ME 2105 Introduction to Material Science (for Engineers) Dr. Richard R. Lindeke, Ph.D. B Met. Eng. University of Minnesota, 1970 Master’s Studies, Met Eng. Colorado School of Mines, 1978-79 (Electro-Slag Welding of Heavy Section 2¼ Cr 1 Mo Steels)
Dr. Richard R. Lindeke, Ph.D.
B Met. Eng. University of Minnesota, 1970
Master’s Studies, Met Eng. Colorado School of Mines, 1978-79 (Electro-Slag Welding of Heavy Section 2¼ Cr 1 Mo Steels)
Ph.D., Ind. Eng. Penn State University, 1987 (Foundry Engineering – CG Alloy Development)
Poor “Too Little”
Good Structure 45KSI YS; 55KSI UTS
Poor “Too Much”
Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers
By James F. Shackelford
Seventh Edition, Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2009.
* Economic and Environmental Factors often are the most important when making the final decision!
Steel, Cast Iron, Aluminum, Copper, Titanium, many others
Glass, Concrete, Brick, Alumina, Zirconia, SiN, SiC
Plastics, Wood, Cotton (rayon, nylon), “glue”
Glass Fiber-reinforced polymers, Carbon Fiber-reinforced polymers, Metal Matrix Composites, etc.Introduction, cont.
Periodic table ceramic compounds are a combination of one or more metallic elements (in light color) with one or more nonmetallic elements (in dark color).
Grain Structure is a function of “Solidification” processing!
Fiber Glass Composite:
Determine required Properties
Properties: mechanical, electrical, thermal,
magnetic, optical, deteriorative.
Identify candidate Material(s)
Material: structure, composition.
Identify required Processing
Processing: changes structure and overall shape
ex: casting, sintering, vapor deposition, doping
forming, joining, annealing.
Properties depend on Structure (strength or hardness) polymers in color
Cooling Rate (ºC/s)
Processing can change structure! (see above structure vs Cooling Rate)
Structure determines Properties but Processing determines Structure!
6 polymers in color
Cu + 3.32 at%Ni
Cu + 2.16 at%Ni
deformed Cu + 1.12 at%Ni
Cu + 1.12 at%Ni
T (°C)Electrical Properties (of Copper):
Adapted from Fig. 18.8, Callister 7e.
(Fig. 18.8 adapted from: J.O. Linde,
Ann Physik5, 219 (1932); and
C.A. Wert and R.M. Thomson,
Physics of Solids, 2nd edition,
McGraw-Hill Company, New York,
400 polymers in color
Composition (wt% Zinc)
• Space Shuttle Tiles:
--Silica fiber insulation
offers low heat conduction.
• Thermal Conductivity
of Copper: --It decreases when
you add zinc!
Fig. 19.4W, Callister 6e. (Courtesy of Lockheed Aerospace Ceramics Systems, Sunnyvale, CA)
(Note: "W" denotes fig. is on CD-ROM.)
Adapted from Fig. 19.4, Callister 7e.
(Fig. 19.4 is adapted from Metals Handbook: Properties and Selection: Nonferrous alloys and Pure Metals, Vol. 2, 9th ed., H. Baker, (Managing Editor), American Society for Metals, 1979, p. 315.)
Fe+3%Si polymers in color
Magnetic FieldMAGNETIC Properties
• Magnetic Permeability
--Adding 3 atomic % Si makes Fe a better recording medium!
• Magnetic Storage:
is magnetized by
Adapted from C.R. Barrett, W.D. Nix, and
A.S. Tetelman, The Principles of
Engineering Materials, Fig. 1-7(a), p. 9,
by permission of Pearson Education, Inc.,
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
Fig. 20.23, Callister 7e.
(Fig. 20.23 is from J.U. Lemke, MRS Bulletin,
Vol. XV, No. 3, p. 31, 1990.)
-8 polymers in color
160ºC for 1 hr
crack speed (m/s)
Alloy 7178 tested in
saturated aqueous NaCl
solution at 23ºC
7150-T651 Al "alloy"
Adapted from Fig. 11.26,
Callister 7e. (Fig. 11.26 provided courtesy of G.H.
Narayanan and A.G. Miller, Boeing Commercial
Airplane Company.)DETERIORATIVE Properties
• Heat treatment: slows
crack speed in salt water!
• Stress & Saltwater...
Adapted from Fig. 11.20(b), R.W. Hertzberg, "Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials" (4th ed.), p. 505, John Wiley and Sons, 1996. (Original source: Markus O. Speidel, Brown Boveri Co.)
Adapted from chapter-opening photograph, Chapter 17, Callister 7e.
(from Marine Corrosion, Causes, and Prevention, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1975.)
Adapted from Fig. 22.25, Callister 7e.
Adapted from Fig. 22.24, Callister 7e.
Adapted from Fig. 22.24, Callister 7e.
Cup and Liner
• Using the right material for the job.
one that is most economical and “Greenest” when life cycle usage is considered
• Understanding the relation between properties, structure, and processing.
• Recognizing new design opportunities offered
by materials selection.