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History of Biotechnology. Stages of Biotech. Ancient Classical Modern. Ancient Biotech. Begins with early civilization Developments in ag and food production Few records exist. Ancient Biotech. Archeologists research Ancient carvings and sketches sources of information.

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stages of biotech
Stages of Biotech
  • Ancient
  • Classical
  • Modern
ancient biotech
Ancient Biotech
  • Begins with early civilization
  • Developments in ag and food production
  • Few records exist
ancient biotech1
Ancient Biotech
  • Archeologists research
  • Ancient carvings and sketches sources of information
classical biotech
Classical Biotech
  • Follows ancient
  • Makes wide spread use of methods from ancient, especially fermentation
  • Methods adapted to industrial production
classical biotech1
Classical Biotech
  • Produce large quantities of food products and other materials in short amount of time
  • Meet demands of increasing population
classical biotech2
Classical Biotech
  • Many methods developed through classical biotech are widely used today.
modern biotech
Modern Biotech
  • Manipulation of genetic material within organisms
  • Based on genetics and the use of microscopy, biochemical methods, related sciences and technologies
modern biotech1
Modern Biotech
  • Often known as genetic engineering
  • Roots involved the investigation of genes
ancient biotech2
Ancient Biotech
  • Not known when biotech began exactly
  • Focused on having food and other human needs
ancient biotech3
Ancient Biotech
  • Useful plants brought from the wild, planted near caves where people lived
  • As food was available, ability to store and preserve emerged
ancient
Ancient
  • Food preservation most likely came from unplanned events such as a fire or freeze
domestication
Domestication
  • 15,000 years ago, large animals were hard to capture
  • People only had meat when they found a dead animal
  • Came up with ways of capturing fish and small animals
domestication1
Domestication
  • Food supplies often seasonal
  • Winter food supplies may get quite low
  • Domestication is seen by scientists as the beginning of biotech
domestication2
Domestication
  • Adaptation of organisms so they can be cultured
  • Most likely began 11,000 – 12,000 years ago in the middle east
domestication3
Domestication
  • Involved the collecting of seed from useful plants and growing crude crops from that seed
  • Involved the knowledge that the seed had to properly mature
domestication4
Domestication
  • Proper planting
  • Need for water, light and other conditions for plant growth
  • Earliest plants likely grains and other seeds used for food
domestication5
Domestication
  • Raising animals in captivity began about the same time in history
  • Easier to have an animal close by that to hunt and capture a wild one
domestication6
Domestication
  • Learned that animals need food and water
  • Learned about simple breeding
  • How to raise young
domestication7
Domestication
  • Cattle, goats and sheep were the first domesticated food animals
domestication8
Domestication
  • About 10,000 years ago, people had learned enough about plants and animals to grow their own food
  • The beginning of farming.
slide22
Food
  • Domestication resulted in food supplies being greater in certain times of the year
  • Products were gathered and stored
slide23
Food
  • Some foods rotted
  • Others changed form and continued to be good to eat
  • Foods stored in a cool cave did not spoil as quickly
slide24
Food
  • Foods heated by fire also did not spoil as quickly
  • Immersing in sour liquids prevented food decay
food preservation
Food preservation
  • Using processes that prevent or slow spoilage
  • Heating, cooling, keeps microorganisms (mo’s) from growing
food preservation1
Food preservation
  • Stored in bags of leather or jars of clay
  • Fermentation occurs if certain mo’s are present
  • Creates an acid condition that slows or prevents spoilage
cheese
Cheese
  • One of the first food products made through biotechnology
  • Began some 4,000 years ago
  • Nomadic tribes in Asia
cheese1
Cheese
  • Strains of bacteria were added to milk
  • Caused acid to form
  • Resulting in sour milk
cheese2
Cheese
  • Enzyme called “rennet” was added
  • Rennet comes from the lining of the stomachs of calves
cheese3
Cheese
  • Rennet is genetically engineered today
  • Not all cheese is made from produced rennet
yeast
Yeast
  • Long used in food preparation and preservation
  • Bread baking
  • Yeast produces a gas in the dough causing the dough to rise
yeast1
Yeast
  • Fermented products
  • Vinegar
  • Require the use of yeast in at least one stage of production
yeast2
Yeast
  • Species of fungi
  • Some are useful
  • Some may cause diseases
vinegar
Vinegar
  • Ancient product used to preserve food
  • Juices and extracts from fruits and grains can be fermented
fermentation
Fermentation
  • Process in which yeast enzymes chemically change compounds into alcohol
  • In making vinegar the first product of fermentation is alcohol
fermentation1
Fermentation
  • Alcohol is converted to acetic acid by additional microbe activity
  • Acid gives vinegar a sour taste
  • Vinegar prevents growth of some bacteria
vinegar1
Vinegar
  • Keeps foods from spoiling
  • Used in pickling
  • Biblical references to wine indicate the use of fermentation some 3,000 years ago
fermentation control
Fermentation control
  • In ancient times, likely happened by accident
  • Advancements occurred in the 1800’s and early 1900’s
fermenters
Fermenters
  • Used to advance fermentation process
  • Specially designed chamber that promotes fermentation
fermenters1
Fermenters
  • Allowed better control, especially with vinegar
  • New products such as glycerol, acetone, and citric acid resulted
development
Development
  • Of yeasts that were predictable and readily available led to modern baking industry
antibiotics
Antibiotics
  • Use of fermentation hastened the development of antibiotics
  • A drug used to combat bacterial infections
antibiotics1
Antibiotics
  • Penicillin
  • Developed in the late1920’s
  • Introduced in the 1940’s
  • First drug produced by microbes
antibiotics2
Antibiotics
  • Many kinds available today
  • Limitations in their use keep disease producing organisms from developing immunity to antibiotics
antibiotics3
Antibiotics
  • Use antibiotics only when needed.
  • Overuse may make the antibiotic ineffective when really needed later
antibiotics4
Antibiotics
  • Some disease organisms are now resistant to certain antibiotics
  • Used in both human and vet medicine
modern biotech2
Modern Biotech
  • Deals with manipulating genetic info
  • Microscopy and advanced computer technology are used
  • In-depth knowledge of science
modern biotech3
Modern Biotech
  • Based on genetics research from the mid 1800’s
genetics
Genetics
  • Study of heredity
  • Most work has focused on animal and plant genetics
  • Genes – determiners of heredity
genes
Genes
  • Carry the genetic code
  • Understanding genetic structure essential for genetic engineering
heredity
Heredity
  • How traits are passed from parents to offspring
  • Members of the same species pass the characteristics of that species
heredity1
Heredity
  • Differences exist within each species.
  • Differences are known as variability
heredity variability
Heredity &variability
  • Are used in modern biotechnology
modern biotech4
Modern Biotech
  • Use of biotech to produce new life forms
  • Emerged in mid 1900’s
  • Made possible by rDNA technology
slide55
rDNA
  • Recombinant DNA Process
  • Genetic material is moved from one organism to another
  • Materials involved are quite small
slide56
rDNA
  • Challenging and often controversial
  • Many have opposing or negative views of biotechnolgy
people in biotech
People in Biotech
  • Zacharias Janssen
  • Discovered the principle of the compound microscope in 1590
  • Dutch eye glass maker
anton van leeuwenhoek
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
  • Developed single lens microscope in 1670’s
  • First to observe tiny organisms and document observations
anton v l
Anton V.L.
  • Work led to modern microscopes
  • Electron microscope developed in 1931 by group of German scientists
gregor mendel
Gregor Mendel
  • Formulated basic laws of heredity during mid 1800’s
  • Austrian Botanist and monk
  • Experimented with peas
mendel
Mendel
  • Studied inheritance of seven pairs of traits
  • Bred and crossbred thousands of plants
  • Determined that some traits were dominant and other recessive
mendel1
Mendel
  • Findings were published in 1866
  • Largely ignored for 34 years
johan friedrich miescher
Johan Friedrich Miescher
  • Swiss Biologist
  • Isolated nuclei of white blood cells in 1869
  • Led to identification of nucleic acid by Walter Flemming
walter sutton
Walter Sutton
  • Determined in 1903 that chromosomes carried units of heredity identified by Mendel
  • Named “genes” in 1909 by Wilhelm Johannsen, Danish Botanist
thomas hunt morgan
Thomas Hunt Morgan
  • Studied genetics of fruit flies
  • Early 1900’s
  • Experimented with eye color
  • His work contributed to the knowledge of X and Y chromosomes
thomas hunt morgan1
Thomas Hunt Morgan
  • Nobel Peace Prize in 1933 for research in gene theory
ernst ruska
Ernst Ruska
  • Build the first electron microscope in 1932
  • German electrical engineer
  • Microscope offered 400X magnification
alexander fleming
Alexander Fleming
  • Discovered penicillin in 1928
  • First antibiotic drug used in treating human disease
  • Observed growth of molds (Penicillium genus) in a dish that also contracted bacteria
alexander fleming1
Alexander Fleming
  • Bacteria close to the molds were dead
  • Extracting and purifying the molds took a decade of research
  • Penicillin first used in 1941
alexander fleming2
Alexander Fleming
  • Penicillin credited with saving many lives during WWII when wounded soldiers developed infections.
rosalind elsie franklin
Rosalind Elsie Franklin
  • Research in France and England in mid 1900’s
  • Led to discovery of structure of DNA
  • Her early research was used to produce an atomic bomb
rosalind franklin
Rosalind Franklin
  • Set up X ray diffraction lab
  • Photographs of DNA showed that it could have a double helix structure
rosalind franklin1
Rosalind Franklin
  • Some questions surround the theft of her work in 1952
  • Including x ray photographs
watson and crick
Watson and Crick
  • James Watson
  • Francis Crick
  • Collaborated to produce the first model of DNA structure in 1953
watson and crick1
Watson and Crick
  • Described DNA dimensions and spacing of base pairs
  • Had major impact on genetic engineering carried out today
watson
Watson
  • Born in the US
  • Crick – born in England
  • Collaborative research at Cambridge University in England
norman e borlaug
Norman E. Borlaug
  • Developed wheat varieties producing high yields
  • Research in Mexico
  • Semi dwarf varieties
  • Developed wheat variety that would grow in climates where other varieties would not
borlaug
Borlaug
  • Nobel Peace Prize in 1971
  • Credited with helping relieve widespread hunger in some nations
mary clare king
Mary Clare King
  • Research into nature of DNA during late 1900’s
  • Determined that 99% of human DNA is identical to chimpanzee
mary clare king1
Mary Clare King
  • 1975 found similar gene pools between humans and chimpanzee made it possible to research hereditary causes of breast cancer
ian wilmut
Ian Wilmut
  • Cloning of a sheep named Dolly in 1997
  • Produced from tissue of an adult sheep
  • Previous cloning efforts had been from early embryos
research
Research
  • Use of systematic methods to answer questions.
  • Problems may be basic or applied
basic
Basic
  • Require generating new info to gain understanding
  • Applied – involve use of knowledge already acquired.
research1
Research
  • Supplies facts that can be used to improve a process or product
  • Settings range from elaborate labs to field plots
field plot
Field Plot
  • Small area of land that is used to test questions or hypothesis
  • Belief is that same result would be obtained if carried out on larger scale
field plots
Field Plots
  • Often tested several times
  • Known as replication
research2
Research
  • Done by agencies, universities, private companies, individuals
  • Biotech research in ag is carried out by ag experiment stations and large corporations
development1
Development
  • Creation of new products or methods based on findings of research
  • Carefully studied before being put into full scale use
development2
Development
  • New products tested before approval
  • Government agencies such as the FDA are involved
  • Prototype is developed – research model that is carefully tested
prototype
Prototype
  • Becomes a pattern for the production of similar products
  • After being fully tested, full scale production begins.
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