharge l.jpg
LONG TERM DROUGHT IS HAVING A SIGNIFICANT IMPACT ON RECHARGE TO SHALLOW AQUIFERS

http://cwcb.state.co.us/owc/Drought_Water/pdf/Chapter%206.pdf


Chemical reactions in aquifers are mediated by natural bacteria l.jpg

REDUCTION REACTIONS TO SHALLOW AQUIFERS

Loss of dissolved oxygen

Loss of Nitrate

( NO3- -> NH4+)

Manganese Reduction

( Mn+4->Mn+3 )

Iron Reduction

( Fe+3 –> Fe+2 )

Sulfate Reduction

( SO4-2 -> HS- -> So )

CO2 Reduction

( CO2-> CH4 )

Nitrogen Reduction

( N2 -> NH4+ )

OXIDATION REACTIONS

Oxygen formation

Denitrification

( N2 -> NO3- )

Manganese Oxidation

( Mn+3->Mn+2 )

Ammonia Oxidation

( NH4+ -> NO3- )

Iron Oxidation

( Fe+2 –> Fe+3 )

Sulfate Oxidation

( So -> HS- -> SO4-2 )

Oxidation of Organics

( CH4 -> CO2 )

CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN AQUIFERS ARE MEDIATED BY NATURAL BACTERIA

OXIC

+

-

ANOXIC


Bacteria can severly impact the aesthetic quality of water l.jpg
BACTERIA CAN SEVERLY IMPACT THE AESTHETIC QUALITY OF WATER TO SHALLOW AQUIFERS

80% OF WELL CLOGGING EVENTS MEDIATED BY BACTERIA

TURBID SLIME


Stagnant water promotes the following natural reactions that deteriorate water quality l.jpg

Sulfuric TO SHALLOW AQUIFERSAcid

(corrosion)

SRBs

AIR

SO4 + Organics

+ CO2

IRBs

Rust Stain

Poor Taste

+

Hardness

Dissolved Iron

Iron Sulfide

Gray Color

Poor Taste

Mineral Scale

PRECIPITATION

Increasing SAR

AIR

STAGNANT WATER PROMOTES THE FOLLOWING NATURAL REACTIONS THAT DETERIORATE WATER QUALITY

-> Sulfide


Slide52 l.jpg

OCCLUSSIVE TO SHALLOW AQUIFERS

CORROSIVE

VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL DISTRIBUTION OF BACTERIAL ZONES CAN GRADUALLY AFFECT OVERALL WELL YIELD AND MIXING RATES BETWEEN AQUIFERS TAPPED BY A WELL

WATER LEVEL


Biologic activity reaction tests bart tm to check for presence of bacteria l.jpg
BIOLOGIC ACTIVITY REACTION TESTS (BART TO SHALLOW AQUIFERSTM) TO CHECK FOR PRESENCE OF BACTERIA

SRB – SULFATE REDUCING BACTERIA

IRB – IRON RELATED BACTERIA

HAB – AEROBIC HETEROTROPHIC

SLYM –SLIME FORMING BACTERIA

From: Biological Activity Reaction Test BART™User Manual

©2003 Edition, Droycon Bioconcepts Inc.Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada



Approaches to alleviating bacterial fouling l.jpg
APPROACHES TO ALLEVIATING BACTERIAL FOULING AND BACTERIAL COLONY-FORMING UNITS

  • MECHANICAL AGITATION OF THE WELL BORE

    • SURGING

    • WATER JETTING

    • SCRUBBING

    • AIR SPARGING

  • FLUSHING TO REMOVE SUSPENDED OR SOLUBLE DEBRIS THAT HAVE BEEN PHYSICALLY REMOVED BY MECHANICAL AGITATION.

  • ACIDIFICATION TO SOLUBLIZE MINERALS AS WELL AS THE POLYSACCHARIDE PORTION OF BIOLOGICAL SLIMES. 

    • THE THREE MOST COMMONLY USED ACIDS

      • HYDROCHLORIC (HCl)

      • SULFAMIC (H3NO3S)

      • HYDROXYACETIC (C2H4O3).

  • THE USE OF BACTERICIDES TO SUPPRESS BACTERIAL POPULATIONS.

    • SHOCK DISINFECTION

CONSULT YOUR WATER WELL PROFESSIONAL


When to shock disinfect your water well l.jpg
WHEN TO SHOCK DISINFECT YOUR WATER WELL AND BACTERIAL COLONY-FORMING UNITS

  • WHEN LAB RESULTS INDICATE PRESENCE OF BACTERIA

  • WHEN COLOR AND ODOR INDICATE THE PRESENCE OF BACTERIA

  • UPON COMPLETION OF A NEW WELL OR AFTER PUMP REPLACEMENT OR REPAIR

  • WHEN THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM IS OPENED FOR REPAIRS OR MAINTENANCE

  • FOLLOWING CONTAMINATION BY FLOOD WATER

http://wilkes1.wilkes.edu/~eqc/shock1.htm


Conclusions l.jpg
CONCLUSIONS AND BACTERIAL COLONY-FORMING UNITS

  • CHANGES IN WATER YIELD AND QUALITY ARE NATURAL

  • BE AWARE OF CHANGES

  • MAKE SURE YOU KNOW HOW YOUR WATER WELL IS CONSTRUCTED

  • TAKE THE TIME TO LEARN HOW TO INTERPRET YOUR WATER WELL LABORATORY DATA REPORTS

  • EVALUATE RESULTS BASED ON WATER WELL CONSTRUCTION AND SEASONAL CHANGES

  • ACT ON RESULTS…NEGLECT WILL RESULT IN DAMAGE THAT IS DIFFICULT TO REMEDIATE

  • REGULARLY INSPECT AND TREAT YOUR WATER WELL TO OPTIMIZE YIELD AND WATER QUALITY

  • WHEN IN DOUBT, CONSULT A PROFESSIONAL


Questions and answers l.jpg
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS AND BACTERIAL COLONY-FORMING UNITS

Anthony W. Gorody, Ph. D. CPG-9798

PRESIDENT

UNIVERSAL GEOSCIENCE CONSULTING, INC.


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