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Designing new systems or modifying existing ones should always be aimed at helping an organization achieve its goals. State the purpose of systems design and discuss the differences between logical and physical systems design

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Designing new systems or modifying existing ones should always be aimed at helping an organization achieve its goals

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Designing new systems or modifying existing ones should always be aimed at helping an organization achieve its goals

State the purpose of systems design and discuss the differences between logical and physical systems design

Describe some considerations in design modeling and the diagrams used during object-oriented design

Outline key considerations in interface design and control and system security and control.

Define the term RFP and discuss how this document is used to drive the acquisition of hardware and software.

Describe the techniques used to make systems selection evaluations

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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The primary emphasis of systems implementation is to make sure that the right information is delivered to the right person in the right format at the right time

State the purpose of systems implementation and discuss the various activities associated with this phase of systems development

List the advantages and disadvantages of purchasing versus developing software

Discuss the software development process and some of the tools used in this process, including object-oriented program development tools

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Maintenance and review add to the useful life of a system but can consume large amounts of resources. These activities can benefit from the same rigorous methods and project management techniques applied to systems development.

State the importance of systems and software maintenance and discuss the activities involved

Describe the systems review process

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Systems Design

  • Answers the question “How will the information system do what it must do to solve a problem?”

  • Has two dimensions: logical and physical

  • Logical design: description of the functional requirements of a system

  • Physical design: specification of the characteristics of the system components necessary to put the logical design into action

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Logical Design

  • Output requirements

  • Input requirements

  • Process requirements

  • File and database requirements

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Logical Design (continued)

  • Telecommunications requirements

  • Procedure requirements

  • Controls and security requirements

  • Personnel and job requirements

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Physical Design

  • Hardware specifications

  • Software specifications

  • Database specifications

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Physical Design (continued)

  • Telecommunications specifications

  • Personnel specifications

  • Procedure and control specifications

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Object-Oriented Design

  • Design key objects and classes of objects in the new or updated system

    • Consideration of the problem domain, the operating environment, and the user interface

    • Consideration of the sequence of events that must happen for the system to function correctly

  • A sequence of events is often called a scenario

  • A scenario can be diagrammed in a sequence diagram

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Figure 13.4: The Levels of the Sign-On Procedure

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Interface Design and Controls (continued)

  • Interactive processing

    • Menu-driven systems

    • Help commands

    • Table lookup facilities

    • Restart procedures

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Table 13.1: The Elements of Good Interactive Dialogue

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Design of System Security and Controls

  • Preventing, detecting, and correcting errors

  • Disaster planning and recovery

    • Disaster planning:the process of anticipating and providing for disasters

    • Disaster recovery: the implementation of the disaster plan

    • Hardware backup

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Design of System Security and Controls (continued)

  • Disaster planning and recovery (continued)

    • Software and database backup

    • Telecommunications backup

    • Personnel backup

  • Systems controls: rules and procedures to maintain data security

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Generating Systems Design Alternatives

  • Request for proposal (RFP): a document that specifies in detail required resources such as hardware and software

  • Financial options

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Evaluating and Selecting a Systems Design

  • Preliminary evaluation

    • To dismiss the unwanted proposals

    • Begins after all proposals have been submitted

  • Final evaluation

    • A detailed investigation of the proposals offered by the vendors remaining after the preliminary evaluation

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Figure 13.7: The Stages in Preliminary and Final Evaluations

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Evaluation Techniques

  • Group consensus

  • Cost/benefit analysis

  • Benchmark tests

  • Point evaluation

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Figure 13.8: An Illustration of the Point Evaluation System

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Figure 13.9: Freezing Design Specifications

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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The Design Report

  • Primary result of systems design

  • Reflects the decisions made and prepares the way for systems implementation

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Figure 13.11: Typical Steps in Systems Implementation

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Acquiring Hardware from an IS Vendor

  • An IS vendor is a company that offers hardware, software, telecommunications systems, databases, IS personnel, and/or other computer-related resources

  • Buying computer hardware

  • Leasing computer hardware

  • Renting computer hardware

  • “Pay-as-you-go,” “on-demand,” or “utility” computing

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Acquiring Software: Make or Buy?

  • Externally developed software: lower cost, lower risk, ease of installation

  • In-house developed software

    • Meeting user and organizational requirements

    • More features and increased flexibility in terms of customization and changes

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Acquiring Software: Make or Buy? (continued)

  • In-house developed software (continued)

    • Greater potential for providing a competitive advantage

    • Chief programmer teams

    • The programming life cycle

    • Tools and techniques for software development

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Figure 13.13: Steps in the Programming Life Cycle

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Tools and Techniques for Software Development

  • Structured programming

    • Improving the logical program flow by breaking the program into groups of statements, called structures

  • CASE tools: used during software development to automate some of the techniques

  • Object-oriented implementation

    • A collection of existing modules of code, or objects, can be used across a number of applications

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Tools and Techniques for Software Development (continued)

  • Cross-platform development: allows programmers to develop programs that can run on computer systems having different hardware and operating systems, or platforms

  • Integrated development environment: combines the tools needed for programming with a programming language into one integrated package

  • Structured walkthrough: a planned and preannounced review of the progress of a program module, a structure chart, or a human procedure

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Acquiring Database and Telecommunications Systems

  • Relational databases

  • Object-oriented database systems

  • Databases are a blend of hardware and software

  • Telecommunications systems require a blend of hardware and software

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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User Preparation

  • Readying managers, decision makers, employees, other users, and stakeholders for new systems

  • Training users

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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IS Personnel: Hiring and Training

  • IS manager

  • Systems analysts

  • Computer programmers

  • Data-entry operators

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Site Preparation

  • Preparation of the location of a new system

  • Making room for a computer in an office

  • Special wiring and air conditioning

  • Special floor

  • Additional power circuits

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Data Preparation

  • Also called data conversion

  • Ensuring all files and databases are ready to be used with new computer software and systems

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Installation

  • The process of physically placing the computer equipment on the site and making it operational

  • Normally the manufacturer is responsible for installing computer equipment

  • Someone from the organization (usually the IS manager) should oversee the process

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Testing

  • Unit testing: testing of individual programs

  • System testing: testing the entire system of programs

  • Volume testing: testing the application with a large amount of data

  • Integration testing: testing all related systems together

  • Acceptance testing: conducting any tests required by the user

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Start-Up

  • The process of making the final tested information system fully operational

  • Direct conversion (also called plunge or direct cutover)

  • Phase-in approach

  • Pilot start-up

  • Parallel start-up

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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User Acceptance

  • User acceptance document: formal agreement signed by the user that states that a phase of the installation or the complete system is approved

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Systems Operation and Maintenance

  • Systems operation: use of a new or modified system

  • Systems maintenance: checking, changing, and enhancing the system to make it more useful in achieving user and organizational goals

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Types of Maintenance

  • Slipstream upgrade

  • Patch

  • Release

  • Version

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Figure 13.19: Maintenance Costs as a Function of Age

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Figure 13.20: The Value of Investment in Design

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Systems Review

  • Process of analyzing systems to make sure that they are operating as intended

  • Often compares the performance and benefits of the system as it was designed with the actual performance and benefits of the system in operation

  • Event-driven review: review triggered by a problem or opportunity such as an error, a corporate merger, or a new market for products

  • Time-driven review: review performed after a specified amount of time

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Factors to Consider During Systems Review

  • Mission

  • Organizational goals

  • Hardware and software

  • Database

  • Telecommunications

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Factors to Consider During Systems Review (continued)

  • Information systems personnel

  • Control

  • Training

  • Costs

  • Complexity

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Factors to Consider During Systems Review (continued)

  • Reliability

  • Efficiency

  • Response time

  • Documentation

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Summary

  • Systems design answers the question “How will the information system do what it must do to solve a problem?”

  • Systems design has two dimensions: logical and physical

  • Logical design is description of the functional requirements of a system

  • Physical design is specification of the characteristics of the system components necessary to put the logical design into action

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Summary (continued)

  • Steps of systems implementation: hardware acquisition, software acquisition, user preparation, personnel: hiring and training, site preparation, data preparation, installation, testing, start-up, and user acceptance

  • Systems operation is the use of a new or modified system

  • Systems maintenance involves checking, changing, and enhancing the system to make it more useful in achieving user and organizational goals

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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Summary (continued)

  • Systems review is the process of analyzing systems to make sure that they are operating as intended

  • Event-driven review is triggered by a problem or opportunity such as an error, a corporate merger, or a new market for products

  • Time-driven review is performed after a specified amount of time

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition


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