History of biotechnology
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History of Biotechnology. Stages of Biotech. Ancient Classical Modern. Ancient Biotech. Begins with early civilization Developments in ag and food production Few records exist. Ancient Biotech. Archeologists research Ancient carvings and sketches sources of information.

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Stages of biotech
Stages of Biotech

  • Ancient

  • Classical

  • Modern


Ancient biotech
Ancient Biotech

  • Begins with early civilization

  • Developments in ag and food production

  • Few records exist


Ancient biotech1
Ancient Biotech

  • Archeologists research

  • Ancient carvings and sketches sources of information


Classical biotech
Classical Biotech

  • Follows ancient

  • Makes wide spread use of methods from ancient, especially fermentation

  • Methods adapted to industrial production


Classical biotech1
Classical Biotech

  • Produce large quantities of food products and other materials in short amount of time

  • Meet demands of increasing population


Classical biotech2
Classical Biotech

  • Many methods developed through classical biotech are widely used today.


Modern biotech
Modern Biotech

  • Manipulation of genetic material within organisms

  • Based on genetics and the use of microscopy, biochemical methods, related sciences and technologies


Modern biotech1
Modern Biotech

  • Often known as genetic engineering

  • Roots involved the investigation of genes


Ancient biotech2
Ancient Biotech

  • Not known when biotech began exactly

  • Focused on having food and other human needs


Ancient biotech3
Ancient Biotech

  • Useful plants brought from the wild, planted near caves where people lived

  • As food was available, ability to store and preserve emerged


Ancient
Ancient

  • Food preservation most likely came from unplanned events such as a fire or freeze


Domestication
Domestication

  • 15,000 years ago, large animals were hard to capture

  • People only had meat when they found a dead animal

  • Came up with ways of capturing fish and small animals


Domestication1
Domestication

  • Food supplies often seasonal

  • Winter food supplies may get quite low

  • Domestication is seen by scientists as the beginning of biotech


Domestication2
Domestication

  • Adaptation of organisms so they can be cultured

  • Most likely began 11,000 – 12,000 years ago in the middle east


Domestication3
Domestication

  • Involved the collecting of seed from useful plants and growing crude crops from that seed

  • Involved the knowledge that the seed had to properly mature


Domestication4
Domestication

  • Proper planting

  • Need for water, light and other conditions for plant growth

  • Earliest plants likely grains and other seeds used for food


Domestication5
Domestication

  • Raising animals in captivity began about the same time in history

  • Easier to have an animal close by that to hunt and capture a wild one


Domestication6
Domestication

  • Learned that animals need food and water

  • Learned about simple breeding

  • How to raise young


Domestication7
Domestication

  • Cattle, goats and sheep were the first domesticated food animals


Domestication8
Domestication

  • About 10,000 years ago, people had learned enough about plants and animals to grow their own food

  • The beginning of farming.


Food

  • Domestication resulted in food supplies being greater in certain times of the year

  • Products were gathered and stored


Food

  • Some foods rotted

  • Others changed form and continued to be good to eat

  • Foods stored in a cool cave did not spoil as quickly


Food

  • Foods heated by fire also did not spoil as quickly

  • Immersing in sour liquids prevented food decay


Food preservation
Food preservation

  • Using processes that prevent or slow spoilage

  • Heating, cooling, keeps microorganisms (mo’s) from growing


Food preservation1
Food preservation

  • Stored in bags of leather or jars of clay

  • Fermentation occurs if certain mo’s are present

  • Creates an acid condition that slows or prevents spoilage


Cheese
Cheese

  • One of the first food products made through biotechnology

  • Began some 4,000 years ago

  • Nomadic tribes in Asia


Cheese1
Cheese

  • Strains of bacteria were added to milk

  • Caused acid to form

  • Resulting in sour milk


Cheese2
Cheese

  • Enzyme called “rennet” was added

  • Rennet comes from the lining of the stomachs of calves


Cheese3
Cheese

  • Rennet is genetically engineered today

  • Not all cheese is made from produced rennet


Yeast
Yeast

  • Long used in food preparation and preservation

  • Bread baking

  • Yeast produces a gas in the dough causing the dough to rise


Yeast1
Yeast

  • Fermented products

  • Vinegar

  • Require the use of yeast in at least one stage of production


Yeast2
Yeast

  • Species of fungi

  • Some are useful

  • Some may cause diseases


Vinegar
Vinegar

  • Ancient product used to preserve food

  • Juices and extracts from fruits and grains can be fermented


Fermentation
Fermentation

  • Process in which yeast enzymes chemically change compounds into alcohol

  • In making vinegar the first product of fermentation is alcohol


Fermentation1
Fermentation

  • Alcohol is converted to acetic acid by additional microbe activity

  • Acid gives vinegar a sour taste

  • Vinegar prevents growth of some bacteria


Vinegar1
Vinegar

  • Keeps foods from spoiling

  • Used in pickling

  • Biblical references to wine indicate the use of fermentation some 3,000 years ago


Fermentation control
Fermentation control

  • In ancient times, likely happened by accident

  • Advancements occurred in the 1800’s and early 1900’s


Fermenters
Fermenters

  • Used to advance fermentation process

  • Specially designed chamber that promotes fermentation


Fermenters1
Fermenters

  • Allowed better control, especially with vinegar

  • New products such as glycerol, acetone, and citric acid resulted


Development
Development

  • Of yeasts that were predictable and readily available led to modern baking industry


Antibiotics
Antibiotics

  • Use of fermentation hastened the development of antibiotics

  • A drug used to combat bacterial infections


Antibiotics1
Antibiotics

  • Penicillin

  • Developed in the late1920’s

  • Introduced in the 1940’s

  • First drug produced by microbes


Antibiotics2
Antibiotics

  • Many kinds available today

  • Limitations in their use keep disease producing organisms from developing immunity to antibiotics


Antibiotics3
Antibiotics

  • Use antibiotics only when needed.

  • Overuse may make the antibiotic ineffective when really needed later


Antibiotics4
Antibiotics

  • Some disease organisms are now resistant to certain antibiotics

  • Used in both human and vet medicine


Modern biotech2
Modern Biotech

  • Deals with manipulating genetic info

  • Microscopy and advanced computer technology are used

  • In-depth knowledge of science


Modern biotech3
Modern Biotech

  • Based on genetics research from the mid 1800’s


Genetics
Genetics

  • Study of heredity

  • Most work has focused on animal and plant genetics

  • Genes – determiners of heredity


Genes
Genes

  • Carry the genetic code

  • Understanding genetic structure essential for genetic engineering


Heredity
Heredity

  • How traits are passed from parents to offspring

  • Members of the same species pass the characteristics of that species


Heredity1
Heredity

  • Differences exist within each species.

  • Differences are known as variability


Heredity variability
Heredity &variability

  • Are used in modern biotechnology


Modern biotech4
Modern Biotech

  • Use of biotech to produce new life forms

  • Emerged in mid 1900’s

  • Made possible by rDNA technology


rDNA

  • Recombinant DNA Process

  • Genetic material is moved from one organism to another

  • Materials involved are quite small


rDNA

  • Challenging and often controversial

  • Many have opposing or negative views of biotechnolgy


People in biotech
People in Biotech

  • Zacharias Janssen

  • Discovered the principle of the compound microscope in 1590

  • Dutch eye glass maker


Anton van leeuwenhoek
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek

  • Developed single lens microscope in 1670’s

  • First to observe tiny organisms and document observations


Anton v l
Anton V.L.

  • Work led to modern microscopes

  • Electron microscope developed in 1931 by group of German scientists


Gregor mendel
Gregor Mendel

  • Formulated basic laws of heredity during mid 1800’s

  • Austrian Botanist and monk

  • Experimented with peas


Mendel
Mendel

  • Studied inheritance of seven pairs of traits

  • Bred and crossbred thousands of plants

  • Determined that some traits were dominant and other recessive


Mendel1
Mendel

  • Findings were published in 1866

  • Largely ignored for 34 years


Johan friedrich miescher
Johan Friedrich Miescher

  • Swiss Biologist

  • Isolated nuclei of white blood cells in 1869

  • Led to identification of nucleic acid by Walter Flemming


Walter sutton
Walter Sutton

  • Determined in 1903 that chromosomes carried units of heredity identified by Mendel

  • Named “genes” in 1909 by Wilhelm Johannsen, Danish Botanist


Thomas hunt morgan
Thomas Hunt Morgan

  • Studied genetics of fruit flies

  • Early 1900’s

  • Experimented with eye color

  • His work contributed to the knowledge of X and Y chromosomes


Thomas hunt morgan1
Thomas Hunt Morgan

  • Nobel Peace Prize in 1933 for research in gene theory


Ernst ruska
Ernst Ruska

  • Build the first electron microscope in 1932

  • German electrical engineer

  • Microscope offered 400X magnification


Alexander fleming
Alexander Fleming

  • Discovered penicillin in 1928

  • First antibiotic drug used in treating human disease

  • Observed growth of molds (Penicillium genus) in a dish that also contracted bacteria


Alexander fleming1
Alexander Fleming

  • Bacteria close to the molds were dead

  • Extracting and purifying the molds took a decade of research

  • Penicillin first used in 1941


Alexander fleming2
Alexander Fleming

  • Penicillin credited with saving many lives during WWII when wounded soldiers developed infections.


Rosalind elsie franklin
Rosalind Elsie Franklin

  • Research in France and England in mid 1900’s

  • Led to discovery of structure of DNA

  • Her early research was used to produce an atomic bomb


Rosalind franklin
Rosalind Franklin

  • Set up X ray diffraction lab

  • Photographs of DNA showed that it could have a double helix structure


Rosalind franklin1
Rosalind Franklin

  • Some questions surround the theft of her work in 1952

  • Including x ray photographs


Watson and crick
Watson and Crick

  • James Watson

  • Francis Crick

  • Collaborated to produce the first model of DNA structure in 1953


Watson and crick1
Watson and Crick

  • Described DNA dimensions and spacing of base pairs

  • Had major impact on genetic engineering carried out today


Watson
Watson

  • Born in the US

  • Crick – born in England

  • Collaborative research at Cambridge University in England


Norman e borlaug
Norman E. Borlaug

  • Developed wheat varieties producing high yields

  • Research in Mexico

  • Semi dwarf varieties

  • Developed wheat variety that would grow in climates where other varieties would not


Borlaug
Borlaug

  • Nobel Peace Prize in 1971

  • Credited with helping relieve widespread hunger in some nations


Mary clare king
Mary Clare King

  • Research into nature of DNA during late 1900’s

  • Determined that 99% of human DNA is identical to chimpanzee


Mary clare king1
Mary Clare King

  • 1975 found similar gene pools between humans and chimpanzee made it possible to research hereditary causes of breast cancer


Ian wilmut
Ian Wilmut

  • Cloning of a sheep named Dolly in 1997

  • Produced from tissue of an adult sheep

  • Previous cloning efforts had been from early embryos


Research
Research

  • Use of systematic methods to answer questions.

  • Problems may be basic or applied


Basic
Basic

  • Require generating new info to gain understanding

  • Applied – involve use of knowledge already acquired.


Research1
Research

  • Supplies facts that can be used to improve a process or product

  • Settings range from elaborate labs to field plots


Field plot
Field Plot

  • Small area of land that is used to test questions or hypothesis

  • Belief is that same result would be obtained if carried out on larger scale


Field plots
Field Plots

  • Often tested several times

  • Known as replication


Research2
Research

  • Done by agencies, universities, private companies, individuals

  • Biotech research in ag is carried out by ag experiment stations and large corporations


Development1
Development

  • Creation of new products or methods based on findings of research

  • Carefully studied before being put into full scale use


Development2
Development

  • New products tested before approval

  • Government agencies such as the FDA are involved

  • Prototype is developed – research model that is carefully tested


Prototype
Prototype

  • Becomes a pattern for the production of similar products

  • After being fully tested, full scale production begins.


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