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Essentials of Marketing Research Chapter 14: Basic Data Analysis TABULATION FREQUENCY TABLE PERCENTAGES CENTRAL TENDENCY & DISPERSION MEAN/MEDIAN STANDARD DEVIATION CROSS-TABULATION ANALYZE DATA BY GROUPS OR CATEGORIES COMPARE DIFFERENCES CONTINGENCY TABLE

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Essentials of Marketing Research

Chapter 14:

Basic Data Analysis


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TABULATION

  • FREQUENCY TABLE

  • PERCENTAGES

  • CENTRAL TENDENCY & DISPERSION

    • MEAN/MEDIAN

    • STANDARD DEVIATION


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CROSS-TABULATION

  • ANALYZE DATA BY GROUPS OR CATEGORIES

  • COMPARE DIFFERENCES

  • CONTINGENCY TABLE

  • PERCENTAGE CROSS-TABULATIONS


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ELABORATION AND REFINEMENT

  • ELABORATION ANALYSIS

  • MODERATOR VARIABLE

  • SPURIOUS RELATIONSHIP


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DATA TRANSFORMATION

  • DATA CONVERSION

  • CHANGING THE ORIGINAL FORM OF THE DATA INTO A NEW FORMAT

  • MORE APPROPRIATE DATA ANALYSIS

  • NEW VARIABLES


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CALCULATING RANK ORDER

  • ORDINAL DATA

  • BRAND PREFERENCES


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TABLES

  • BANNERHEADS FOR COLUMNS

  • STUDHEADS FOR ROWS


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CHARTS AND GRAPHS

  • PIE CHARTS

  • LINE GRAPHS

  • BAR CHARTS

    • VERTICAL

    • HORIZONTAL





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COMPUTER PROGRAMS

  • SPSS

  • SAS

  • SYSTAT

  • MICROSOFT EXCEL


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HYPOTHESIS

  • AN UNPROVEN PROPOSITION OR SUPPOSITION THAT TENTATIVELY EXPLAINS CERTAIN FACTS OF PHENOMENA

    • NULL HYPOTHESIS – H0

    • ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS – H1


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SIGNIFICANCE LEVEL

  • CRITICAL PROBABILITY IN CHOOSING BETWEEN THE NULL HYPOTHESIS AND THE ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS

  • PROBABILITY LEVEL SELECTED IS TYPICALLY .05 OR .01 (Similar to 95% and 99% Confidence)

  • TOO LOW TO WARRANT SUPPORT FOR THE NULL HYPOTHESIS


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TESTING A HYPOTHESIS ABOUT A MEAN

  • Null Hypothesis that mean equals 3.0

    H0:  = 3.0

  • Alternative Hypothesis that mean does not equal 3.0

    H1:   3.0


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CRITICAL VALUES

  • Z = 1.96 at 95 percent confidence level

    S = 1.5

    N = 225

  • Lower limit = 3.0 - (1.96)* (1.5/sqrt(225))

    = 2.804

  • Upper limit = 3.0 + (1.96)* (1.5/ sqrt( 225))

    = 3.196


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Type I and Type II Errors in Hypothesis Testing

State of Null Hypothesis Decision

in the Population Accept H0 Reject H0

H0 is true Correct--no error Type I error

H0 is false Type II error Correct--no error


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TESTING A HYPOTHESIS ABOUT A DISTRIBUTION

CHI-SQUARE TEST:

  • TEST FOR SIGNIFICANCE IN THE ANALYSIS OF FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS

  • COMPARE OBSERVED FREQUENCIES WITH EXPECTED FREQUENCIES

  • “GOODNESS OF FIT”



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CHI-SQUARE TEST

  • Use Table A.4 to obtain Critical Value

  • Degrees of Freedom = Number of Possible Responses - 1

  • Reject Null Hypothesis if

    Chi-Square > Critical Value


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UNIVARIATE CHI-SQUARE TEST

EXAMPLE: 60 Aware, 40 Unaware

X2 = (60 - 50)2 + (40 – 50)2 = 4

50 50

DF = 2 – 1 = 1

CV = 3.84

X2 > CV  Reject Null Hypothesis


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SCALE DETERMINES MEASURE

Measure of

Central Measure of

Type of Scale Tendency Dispersion

Nominal Mode None

Ordinal Median Percentile

Interval or ratio Mean Standard deviation


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