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Current Politics Congress years 1947-1996 Years of Competition 1996-present Two Party System? Two Half Parties? Regional parties? Nehru Dynasty Jawaharlal Nehru Indira Gandhi PM 1947-64 PM 1966-77, 80-84 Congress Dominates Indira Gandhi Congress (I)

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Current Politics

  • Congress years 1947-1996

  • Years of Competition 1996-present

    • Two Party System?

    • Two Half Parties?

    • Regional parties?


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Nehru Dynasty

Jawaharlal Nehru Indira Gandhi

PM 1947-64 PM 1966-77, 80-84



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Indira Gandhi




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Congress after Indira Gandhi

1984-1989 1991-1996

Rajiv Gandhi P. V. N. Rao


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Years of Competition

Factors

  • End of Nehru Dynasty

  • Economic reform

  • Corruption in Congress

  • Rise of regional, religious, caste-based parties


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1996 Election

  • Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) 160

  • Congress Party 136

  • National Front 110

  • National Front forms government


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1998 Election

  • BJP 176

  • Congress Party 140

  • United Front 97


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1998

BJP forms government

National Democratic Alliance (15 parties)

PM A. B. Vajpayee 1998-2004

Indian nuclear tests

May 1998


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Congress Regroups

Sonia Gandhi


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1999 Election

  • BJP 182

  • Congress Party 112

  • BJP/NDA remains in power


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2004 Election

BJP/NDA

“India Shining”

vs.

Congress/United Progressive Alliance (UPA)

“It is a contest between the Congress…and the BJP that is systematically undermining the very essence of Indian civilization and destroying the very idea of India.”

2004 Election Manifesto


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2004 Election

  • BJP 138

  • Congress Party 145 (UPA 219)

  • Left Parties 56

    UPA and Leftist parties form coalition

    PM Manmohan Singh


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2009 Election

  • BJP 116

  • Congress Party 206

    UPA retains power

    PM Manmohan Singh


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Challenges and Developments

  • Two parties or Two Half Parties

  • Regional parties

  • Religion and Politics

  • Can Congress get beyond the Dynasty?

  • Celebrity and Corruption


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1. Two parties or Two Half Parties?

272 (273) the magic number!

Stability?


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2. Regional Parties

  • 2009 LokSabha

  • 2 National parties

  • 1 semi-national party (CPI-M) with seats in four states

  • 39 Regional parties


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3. Religion and Politics

BJP History

  • Hindutva (Hindu Nationalism)

  • RSS (RashtriyaSwayamsevakSangh)

  • Vishwa Hindu Parishad (World Hindu Council)


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Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh

  • Babri Mosque 16th Century

  • Ayodhya Temple


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Babri Mosque, December 6, 1992


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Fallout of 1992

  • 1992-1993 Riots

  • Gujarat 2002

  • Liberhan Commission Report

    Narendra Modi L. K. Advani

    Chief Minister of Gujarat President BJP



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5. Celebrity and Corruption

Jayalalitha of Tamil Nadu


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