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Evaluation of sampling alternatives to quantify stand structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests . Theresa Marquardt Oregon State University Paul Anderson USDA Forest Service PNW June 26, 2007. Outline. Introduction Methods Sampling Alternatives Simulation

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Slide1 l.jpg

Evaluation of sampling alternatives to quantify stand structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

Theresa Marquardt

Oregon State University

Paul Anderson

USDA Forest Service PNW

June 26, 2007


Outline l.jpg
Outline structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

  • Introduction

  • Methods

  • Sampling Alternatives

  • Simulation

  • Preliminary Results


Introduction l.jpg
Introduction structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests


Introduction4 l.jpg
Introduction structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

  • What are riparian areas?

  • What makes them difficult to sample?

  • How is forest structure defined?

  • What is the population of interest?


Riparian areas l.jpg
Riparian Areas structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

  • Three dimensional zones of interaction between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems extending outward from the channel to the limit of flooding and upward into the canopy of streamside vegetation – (Swanson et. al. 1982)


Riparian areas cont d l.jpg
Riparian Areas (Cont’d) structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

  • A riparian area is a dynamic ecosystem of vegetation, soils, and living creatures along a river or other water body, where unique ecological conditions exist, mainly due to the interaction and exchanges between the land and water.

    (S. Chan, 2004)


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Riparian areas are dynamic. structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

Approximate position original bank


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Riparian areas are diverse. structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests


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Reasons for Sampling structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

  • Discover interactions between aquatic and upland ecosystems.

  • Measure important ecological functions:

    • Wildlife habitat

    • Stream bank stability

    • Nutrient assimilation

    • Influence on microclimate

    • Filtration of sediment and debris transported by runoff

    • Large wood

  • Monitor diversity over time

    • Complex, dynamic environment serving as hotspot of biological diversity


Stand structure l.jpg
Stand Structure structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

  • Key structural attributes include spatial arrangement, canopy cover, tree diameter, tree height, type of foliage, species composition, deadwood, and understory vegetation.

    (McElhinny et al., 2005)


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Cissel et. al. (2006) structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests


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Stream Selection structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

  • Density Management Study (DMS) stream reaches in western Oregon

  • Headwater streams

    • Intermittent, seasonal, perennial

    • Flowing water less than three meters wide

    • Flowing water less than 30 cm in depth


Dms site attributes l.jpg
DMS Site Attributes structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

  • Density

    • Control: 200-350 TPA.

    • Moderate density: Approximately 80 TPA.

  • Thinning Buffers

    • Ranging from 15.24 m to 146 m


Objectives l.jpg
Objectives structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

  • Examine the accuracy and suitability of selected sampling methods to quantify forest stand structure and vegetation of headwater streams.

  • Examine relationships between arrangement of forest structure and microclimate and micro-site attributes.

  • Influence of tree density, slope, and aspect on microclimate in areas of western Oregon.


Methods l.jpg
Methods structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests


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Data Collection structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

  • Stream reaches were randomly selected from a list of headwater streams generated from DMS maps.

  • Stem Mapping

    • Total Station Survey Equipment and Software

    • 72 by 72 m area (0.5184 ha)

    • Random start for plot location

    • 9 Stem maps


Plot layout l.jpg

36 m structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

72 m

Random Starting Point

Plot Layout


Stem map l.jpg
Stem Map structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests


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Data Collection (Cont’d) structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

  • Attributes Recorded for Each Tree:

    • DBH trees larger than 7.5 cm

    • Species

    • Canopy Classification (Dominant, Co-dominant, Intermediate, Suppressed)

    • Condition (Dead, Live)

    • Decay Class (1, . . ., 5)

    • Crown Classification


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Sampling Alternatives structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests


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Sampling Alternatives structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

  • Simple Random Sampling

    • Fixed radius circular plots

  • Systematic Sampling with a random start

    • Fixed radius circular plots

    • Strip cruise

      • Perpendicular

      • Perpendicular Alternate

  • Stratified

    • Strip cruise

      • Parallel


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Sampling Alternatives (Cont’d) structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

  • Two-Stage Sampling

    • Fixed area square plots

    • Strip cruise

      • Perpendicular one side

  • Horizontal Line Sampling

  • Variable Width

    • (Adapted from Roorbach et al. 2001).

  • Each alternative will be sampled at an intensity of 10 and 20 % of the 72 m2 area.


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Stream structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

36 m

72 m

Simple Random Sampling:Fixed Radius Plots

Plots


Systematic sampling fixed radius plots l.jpg

36 m structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

72 m

Systematic Sampling:Fixed Radius Plots

Stream


Systematic sampling perpendicular l.jpg

36 m structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

72 m

Systematic Sampling: Perpendicular

Plot


Systematic random sampling perpendicular alternate strips l.jpg

36 m structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

72 m

Systematic Random Sampling:Perpendicular Alternate Strips


Stratified sampling parallel strips l.jpg

2 structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

2

1

1

1

1

2

36 m

2

36 m

Stratified Sampling: Parallel Strips

Plot


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Two-Stage: structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests Square Plots

Plot

36 m

14.4 m

72 m


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Two Stage: structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests Perpendicular One Side

72 m

36 m


Horizontal line sampling l.jpg

Riparian Area structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

Sample lines

B = Baseline Length

Horizontal Line Sampling

  • Lynch (2006)

    • Use of point sampling along a line to estimate tree attributes without land area estimation.


Horizontal line sampling cont d l.jpg
Horizontal Line Sampling (Cont’d) structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

  • A baseline is used to create a uniform distribution with the following probability density function:

  • Sampled trees are within a limiting distance of each transect


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Horizontal Line Sampling structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

  • BAF of 8 and 10 metric

  • Use 1 or 2 transects

  • Baseline length of 72 m

B


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Random Start structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

Plot width = core &inner zone width

Centerline

0 ft (0m)

65.6 ft

(20m)

32.8 ft (10m)

131.2 ft

(40m)

98.4 ft

(30m)

164.1 ft

(50m)

Bankfull Channel Edge

Variable Width Design

  • Design adapts to curvature in the stream and bankfull channel edge

From Roorbach et. Al. (2001)


Variable width design34 l.jpg
Variable Width Design structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

  • Plot width from stream of 25 m

  • Centerline length of 20.8 and 41.6 for the 10 and 20% intensity respectively

  • Both sides of the stream will be measured

  • Use stream center rather than bankfull width


Analysis methods l.jpg
Analysis Methods structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests


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Evaluating Sampling Alternatives structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

  • Size Classes

    • Diameter Class Distribution

      • 10 cm classes

  • Calculate MSE, RMSE, Bias, Relative Efficiency

    • Volume per Hectare

    • Merchantable Volume per Hectare

    • Basal Area per Hectare

    • Merchantable TPH

    • TPH


Analysis methods37 l.jpg
Analysis Methods structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

  • MSE


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Analysis Methods structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

  • Bias


Analysis methods39 l.jpg
Analysis Methods structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

  • Percent Error

  • Nonparametric Methods

    • Kruskal-Wallis Test


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Preliminary Results structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests


Diameter classes l.jpg
Diameter Classes structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests


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Preliminary Results structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests


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Preliminary Results (Cont’d) structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests


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Preliminary Results (Cont’d) structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests


Preliminary results cont d45 l.jpg
Preliminary Results (Cont’d) structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests


Preliminary results cont d46 l.jpg
Preliminary Results (Cont’d) structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests


Preliminary results cont d47 l.jpg
Preliminary Results (Cont’d) structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests


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Preliminary Results (Cont’d) structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

Percent Error


Conclusion l.jpg
Conclusion structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

  • In this case, strips parallel to the stream had a higher mean square error than those running perpendicular to the stream.

  • This could account for higher variation from stream to upslope than running parallel to the stream bank.


Questions l.jpg
Questions ? structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests


References l.jpg
References structure in riparian areas of Western Oregon forests

  • Bruce, D. 1981. Consistent Height-Growth and Growth-Rate Estimates for Remeasured Plots. For. Sci. 27(4): 711-725.

  • Cissel, J., Anderson, P., Berryman, S., Chan, S., Puettman, K., and Thompson, C. BLM Density Management and Riparian Buffer Study: Establishment Report and Study Plan. U.S. Dept. Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. 2006. 161 p.

  • Lynch, T. B. 2006. Horizontal line sampling for riparian forests without land area estimation. For. Sci. 52(2): 119-129

  • McElhinny, C., P. Gibbons, C. Brack, and J. Bauhus. 2005. Forest and woodland stand structural complexity: its definition and measurement. For. Ecol. Manage. 218 (1-3): 1-24.

  • Roorbach, A., Schuett-Hames, D., Haight, R., and McGowan, M.. Field Procedures for the Pilot Study to Validate the DFC Performance Targets for West-Side Riparian Prescriptions in Washington's Forest Practices Rules. Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission, 2001.

  • Temesgen, H. 2002. Evaluation of sampling alternatives to quantify tree leaf area. Can. J. For. Res. 33: 82-95.


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