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On Implementing an ESL Teacher Education Program Using Information Technology. Andreas Schramm [email protected] Ann Mabbott [email protected] Hamline University St. Paul, Minnesota. Overview. I. Background II. Course Development III. Course Support IV. Course Delivery

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on implementing an esl teacher education program using information technology

On Implementing an ESL Teacher Education Program Using Information Technology

Andreas Schramm

[email protected]

Ann Mabbott

[email protected]

Hamline University

St. Paul, Minnesota

overview
Overview

I. Background

II. Course Development

III. Course Support

IV. Course Delivery

V. Conclusion

i background
I. Background
  • Elements of a Quality Online Teacher Education Program
    • Interaction among students and between the professor and the students is central.
    • Education is student-centered and constructivist in nature.
    • There is an emphasis on practical application as well as a strong theoretical background.
background of our program
Background of our Program
  • MA in ESL with teacher licensure located in Minnesota
  • 3 separate tracks for teachers of:

a. K-12 students in the US,

b. Immigrant and refugee adults in the US, and

c. overseas learners of English.

background of our program5
Background of our Program
  • Most of our students are practicing ESL teachers by the time they finish, if not before.
  • Most are adding the MA in ESL to previous credentials in teaching or applied linguistics.
  • Students live both close to and far from campus.
slide6
Competencies Included in the ESL Teacher Education Language as Content (21 credits)
    • Teaching Methodology (14 cr.)
    • Research/MA Thesis (8 cr.)
    • Practice Teaching (1-10 cr.; not online)
ii course development
II. Course Development
  • Must be planned and deliberate within theoretical framework
  • We conducted initial analysis to identify theoretical framework
  • There are similarities and differences between traditional and online courses
slide8
Differences:
    • access,
    • medium,
    • interaction amount,
    • learner control,
    • interactivity

(e.g., Herring, 1996; Warschauer, Shetzer, & Meloni, 2000),

    • expanded teacher roles, etc.

(Bennett & Lockyer, 2004)

slide9
Similarities
    • motivation,
    • setting designed for learning,
    • language communication,
    • visuals, etc.

(e.g., Brumfit, Phillips, & Skehan, 1985; Herring, 1996)

slide10
Web course developers tend to focus on differences
  • We focus on similarities (see also Bennett and Lockyer, 2004)
  • This facilitates envisioning teaching and learning online
slide11
Two parts to a successful theoretical framework:
    • student-centered constructivist educational philosophy(Mezirow, 2000, Bennet and Lockyer, 2004)
    • courses as communicative situations(Hymes, 1972)
slide12
Similarities revealed by ethnographic analysis of course communication: (Schramm, 2005; Schramm and Mabbott, 2005)
    • Setting-participant communication components
      • public vs. private
      • student-instructor
      • student-student
slide13
Setting-event combinations
    • lectures
    • whole-class meetings
    • small-group discussions
    • informal exchanges
implementation
Implementation
  • Lectures:
    • public, instructor-student one-way communication delivered
      • statically as Web page
      • as slideshow-sound combination
      • synchronously via web-conferencing
implementation15
Implementation
  • Whole-class meetings:
    • public, instructor-student, student-student multi-directional delivered
      • dynamically via bulletin board or
      • via chat room
      • synchronously via web-conferencing
slide16

Implementation

  • Small-group meetings:
    • public, instructor-student, student-student multi-directional delivered to student subset
      • dynamically via bulletin board or
      • via chat room
      • outcome collated collaboratively via Wiki
implementation17
Implementation
  • Informal exchanges:
    • public, student-student, multi-directional delivered
      • dynamically via bulletin board, chat room, or web-conferencing to students only
      • pair-share tasks via text boxes and immediate student-initiated text feedback
implementation18
Implementation
  • Off-to-the-side & Office hours:
    • private, instructor-student & student-student implemented using
      • individual email
      • web-conferencing
slide19
More similarities detected by communicative ethnography
    • forms and topics:
      • language & humor
      • content
      • visuals
implementation20
Implementation
  • Language:
    • informal
    • humorous

(Koetter 2002)

implementation21
Implementation
  • Content & Visuals kept intact:
    • speech sounds in linguistics via streamed sound files
    • streamed educational videos
    • video-taped ESL teaching techniques
    • Jeopardy game slideshow for syntax review
    • Flash exercises, e.g. drag-and-drop
iii course support
III. Course Support
  • Course recreation takes two phases
    • course design
    • program planning and coordination
slide23
Three expertises needed
    • course design
    • technological implementation
    • pedagogical understanding
slide24
Additional Staffing Needs
    • Faculty need more time
      • higher discussion participation
      • assessment items handling
    • Staff
      • adminstrative, e.g. orientation, student questions
      • tech support
slide25
Library staff
    • online or phone reference desk work
    • library orientation materials
slide26
Instructional Technology Staff for
    • re-creation of course activities, materials
    • electronic preparation of additional materials (audio, video, orientation, etc.)
    • identification and implementation of instructional hardware
iv program delivery
IV. Program Delivery
  • Main program objectives
    • deliver course content
    • allow interaction with material
    • facilitate learning interactively
    • address multiple learning styles
    • advise on academic theses
slide28
Comparable delivery
    • Learning Management System Blackboard:
      • classroom
      • video
      • audio
      • handouts
      • slideshows
      • images
      • illustrations
      • exercises
slide29
web-conferencing software Elluminate Live!:
    • real-time interactivity
    • application-sharing
    • screen-sharing
slide30
Other Software
    • Flash animation, e.g. pair-share exercises
    • Wiki for collaboration on documents
    • digitization software for preparation, delivery of video and audio materials
slide31
Comparable Library Resources
    • multiple full-text databases
    • electronic document delivery
    • e-books
v conclusion
V. Conclusion
  • Frydenberg (2002) lists nine domains of quality are the basis for setting course standards.

Today we addressed the first two:

    • design and development
    • instruction and instructor services
slide33
Others need to be addressed as well:
    • executive commitment
    • technological infrastructure
    • student services
    • program delivery
    • financial health
    • legal and regulatory requirements and
    • program evaluation
program evaluation
Program Evaluation
  • Program evaluation and continual improvement more challenging than for campus programs
  • but necessary to ensure program quality.
reference list
Reference List
  • Bennett, S. & Lockyer, L. (2004). Becoming and online teacher: Adapting to a changed environment for teaching and learning in higher education. Educational Media International, 41(3), 231-244.
  • Brumfit, C., Phillips, M., & Skehan, P. (Eds.). (1985). Computers in English language teaching. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • Frydenberg, J. (2002). Qualitative standards in eLearning: A matrix of analysis. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning 3 (2), Retrieved February 21, 2003, from http://www.irrodl.org/content/v3.2/frydenberg.html
  • Herring, S. (Ed.). (1996). Computer-mediated communication: Linguistic, social and cross-cultural perspectives. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
reference list36
Reference List
  • Hymes, D. (1972) Introduction. In C. Cazden, V. John, & D. Hymes (Eds.), Functions of language in the classroom (pp. xi–xvii). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
  • Kötter, M. (2002) Tandem learning on the internet. Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang Publishing.
  • Mabbott, A. & Schramm, A.(2005).Course quality in online English-as-a-Second-Language teacher education. In M. Bigelow & C. Walker (Eds.), Creating teacher community: Selected papers from the Third International Conference on Language Teacher Education. Minneapolis, MN: Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition.
reference list37
Reference List
  • Third International Conference on Language Teacher Education. Minneapolis, MN: Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition.
  • Mezirow, J. (2000). Learning to think like an adult: Core concepts of transformation theory. In J. Mezirow (Ed.), Learning as transformation (pp. 3–33). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Schramm, A. (2005). Making online students connect: Ethnographic strategies for developing online learning experiences. In B. Holmberg, M. Shelley, & C. White (Eds.), Languages and distance education: Evolution and change. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
  • Warschauer, M., Shetzer, H., & Meloni, C. (2000). Internet for English teaching. Alexandria, VA: TESOL.
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