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ME 2105 Introduction to Material Science (for Engineers) Dr. Richard R. Lindeke, Ph.D. B Met. Eng. University of Minnesota, 1970 Master’s Studies, Met Eng. Colorado School of Mines, 1978-79 (Electro-Slag Welding of Heavy Section 2¼ Cr 1 Mo Steels)

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Me 2105 introduction to material science for engineers l.jpg

ME 2105 Introduction to Material Science (for Engineers)

Dr. Richard R. Lindeke, Ph.D.

B Met. Eng. University of Minnesota, 1970

Master’s Studies, Met Eng. Colorado School of Mines, 1978-79 (Electro-Slag Welding of Heavy Section 2¼ Cr 1 Mo Steels)

Ph.D., Ind. Eng. Penn State University, 1987 (Foundry Engineering – CG Alloy Development)


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Syllabus and Website:

  • Review the Syllabus

    • Attendance is your job – come to class!

    • Final is Common Time Thursday, Friday or Sat (Dec 17, 18 or 19)

    • Semi-Pop Quizzes and homework/Chapter Reviews (Ch 14) – (20% of your grade!) – note, homework is suggested to prepare for quizzes and exams!

    • Don’t copy from others; don’t plagiarize – its just the right thing to do!!

  • Course Website: http://www.d.umn.edu/~rlindek1/ME2105/Cover_Page.htm


Materials science and engineering l.jpg
Materials Science and Engineering

  • It all about the raw materials and how they are processed

  • That is why we call it materials ENGINEERING

  • Minor differencesin Raw materials or processing parameters can meanmajor changes in the performanceof the final material or product


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Materials Science and Engineering

  • Materials Science

    • The discipline of investigating the relationships that exist between the structures and properties of materials.

  • Materials Engineering

    • The discipline of designing or engineering the structure of a material to produce a predetermined set of properties based on established structure-property correlation.

  • Four Major Components of Material Science and Engineering:

    • Structure of Materials

    • Properties of Materials

    • Processing of Materials

    • Performance of Materials


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And Remember: Materials “Drive” our Society!

  • Ages of “Man” we survive based on the materials we control

    • Stone Age – naturally occurring materials

      • Special rocks, skins, wood

    • Bronze Age

      • Casting and forging

    • Iron Age

      • High Temperature furnaces

    • Steel Age

      • High Strength Alloys

    • Non-Ferrous and Polymer Age

      • Aluminum, Titanium and Nickel (superalloys) – aerospace

      • Silicon – Information

      • Plastics and Composites – food preservation, housing, aerospace and higher speeds

    • Exotic Materials Age?

      • Nano-Material and bio-Materials – they are coming and then …



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And Formula One – the future of automotive is …

http://www.autofieldguide.com/articles/050701.html




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CG Structure – but with great care!

Poor “Too Little”

Good Structure 45KSI YS; 55KSI UTS

Poor “Too Much”




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Our Text:

Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers

 By James F. Shackelford

Seventh Edition, Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2009.


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Doing Materials!

  • Engineered Materials are a function of:

    • Raw Materials Elemental Control

    • Processing History

  • Our Role in Engineering Materials then is to understand the application and specify the appropriate material to do the job as a function of:

    • Strength: yield and ultimate

    • Ductility, flexibility

    • Weight/density

    • Working Environment

    • Cost: Lifecycle expenses, Environmental impact*

* Economic and Environmental Factors often are the most important when making the final decision!


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Introduction

  • List the Major Types of MATERIALS That You Know:

    • METALS

    • CERAMICS/Glasses

    • POLYMERS

    • COMPOSITES

    • ADVANCED MATERIALS( Nano-materials, electronic materials)


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Metals

Steel, Cast Iron, Aluminum, Copper, Titanium, many others

Ceramics

Glass, Concrete, Brick, Alumina, Zirconia, SiN, SiC

Polymers

Plastics, Wood, Cotton (rayon, nylon), “glue”

Composites

Glass Fiber-reinforced polymers, Carbon Fiber-reinforced polymers, Metal Matrix Composites, etc.

Introduction, cont.





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Periodic table ceramic compounds are a combination of one or more metallic elements (in light color) with one or more nonmetallic elements (in dark color).


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Glasses: atomic-scale structure of (a) a ceramic (crystalline) and (b) a glass (noncrystalline)


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Optical Properties of Ceramic are controlled by “Grain Structure”

Grain Structure is a function of “Solidification” processing!


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Polymers are typically inexpensive and are characterized by ease of formation and adequate structural properties



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Composite Materials – oh so many combinations polymers in color

Fiber Glass Composite:


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Thoughts about these polymers in color“fundamental” Materials

  • Metals:

    • Strong, ductile

    • high thermal & electrical conductivity

    • opaque, reflective.

  • Ceramics: ionic bonding (refractory) – compounds of metallic & non-metallic elements (oxides, carbides, nitrides, sulfides)

    • Brittle, glassy, elastic

    • non-conducting (insulators)

  • Polymers/plastics: Covalent bonding  sharing of e’s

    • Soft, ductile, low strength, low density

    • thermal & electrical insulators

    • Optically translucent or transparent.


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The Materials Selection Process polymers in color

1.

Pick Application

Determine required Properties

Properties: mechanical, electrical, thermal,

magnetic, optical, deteriorative.

2.

Properties

Identify candidate Material(s)

Material: structure, composition.

3.

Material

Identify required Processing

Processing: changes structure and overall shape

ex: casting, sintering, vapor deposition, doping

forming, joining, annealing.


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Properties depend on Structure (strength or hardness) polymers in color

(d)

30mm

(c)

(b)

(a)

4mm

30mm

30mm

But:

6

00

5

00

4

00

Hardness (BHN)

3

00

2

00

100

0.01

0.1

1

10

100

1000

Cooling Rate (ºC/s)

And:

Processing can change structure! (see above structure vs Cooling Rate)


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Another Example: Rolling of Steel polymers in color

  • At h1, L1

    • low UTS

    • low YS

    • high ductility

    • round grains

  • At h2, L2

    • high UTS

    • high YS

    • low ductility

    • elongated grains

Structure determines Properties but Processing determines Structure!


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6 polymers in color

Cu + 3.32 at%Ni

5

4

Cu + 2.16 at%Ni

deformed Cu + 1.12 at%Ni

Resistivity,r

3

(10-8 Ohm-m)

Cu + 1.12 at%Ni

2

1

“Pure” Cu

0

-200

-100

0

T (°C)

Electrical Properties (of Copper):

  • Electrical Resistivity of Copper is affected by:

  • Contaminate level

  • Degree of deformation

  • Operating temperature

Adapted from Fig. 18.8, Callister 7e.

(Fig. 18.8 adapted from: J.O. Linde,

Ann Physik5, 219 (1932); and

C.A. Wert and R.M. Thomson,

Physics of Solids, 2nd edition,

McGraw-Hill Company, New York,

1970.)


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400 polymers in color

300

(W/m-K)

200

Thermal Conductivity

100

0

0

10

20

30

40

Composition (wt% Zinc)

100mm

THERMAL Properties

• Space Shuttle Tiles:

--Silica fiber insulation

offers low heat conduction.

• Thermal Conductivity

of Copper: --It decreases when

you add zinc!

Adapted from

Fig. 19.4W, Callister 6e. (Courtesy of Lockheed Aerospace Ceramics Systems, Sunnyvale, CA)

(Note: "W" denotes fig. is on CD-ROM.)

Adapted from Fig. 19.4, Callister 7e.

(Fig. 19.4 is adapted from Metals Handbook: Properties and Selection: Nonferrous alloys and Pure Metals, Vol. 2, 9th ed., H. Baker, (Managing Editor), American Society for Metals, 1979, p. 315.)


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Fe+3%Si polymers in color

Fe

Magnetization

Magnetic Field

MAGNETIC Properties

• Magnetic Permeability

vs. Composition:

--Adding 3 atomic % Si makes Fe a better recording medium!

• Magnetic Storage:

--Recording medium

is magnetized by

recording head.

Adapted from C.R. Barrett, W.D. Nix, and

A.S. Tetelman, The Principles of

Engineering Materials, Fig. 1-7(a), p. 9,

Electronically reproduced

by permission of Pearson Education, Inc.,

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

Fig. 20.23, Callister 7e.

(Fig. 20.23 is from J.U. Lemke, MRS Bulletin,

Vol. XV, No. 3, p. 31, 1990.)


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-8 polymers in color

10

“as-is”

“held at

160ºC for 1 hr

before testing”

crack speed (m/s)

-10

10

Alloy 7178 tested in

saturated aqueous NaCl

solution at 23ºC

increasing load

4mm

--material:

7150-T651 Al "alloy"

(Zn,Cu,Mg,Zr)

Adapted from Fig. 11.26,

Callister 7e. (Fig. 11.26 provided courtesy of G.H.

Narayanan and A.G. Miller, Boeing Commercial

Airplane Company.)

DETERIORATIVE Properties

• Heat treatment: slows

crack speed in salt water!

• Stress & Saltwater...

--causes cracks!

Adapted from Fig. 11.20(b), R.W. Hertzberg, "Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials" (4th ed.), p. 505, John Wiley and Sons, 1996. (Original source: Markus O. Speidel, Brown Boveri Co.)

Adapted from chapter-opening photograph, Chapter 17, Callister 7e.

(from Marine Corrosion, Causes, and Prevention, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1975.)


Example of materials engineering work hip implant l.jpg
Example of Materials Engineering Work – Hip Implant polymers in color

  • With age or certain illnesses joints deteriorate. Particularly those with large loads (such as hip).

Adapted from Fig. 22.25, Callister 7e.


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Example – Hip Implant polymers in color

  • Requirements

    • mechanical strength (many cycles)

    • good lubricity

    • biocompatibility

Adapted from Fig. 22.24, Callister 7e.


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Example – Hip Implant polymers in color

Adapted from Fig. 22.24, Callister 7e.


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Solution – Hip Implant polymers in color

Acetabular

Cup and Liner

  • Key Problems to overcome:

    • fixation agent to hold acetabular cup

    • cup lubrication material

    • femoral stem – fixing agent (“glue”)

    • must avoid any debris in cup

    • Must hold up in body chemistry

    • Must be strong yet flexible

Ball

Femoral

Stem


Course goal is to make you aware of the importance of material selection by l.jpg
Course Goal is to make you aware of the importance of Material Selection by:

• Using the right material for the job.

one that is most economical and “Greenest” when life cycle usage is considered

• Understanding the relation between properties, structure, and processing.

• Recognizing new design opportunities offered

by materials selection.


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