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ISLAMISM IN EGYPT WHAT IS POLITICAL ISLAM Perception vs. Reality What are the popular perceptions? What does Charles Hirschkind say? The political and non-political Moving beyond Din wa Dawla ISLAMISM What is it? What is a Social Movement?

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ISLAMISM IN EGYPT

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ISLAMISM IN EGYPT


WHAT IS POLITICAL ISLAM

  • Perception vs. Reality

  • What are the popular perceptions?

  • What does Charles Hirschkind say?

  • The political and non-political

  • Moving beyond Din wa Dawla


ISLAMISM

  • What is it?

  • What is a Social Movement?

    • “Collective challenges to existing arrangements of power and distribution by people with common purposes and solidarity, in sustained interaction with elites, opponents, and authorities”

    • What does that really mean?

  • Focusing on methods employed by challengers

    • Disruptive vs. Moderate tactics

  • The Problem of Institutionalization

  • Repression-Moderation Dilemma


CASE STUDY OF ISLAMISM: WHY THE MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD IN EGYPT

  • Most powerful opposition to the Egyptian regime. They are banned. Can they tell us more about Islamist movements in the Middle East?

  • Historical context

  • Anthropological Perspective

  • Social Movement Theories

  • Political Science


EGYPTIAN HISTORY: POLITICAL STRUCTURES

  • Islamic History in Egypt

  • Ottoman Empire

  • British Colonialism

  • Rise of the Muslim Brotherhood

  • Nasser (1952-1973): Arab Socialism

  • Sadat (1973-1981): Liberalization

  • Mubarak (1981-Present): Religious Awakening and Gil as-Sab`inat (The 70s generation)


RADICALISM: CASE STUDY AL-GAMA`A AL-ISLAMIYYAH

  • Isolated in Upper Egypt in 1980s

  • Ran 150 mosques, conferences in mosques

  • Developed their own security

  • 1990: Security Forces assassinated `Ala’ Muhyi al-Din (Spokesperson of the al-Gama`a)

  • Gama`a in retaliation killed Speaker of the Parliament

  • March 1992: Sectarian clashes


1995 PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS

  • 53 Died; 601 injured

  • Jan 22, 1995: 27 MBs arrested

  • July 28, 1995: 200 arrested

  • Sept, 1995: 5 arrested

  • Oct, 1995: 21 arrested

  • Nov, 1995: 6 arrested

  • Dec, 1995: 95 arrested

  • Total 81 transferred to military courts: 54 sent to jail for 3-5 years; 27 found innocent


THE SPLIT WITHIN THE MB


SPLIT CONTINUED


SPLIT CONTINUED


A LOOK AT THE ENGINEERS’ ASSOCIATION

  • Engineers’ Assoc. also PA that Madi led as second in command. Looking at 1988-1995

  • Nov. 1988: Conference on affordable housing with Minister of Housing and Development

  • Jan. 1989: Seminar on unemployment in Egyptian society and engineers

  • Feb. 1990: Seminar on Freedom and Development

  • Feb 19-21, 1992: Seminar on the debates within Sciences, Research, and Development

  • June 1992: Seminar on Terrorism—Causes, Effects, and Possible Solutions

  • Nov 1994: Seminar on improving engineering education globally

  • Engineers’ Assoc had 40 committees: Treasury, Housing, Sinai Development, Rebuilding effort in Lebanon and Bosnia, etc.

  • Annual Syndical Conferences were held where PAs discussed everything from development to national health issues , unemployment, civil liberties, domestic policies, research, torture, international relations, etc


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