Connecting SW-PBIS to the Classroom: Designing Classroom Supports

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What the Research Says about Classroom Management . Linked with positive student outcomes (academic and behavior)Increased risk of preventing more serious problems among at-risk kidsSupports all students in the prevention of possible current and future behavior problems.Strong management signals to kids that the class is a safe place to learn. Well managed classrooms are rated as having more positive climates.(Aber et al., 1998; Mitchell, Bradshaw
Connecting SW-PBIS to the Classroom: Designing Classroom Sup...

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1. Connecting SW-PBIS to the Classroom: Designing Classroom Supports Coaches and Administrators Support for Teachers

2. The rationale for the study really goes back to the belief that Schools can either inhibit or foster the development of behavior problems in students. There is a great deal of literature showing that classrooms with poor behavior management produce negative students outcomes. In fact, the number of students considered at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders have been linked to classroom organization and behavior management. Further, research supports that students in poorly managed classrooms are not only at risk for current behavior problems while in that classroom, but they are at greater risk for future behavior problems. For instance, Kellam??.1998 randomly assigned students to first grade classrooms either receiving a classroom management intervention or not (the Good Behavior Game) and they found that boys that were poorly managed were significantly more likely have behavior problems in sixth grade than similar boys in well managed classrooms. Further, these students are being followed and they are in their 20?s. They are finding that students in the first grade classroom who received the classroom management are less likely to be diagnosed with CD or antipersonality disorder. So, simply intervening and providing effective classroom management in 1st grade reduced long term negative outcomes. Therefore, finding ways to increase effective behavior management practices in the classroom is paramount.The rationale for the study really goes back to the belief that Schools can either inhibit or foster the development of behavior problems in students. There is a great deal of literature showing that classrooms with poor behavior management produce negative students outcomes. In fact, the number of students considered at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders have been linked to classroom organization and behavior management. Further, research supports that students in poorly managed classrooms are not only at risk for current behavior problems while in that classroom, but they are at greater risk for future behavior problems. For instance, Kellam??.1998 randomly assigned students to first grade classrooms either receiving a classroom management intervention or not (the Good Behavior Game) and they found that boys that were poorly managed were significantly more likely have behavior problems in sixth grade than similar boys in well managed classrooms. Further, these students are being followed and they are in their 20?s. They are finding that students in the first grade classroom who received the classroom management are less likely to be diagnosed with CD or antipersonality disorder. So, simply intervening and providing effective classroom management in 1st grade reduced long term negative outcomes. Therefore, finding ways to increase effective behavior management practices in the classroom is paramount.

5. Big Idea We often assume green zone is in place everywhere But what about the classroom? How is PBIS being used in the classroom to prevent yellow zone behaviors? By fortifying the green zone, we can reduce need for yellow zone

7. Using ODR, Office Managed v Classroom Managed, teacher expectations, PD includes these topics? Community of Practice and life long learners? Does admin support this kind of climate?Using ODR, Office Managed v Classroom Managed, teacher expectations, PD includes these topics? Community of Practice and life long learners? Does admin support this kind of climate?

9. Objectives Identify connect points between SW critical features and classroom critical features Identify classroom best practices Identify actions for a school-wide team to improve the quality of classroom management throughout their school Identify coach role for organizing a ?system? to support teachers (RED) Identify administrator roles for organizing a ?system? to support teachers (RED)

10. Today?s Objectives Self Assessment- Assessing Current Status Identifying the practices Building the system to support practices Identifying role of administrator, team and coach

11. Classroom Management is a School-wide Consideration PBIS School team provides support Clear delineation of office-managed versus classroom-managed problems Training on effective teaching and behavior support strategies Access to evidence-based strategies Materials for implementing interventions Easy way for teachers to request secondary and tertiary interventions assistance It is your job as part of the SWPBS team to be able to do these things Assess a classroom to identify potential problems Provide teachers with tips and strategies Help teacher evaluate success of strategies and plan Need to show the Team Model!It is your job as part of the SWPBS team to be able to do these things Assess a classroom to identify potential problems Provide teachers with tips and strategies Help teacher evaluate success of strategies and plan Need to show the Team Model!

12. Self Assessment Review Data- Office Referrals by location Where are most referrals coming from in your school?

14. Self Assessment Current Tools EBS Survey (Classroom) 2010 New Teams have new BOQ and were introduced to Classroom Supports Classroom Self Assessment Administrator Walk Through

15. Self Assessment Review Data- Office Referrals by location Where are most referrals coming from in your school? What are the current structures in place that support teachers? FORMAL: process in handbook, teams, paperwork, flowchart, professional development INFORMAL: What really happens? How would you change current system? 10 minute brainstorm at table10 minute brainstorm at table

17. Building Systems to Support Best Practices in the Classroom How will staff get skills? How will staff get feedback? build ongoing structure- buddy system, assigned core master teachers Develop Training Calendar of PD-orientation, annual staff development days, staff meetings Develop Access for Teacher Support- Request for Assistance Communication to Staff Support ?Team? Can District/Admin deliver Time and Resources?

18. Develop system to present best practice and encourage teacher engagement and implementation Weekly skill and/or feature mini-lessons for ALL Time for grade level collaboration related to the lesson, data collection, feedback (ADMINISTRATOR) Time and resources for after school work sessions (voluntary) Created timelines for implementation of each feature Periodic self-assessment for progress monitoring and fidelity check- performance feedback Planned booster session

19. ADMINISTRATOR and COACH Each of these practices could be used as a mini module that could be taught in 10 minutes during a staff meeting!! ***Don?t overwhelm the teachers! ?Practice? of the month Take Data-Pre/Post ** need performance feedback How will you set that up? Buddy system, grade level teams?

20. What are the Classroom Practices?

21. 1. Classroom Expectations & Rules Identify, Teach, Practice, Reinforce One of the things we want to emphasize is the importance of good classroom systems. We do this because we know?building effective classroom systems will reduce the number of students who require more intensive support. Today we are looking specifically at classroom expectations and rules.One of the things we want to emphasize is the importance of good classroom systems. We do this because we know?building effective classroom systems will reduce the number of students who require more intensive support. Today we are looking specifically at classroom expectations and rules.

22. Why Focus on Classroom Rules? A dependable system of rules and procedures provides structure for students and helps them be engaged with instructional tasks (Brophy, 1998) Teaching rules and routines to students at the beginning of the year and enforcing them consistently across time increases student academic achievement and task engagement (Evertson & Emer, 1982; Johnson, Stoner & Green, 1996) Clearly stating expectations and consistently supporting them lends credibility to a teacher?s authority (Good & Brophy, 2000) Research tells us? (Read slide)Research tells us? (Read slide)

23. What are Expectations and Rules? Expectations are outcomes Rules are the specific criteria for meeting expectation outcomes Rules identify and define concepts of acceptable behavior Use of expectations and rules provides a guideline for students to monitor their own behavior and they remind and motivate students to meet certain standards To correctly establish classroom rules we need to understand some specific vocabulary. Although they are associated, expectations and rules are not the same. Expectations are the outcomes we want to get. For example, we want students to be Safe, to be Respectful, to be a Learner, to be Responsible. These are expectations or outcomes. Rules are how we get to those outcomes. Rules are specific, they define what we want students TO DO and they provide a consistent guideline for how to meet the standards of our expectations. You have already identified the expectations for your school. You have used those expectations to create rules for non-classroom settings- these are on your matrix. Our focus today is using school wide expectations to identify individual classroom rules. For example, what does it mean to be Safe in Mrs. Anderson?s kindergarten classroom? Or what does it mean to be Respectful in Mr. Smith?s PE class? Again, expectations are the outcomes we want for students and you?ve already identified those on your matrix. Rules are the specific criteria for meeting those expectations in each classroom within your building. (Newcomer, 2008)To correctly establish classroom rules we need to understand some specific vocabulary. Although they are associated, expectations and rules are not the same. Expectations are the outcomes we want to get. For example, we want students to be Safe, to be Respectful, to be a Learner, to be Responsible. These are expectations or outcomes. Rules are how we get to those outcomes. Rules are specific, they define what we want students TO DO and they provide a consistent guideline for how to meet the standards of our expectations. You have already identified the expectations for your school. You have used those expectations to create rules for non-classroom settings- these are on your matrix. Our focus today is using school wide expectations to identify individual classroom rules. For example, what does it mean to be Safe in Mrs. Anderson?s kindergarten classroom? Or what does it mean to be Respectful in Mr. Smith?s PE class? Again, expectations are the outcomes we want for students and you?ve already identified those on your matrix. Rules are the specific criteria for meeting those expectations in each classroom within your building. (Newcomer, 2008)

24. Discuss: Importance of expectations & rules? 2-Minute Frenzy ? How has clarifying schoolwide/non-classroom setting rules impacted student behavior? Why do you think it is important to clarify classroom rules? Take 2 minutes and talk to someone near you. Discuss the impact of schoolwide and non-classroom rules in your building. Talk about how this relates to classroom rules.Take 2 minutes and talk to someone near you. Discuss the impact of schoolwide and non-classroom rules in your building. Talk about how this relates to classroom rules.

25. Guidelines for Writing Classroom Rules Consistent with schoolwide expectations/rules Observable Measureable Positively stated Understandable Always applicable ? Something the teacher will consistently enforce Classroom expectations and rules must be consistent with schoolwide expectations and rules. School rules are in effect in the classroom. What we identify as classroom rules are additional, extra or specific to the classroom setting ? anything not already covered by the schoolwide rules that you want in effect in your classroom. To enhance the effectiveness of classroom rules, 5 guidelines need to be considered. Classroom rules need to be written in observable measurable terms. Observable means, ?I can see it? Classroom rules also need to be written in Measurable terms. Measurable means, ?I can count it? Third, just as we do with schoolwide and non-classroom rules? classroom rules should be positively stated. Positively stated rules encourage the desired behavior. This means telling students what we want them TO do. Fourth, classroom rules need to be understandable. Rules are stated so students clearly understand what is meant. Vocabulary should be consistent with student?s grade and/or ability level (ie ?use school appropriate language? might be ok at the middle school level, but perhaps is not understandable for a kindergarten classroom) The last guideline for writing classroom rules is?Always applicable. Rules should be based on problems which typically occur and they should not vary or change within the same setting. (Newcomer, 2008) Classroom expectations and rules must be consistent with schoolwide expectations and rules. School rules are in effect in the classroom. What we identify as classroom rules are additional, extra or specific to the classroom setting ? anything not already covered by the schoolwide rules that you want in effect in your classroom. To enhance the effectiveness of classroom rules, 5 guidelines need to be considered. Classroom rules need to be written in observable measurable terms. Observable means, ?I can see it? Classroom rules also need to be written in Measurable terms. Measurable means, ?I can count it? Third, just as we do with schoolwide and non-classroom rules? classroom rules should be positively stated. Positively stated rules encourage the desired behavior. This means telling students what we want them TO do. Fourth, classroom rules need to be understandable. Rules are stated so students clearly understand what is meant. Vocabulary should be consistent with student?s grade and/or ability level (ie ?use school appropriate language? might be ok at the middle school level, but perhaps is not understandable for a kindergarten classroom) The last guideline for writing classroom rules is?Always applicable. Rules should be based on problems which typically occur and they should not vary or change within the same setting. (Newcomer, 2008)

26. Other Considerations? Students play a role in formulating rules Rules displayed prominently; easily seen Teacher models and reinforces consistently Rules that are easily monitored Other ideas to consider? Students should be given an opportunity for input about classroom rules. This increases the likelihood they will know and follow the rules. Classroom rules should be posted so they are easily seen. This serves as a reminder to students AND increases the likelihood teachers will teach, model, refer to and reinforce the rules. Rules should be manageable and not require excessive time to hold students accountable.Other ideas to consider? Students should be given an opportunity for input about classroom rules. This increases the likelihood they will know and follow the rules. Classroom rules should be posted so they are easily seen. This serves as a reminder to students AND increases the likelihood teachers will teach, model, refer to and reinforce the rules. Rules should be manageable and not require excessive time to hold students accountable.

27. Expectations and Rules Example? Expectation is: Students will be Safe Rules are? Keep hands and feet to self Use materials correctly Here?s an example of Expectation and rules?Here?s an example of Expectation and rules?

28. Which of These Follow the Guidelines? Keep hands and feet to yourself Turn in completed assignment Respect others Walk in the hallways Don?t run Turn to a partner. Talk and decide? which of these statements meet the 5 guidelines for writing rules? Remember, to be considered a ?rule,? the behavior must be observable, measureable, positively stated, understandable, and always applicable. Answers: Keep hands and feet to yourself (good) Turn in completed assignment (good) Respect others (not observable, measureable, understandable) Walk in the hallways (good) Don?t run (isn?t positively stated) (Newcomer, 2008) Turn to a partner. Talk and decide? which of these statements meet the 5 guidelines for writing rules? Remember, to be considered a ?rule,? the behavior must be observable, measureable, positively stated, understandable, and always applicable. Answers: Keep hands and feet to yourself (good) Turn in completed assignment (good) Respect others (not observable, measureable, understandable) Walk in the hallways (good) Don?t run (isn?t positively stated) (Newcomer, 2008)

29. Which of These Follow the Guidelines? Think before responding Come to class on time, prepared with all supplies and assignments Be responsible Be ready to learn Sit in your seat unless you have permission to leave it Turn to a partner. Talk and decide? which of these statements meet the 5 guidelines for writing rules? Remember, to be considered a ?rule,? the behavior must be observable, measureable, positively stated, understandable, and always applicable. Answers: Think before responding (not observable, measureable) Come to class on time, prepared with all supplies and assignments (good) Be responsible (not observable, measureable, understandable) Be ready to learn (not understandable) Sit in your seat unless you have permission to leave it (good) (Newcomer, 2008) Turn to a partner. Talk and decide? which of these statements meet the 5 guidelines for writing rules? Remember, to be considered a ?rule,? the behavior must be observable, measureable, positively stated, understandable, and always applicable. Answers: Think before responding (not observable, measureable) Come to class on time, prepared with all supplies and assignments (good) Be responsible (not observable, measureable, understandable) Be ready to learn (not understandable) Sit in your seat unless you have permission to leave it (good) (Newcomer, 2008)

30. Basic Logic

31. Replacement behavior?.APPLE PIE

33. CHOCOLATE CAKE

34. Classroom Rule Writing Activity 1 List problem behaviors in your classroom List replacement behavior (what we want kids to do instead) List schoolwide expectations Categorize rules within schoolwide expectations *Post, teach and acknowledge student compliance of rules Handout 1 & 2 This first activity is for schools who have NOT identified classroom expectations/rules as a column on their matrix. If your school has not addressed classroom rules in any way, you should do this activity? You will need Handouts 1 & 2. If your school has identified CLASSROOM expectations/rules that apply to all classrooms in the building, then you will skip Activity 1 and complete Activity 2 instead using Handout 3. For Activity 1? First, look at Handout 1. This can be used as an example while you complete your own rules on Handout 2. Next, using Handout 2 list your schoolwide expectations (safe, respectful, ready) Then list problem behaviors in your classroom. The behaviors that take time away from learning. After you have listed problem behaviors, identify the replacement behaviors or what you want students to do instead of the problem behavior. Remember the guidelines we shared earlier, Observable Measureable Positively stated Understandable Always applicable ? Something the teacher will consistently enforce Finally, categorize your replacement behaviors/positively stated rules into your schoolwide expectations. It is important to make that connection. This first activity is for schools who have NOT identified classroom expectations/rules as a column on their matrix. If your school has not addressed classroom rules in any way, you should do this activity? You will need Handouts 1 & 2. If your school has identified CLASSROOM expectations/rules that apply to all classrooms in the building, then you will skip Activity 1 and complete Activity 2 instead using Handout 3. For Activity 1? First, look at Handout 1. This can be used as an example while you complete your own rules on Handout 2. Next, using Handout 2 list your schoolwide expectations (safe, respectful, ready) Then list problem behaviors in your classroom. The behaviors that take time away from learning. After you have listed problem behaviors, identify the replacement behaviors or what you want students to do instead of the problem behavior. Remember the guidelines we shared earlier, Observable Measureable Positively stated Understandable Always applicable ? Something the teacher will consistently enforce Finally, categorize your replacement behaviors/positively stated rules into your schoolwide expectations. It is important to make that connection.

35. Activity 2 Classroom Rules Survey Write expectations from the SW matrix. List classroom rules for each expectation. Check if rules meet 5 criteria. Observable, Measurable, Positive, Understandable, Always Applicable Use survey questions to consider how expectations and rules are used throughout the building. Handout 3 If your school has already developed classroom expectations/rules that apply to all classrooms in the building, you will complete the Classroom Rules Survey using Handout 3. On Handout 3 First, write your school expectations Next, list the classroom rules that fit within each category of your school-wide expectations Third, check to see if each of your rules meet the criteria of observable, measureable, positively stated, understandable, and always applicable Finally use the survey questions to consider and discuss how classroom expectations/rules are used in your building. If your school has already developed classroom expectations/rules that apply to all classrooms in the building, you will complete the Classroom Rules Survey using Handout 3. On Handout 3 First, write your school expectations Next, list the classroom rules that fit within each category of your school-wide expectations Third, check to see if each of your rules meet the criteria of observable, measureable, positively stated, understandable, and always applicable Finally use the survey questions to consider and discuss how classroom expectations/rules are used in your building.

36. Schedule for Teaching Classroom Rules First Grading Period Teach rules for all areas of school, including individual classrooms, during first week of school After first week, review rules 2 or 3 times / week Here is a suggested schedule for teaching your rules. In essence, you directly teach rules during the first week of school, then during the first grading period (quarter or trimester), you review your rules 2-3 times per week. This provides students with multiple opportunities for review and practice. Along with practice opportunities it is important to continue providing frequent reinforcement and acknowledgement when rules are followed. Examples for practice include rapid pace, oral review during first or last few minutes of class, surprise quizzes about rules for extra credit points, or dividing students into teams, asking questions about rules and awarding points. Just as we do with an academic task we continue to teach, review, practice and acknowledge success on behavioral tasks ? which include following classroom rules. (Newcomer, 2008) Here is a suggested schedule for teaching your rules. In essence, you directly teach rules during the first week of school, then during the first grading period (quarter or trimester), you review your rules 2-3 times per week. This provides students with multiple opportunities for review and practice. Along with practice opportunities it is important to continue providing frequent reinforcement and acknowledgement when rules are followed. Examples for practice include rapid pace, oral review during first or last few minutes of class, surprise quizzes about rules for extra credit points, or dividing students into teams, asking questions about rules and awarding points. Just as we do with an academic task we continue to teach, review, practice and acknowledge success on behavioral tasks ? which include following classroom rules. (Newcomer, 2008)

37. Schedule for Teaching Rules Through Second Grading Period Review rules once per week Remainder of the Year Review rules periodically as needed Then through the second grading period review the rules once per week and for the rest of the year, review periodically as needed. (Newcomer, 2008) Then through the second grading period review the rules once per week and for the rest of the year, review periodically as needed. (Newcomer, 2008)

39. Admin and Coach How will you support ALL teachers to align SW with their classroom expectations/rules ? Gather data- Classroom Walkthrough Get buy-in (articles/research/baseline data) Teach Mini Module/Cool Tool Create support system (buddy/grade level team) Collect Data- performance feedback Present fidelity and outcome data-CELEBRATE

40. Using the Walk through Walk Through or Brief Observation Who will conduct? Admin, Coach, Buddy or Peer?

41. References Brophy, J. (1998). Motivating Students to Learn. Boston: McGraw Hill. Evertson, C., & Emmer, E. (1982). Preventive classroom management. In D. Duke (Ed.), Helping teachers manage classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Evertson, C. M., Emmer, E. T. & Worsham, M.E. (2003). Classroom Management for Elementary Teachers. Boston: Pearson Education. Freiberg, J., Stein, T., & Huan, S. (1995). Effects of a classroom management intervention on student achievement in inner-city elementary schools. Educational Research and Evaluation, 1, 36-66. Good, T. & Brophy, J. (2000). Look Into Classrooms. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. IRIS Center, Research to Practice Instructional Strategies. Nashville: Vanderbilt University. Johnson, T.C., Stoner, G. & Green, S.K. (1996). Demonstrating the experimenting society model with classwide behavior management interventions. School Psychology Review, 25(2), 199-214. Kern, L., Clemens, N.H. (2007). Antecedent strategies to promote appropriate classroom behavior. Psychology in the Schools, 44(1), 65-75. Newcomer, L. (2007, 2008). Positive Behavior Support in the Classroom. Unpublished presentation. Shores, R., Gunter, P., & Jack, S. (1993). Classroom management strategies: Are they setting events for coercion? Behavioral Disorders, 18, 92-102. Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D. & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for Research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), pp. 351-380. To help you remember what we?ve talked about a short Fact Sheet about Classroom Expectation and Rules is available. Handout 4To help you remember what we?ve talked about a short Fact Sheet about Classroom Expectation and Rules is available. Handout 4

42. What are the Classroom Practices?

43. Classroom Procedures & Routines Identify, Teach, Practice, Reinforce An important feature of effective classroom management is clearly defined procedures and routines. This is the focus of our discussion today. An important feature of effective classroom management is clearly defined procedures and routines. This is the focus of our discussion today.

44. Why Focus on Classroom Procedures and Routines? Effective teaching includes teaching functional routines and procedures to students at the beginning of the year and using these routines to efficiently move through the school day. (Leinhardt, Weidman, & Hammond, 1987) As students become more familiar with classroom routines and procedures, additional instructional formats and more challenging work can be incorporated (Evertson, Emmer & Worsham, 2003; Good & Brophy, 2003) When students can predict the events throughout their school day, they are more likely to be engaged and less likely to display problem behavior. One way to increase predictability in a classroom is to establish routines, particularly early in the school year.(Kern & Clemens, 2007, p. 67) Research tells us? (Read slide)When students can predict the events throughout their school day, they are more likely to be engaged and less likely to display problem behavior. One way to increase predictability in a classroom is to establish routines, particularly early in the school year.(Kern & Clemens, 2007, p. 67) Research tells us? (Read slide)

45. What Are Procedures & Routines? Procedures explain the accepted process for carrying out a specific activity, such as walking in the hallway, using lockers, sharpening pencils, attending an assembly, going to the restroom. Classroom procedures are patterns for accomplishing classroom tasks. Procedures form routines that help students meet expectations stated in the rules Procedures are the steps we take to complete a task. Routines are the habits we form by repeating the same set of steps over and over. Procedures are how we do something. Routines develop from consistent use of procedures. Procedures and routines are important because they help students follow rules and meet expectations. (Newcomer, 2008)Procedures are the steps we take to complete a task. Routines are the habits we form by repeating the same set of steps over and over. Procedures are how we do something. Routines develop from consistent use of procedures. Procedures and routines are important because they help students follow rules and meet expectations. (Newcomer, 2008)

46. What Are Procedures & Routines? Procedures should be succinct, positively stated and in age-appropriate terms Keep ?Who, what, when, where, why, and how? in mind Clear procedures, taught and consistently enforced are the most critical tool to create a functional and productive learning environment Ideas to keep in mind ? (Read slide)Ideas to keep in mind ? (Read slide)

47. Define and teach classroom routines How to enter class and begin to work How to predict the schedule for the day What to do if you do not have materials What to do if you need help What to do if you need to go to the bathroom What to do if you are handing in late material What to do if someone is bothering you. Signals for moving through different activities. ?Show me you are listening? How to determine if you are doing well in class Establish a signal for obtaining class attention Teach effective transitions. Procedures and Routines

49. Designing Classroom Routines

50. Classroom Routines Matrix

51. Effective Learning Environments Develop Predictable Routines Teacher routines Student routines Design an environment that.. elicits appropriate behavior minimizes crowding and distraction

53. Creating Environments Environments that increase the likelihood are guided by a core curriculum and implemented with consistency and fidelity

54. Design a Functional Physical Layout for the Classroom Different areas of the classroom designed for different purposes Traffic Patterns Visual access Teacher access to students at all times Student access to instruction Density Teacher desk

55. Questions for Planning Physical Space How many students will you have in the room at one time? How should your pupil?s seats be grouped? What kinds of activities will be taking place in your classroom? Do any students need to be isolated? If so, is it for certain activities or for most of the day? How is movement in the classroom to be regulated? What can you do to create a sense of well-being and safety for your students in your classroom?

56. Elementary Example Lining Up Sit quietly when you hear the signal Neatly place books and materials in your desk Quietly stand when your name (or row) is called Push your chair under your desk Quietly walk to the line Stand with your hands at your sides, facing forward, no talking Following are several examples? These are the procedures for lining up in a elementary classroom. (Read slide)? Notice, each step is positively stated, telling the student what to do, when to do it and how to do it. If these procedures are posted, modeled, taught, and acknowledged it increases the likelihood they will become the routine for lining up in this classroom. (Newcomer, 2008) Following are several examples? These are the procedures for lining up in a elementary classroom. (Read slide)? Notice, each step is positively stated, telling the student what to do, when to do it and how to do it. If these procedures are posted, modeled, taught, and acknowledged it increases the likelihood they will become the routine for lining up in this classroom. (Newcomer, 2008)

57. Elementary Example Learning Position Sit with your bottom on your chair Sit with your legs under your desk Keep both feet on the floor Look at the teacher when he or she talks to the class Keep your materials on top of your desk Another example (Read slide)? (Newcomer, 2008) Another example (Read slide)? (Newcomer, 2008)

58. Elementary Example During Lessons Sit in a learning position Raise your hand for a turn to talk, if you have a question or if you need help Wait for the teacher to come to you Finish all of your work Read your book if you finish your work early Take restroom or water breaks during independent time How about this one (Read Slide)? (Newcomer, 2008)How about this one (Read Slide)? (Newcomer, 2008)

59. Secondary Example Class Discussion Prepare for discussion by reading the required assignment in advance Wait until the other person is finished speaking before you talk Stay on topic Respect other?s opinions and contributions Use appropriate expressions of disagreement Secondary examples are similar? (Read slide) You will notice the procedures are positively stated and tell what, when and how, but the language is more sophisticated (Newcomer, 2008)Secondary examples are similar? (Read slide) You will notice the procedures are positively stated and tell what, when and how, but the language is more sophisticated (Newcomer, 2008)

60. Secondary Example Entering the Classroom Enter the classroom before the bell rings Take your seat and get out the materials you need for class Talk quietly until the bell rings Stop talking and be ready to listen when the bell rings (Read Slide) (Newcomer, 2008)(Read Slide) (Newcomer, 2008)

61. Secondary Example Turning in Assignments The last person in each row pass their paper to the person in front of them The next person does the same until the papers reach the first person in each row The first person in each row passes papers to the right The first person in the last row places all papers in the basket on the teacher?s desk (Read Slide) (Newcomer, 2008)(Read Slide) (Newcomer, 2008)

62. Writing Procedures to Develop Routines Make a list of every task a student does in the classroom Determine the desired outcome Decide how students need to complete the task Consider what errors students are likely to make Consider problem areas or problem times?often a well designed routine can smooth things out These are the steps we can think through as we begin writing routines for our classrooms? First, make a list of all the important tasks within your setting. Next, identify your desired outcome- if completed perfectly, how would this task look? Think about the steps it will take to complete the task correctly. Determine the errors or problems students typically have as they complete the task. As you develop procedures, focus your attention on areas when/where you currently have problems. (Newcomer, 2008)These are the steps we can think through as we begin writing routines for our classrooms? First, make a list of all the important tasks within your setting. Next, identify your desired outcome- if completed perfectly, how would this task look? Think about the steps it will take to complete the task correctly. Determine the errors or problems students typically have as they complete the task. As you develop procedures, focus your attention on areas when/where you currently have problems. (Newcomer, 2008)

63. Procedure Writing Activity Specifically consider problem areas/times in your classroom. Select tasks from the Routines Self-Assessment handout which apply to your setting. Write steps for completing each task. (these are your procedures & routines) Handout 1 This is an activity that can help us identify areas in our classrooms where procedures are most needed. PH NO don?t use it Remember, clearly identifying procedures will provide structure and routine for ALL students in a class but is critical to the success of at-risk and high-risk students. (Use Handout 1: Classroom Procedures Worksheet) Give participants time to read, think about and document some of their classroom procedures. Ask for volunteers who will share their responses. This is an activity that can help us identify areas in our classrooms where procedures are most needed. PH NO don?t use it Remember, clearly identifying procedures will provide structure and routine for ALL students in a class but is critical to the success of at-risk and high-risk students. (Use Handout 1: Classroom Procedures Worksheet) Give participants time to read, think about and document some of their classroom procedures. Ask for volunteers who will share their responses.

65. Schedule for Teaching Classroom Procedures First Grading Period Teach rules and procedures for all areas of school, including individual classrooms, during first week of school Provide opportunities for review and practice Provide frequent reinforcement/acknowledgement After first week, review rules and procedures 2 or 3 times per week Rapid pace, oral review during first or last few minutes of class Surprise quizzes about procedures for extra credit points Divide into teams, ask questions about rules and procedures, award points In addition to identifying and documenting classroom procedures it is equally important that we systematically teach the procedures we want students to demonstrate. This means we need to have a plan for when and how classroom procedures will be taught to students. Here is one example of how classroom procedures can be included within the school-wide system for teaching behavioral expectations. (Read Slide)?In addition to identifying and documenting classroom procedures it is equally important that we systematically teach the procedures we want students to demonstrate. This means we need to have a plan for when and how classroom procedures will be taught to students. Here is one example of how classroom procedures can be included within the school-wide system for teaching behavioral expectations. (Read Slide)?

66. Schedule for Teaching Classroom Procedures Second Grading Period Review rules and procedures once per week Remainder of the Year Review rules and procedures periodically as needed

67. Teach Students to Self-Manage Once students know the routines, allow routine initiation to be prompted by normal events (the bell? completion of an assignment)? rather than rely on teacher prompts. Teach self-management The target behavior The self-management behavior Prompts Consequences

68. Putting it in practice? Teach mini module Use activities in folder Examine products

69. By the end of Module 2 you should?. Have SW expectations/rules/routines posted Taught the expectation/rules/routines and attention signal to ALL students. Completed schedule for teaching throughout year- use posters as script/prompt/common language COACH/ ADMINISTRATOR Conduct walk through- gather data Celebrate!!!!

70. Map School-wide Rules & Expectations to Classroom Routines

71. References Brophy, J. (1998). Motivating Students to Learn. Boston: McGraw Hill. Evertson, C., & Emmer, E. (1982). Preventive classroom management. In D. Duke (Ed.), Helping teachers manage classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Evertson, C. M., Emmer, E. T. & Worsham, M.E. (2003). Classroom Management for Elementary Teachers. Boston: Pearson Education. Freiberg, J., Stein, T., & Huan, S. (1995). Effects of a classroom management intervention on student achievement in inner-city elementary schools. Educational Research and Evaluation, 1, 36-66. Good, T. & Brophy, J. (2000). Look Into Classrooms. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. IRIS Center, Research to Practice Instructional Strategies. Nashville: Vanderbilt University. Johnson, T.C., Stoner, G. & Green, S.K. (1996). Demonstrating the experimenting society model with classwide behavior management interventions. School Psychology Review, 25(2), 199-214. Kern, L., & Clemens, N.H. (2007). Antecedent strategies to promote appropriate classroom behavior. Psychology in the Schools, 44(1), 65-75. Leinhardt, G., Weidman, C., & Hammond, K. M. (1987). Introduction and integration of classroom routines by expert teachers. Curriculum Inquiry, 17 (2), 135-176 Newcomer, L. (2007, 2008). Positive Behavior Support in the Classroom. Unpublished presentation. Shores, R., Gunter, P., & Jack, S. (1993). Classroom management strategies: Are they setting events for coercion? Behavioral Disorders, 18, 92-102. Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D. & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for Research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), pp. 351-380. To help you remember what we?ve discussed today a Fact Sheet about Classroom Procedures & Routines is available.To help you remember what we?ve discussed today a Fact Sheet about Classroom Procedures & Routines is available.

72. What are the Classroom Practices?

73. Classroom Strategies to Acknowledge Appropriate Behavior What is your feedback ratio? Creating a positive and engaging classroom atmosphere is one of the most powerful tools teachers can use to encourage children?s learning and prevent problems behaviors from occurring (Conroy et al, 2009, p.18) Research clearly demonstrates acknowledging ?appropriate behavior increases the likelihood students will continue to engage in appropriate behavior in the future? (Kern & Clemens, 2007, p.68) Creating a positive and engaging classroom atmosphere is one of the most powerful tools teachers can use to encourage children?s learning and prevent problems behaviors from occurring (Conroy et al, 2009, p.18) Research clearly demonstrates acknowledging ?appropriate behavior increases the likelihood students will continue to engage in appropriate behavior in the future? (Kern & Clemens, 2007, p.68)

74. Why Acknowledge Appropriate Classroom Behavior? Effective acknowledgment ? Can increase on-task behavior, correct responses, work productivity and accuracy, attention and compliance cooperative play Foster intrinsic motivation to learn which comes from mastering tasks Have vicarious effect with benefits that may be long lasting More specifically? Using strategies to acknowledge appropriate student academic or social behavior in the classroom can increase? on-task behavior, correct response, work productivity and accuracy, attention, compliance and cooperative play (Simonsen et al, 2008). Use effective acknowledgment can help foster the intrinsic motivation to learn that comes from mastering tasks (Conroy et al, 2009) And, evidence indicates certain types of acknowledgement, especially verbal praise, can have a vicarious effect on other students who observe the interaction (Kern & Clemens, 2007). Consider this example, a simple statement such as, ?Josh, I see you are sitting quietly and working on your assignment, great job!? explicitly identifies and acknowledges the student for the appropriate behavior he demonstrated AND it also provides a prompt to the rest of the class that in-seat, on-task work is expected and that positive attention from the teacher is available for that behavior (Kern & Clemens, 2007). More specifically? Using strategies to acknowledge appropriate student academic or social behavior in the classroom can increase? on-task behavior, correct response, work productivity and accuracy, attention, compliance and cooperative play (Simonsen et al, 2008). Use effective acknowledgment can help foster the intrinsic motivation to learn that comes from mastering tasks (Conroy et al, 2009) And, evidence indicates certain types of acknowledgement, especially verbal praise, can have a vicarious effect on other students who observe the interaction (Kern & Clemens, 2007). Consider this example, a simple statement such as, ?Josh, I see you are sitting quietly and working on your assignment, great job!? explicitly identifies and acknowledges the student for the appropriate behavior he demonstrated AND it also provides a prompt to the rest of the class that in-seat, on-task work is expected and that positive attention from the teacher is available for that behavior (Kern & Clemens, 2007).

75. Example Strategies to Acknowledge Appropriate Behavior Examples? Verbal praise Thumbs up, high five Token economy Notes/phone calls home or to principal Student of the hour/day/week Special privileges earned through group contingency Teachers can acknowledge appropriate student behavior in a variety of ways (Sprick, Knight, Reinke, McKale, 2006, p. 132) These are some typical and common ways teachers tend to acknowledge appropriate behavior. (Read Slide) Teachers can acknowledge appropriate student behavior in a variety of ways (Sprick, Knight, Reinke, McKale, 2006, p. 132) These are some typical and common ways teachers tend to acknowledge appropriate behavior. (Read Slide)

76. Acknowledging Appropriate Behavior Effective strategies are ?. Clear and specific Contingent on desired behavior Applied immediately Teacher initiated Focus on improvement and effort Although most teachers already use some type of acknowledgement in their classrooms, researchers have found these strategies may not be used frequently or effectively especially with students who demonstrate problem behavior (Conroy et al, 2009; Kern & Clemens, 2008). To effectively acknowledge student academic or social behavior consider the following guidelines? First, acknowledgement should include specific statements about the appropriate behavior children displayed. ?You did a great job counting numbers!? or ?I can see everyone is working very hard on this assignment.? Effective strategies avoid simple, repetitive phrases such as ?good job? or ?nice work?. These comments are not specific enough and when overused tend to become background noise which students cease to hear (Conroy et al, 2009). Effective acknowledgement should be provided dependent on students meeting classroom academic and/or behavioral expectations and should be provided immediately following the behavior. Praising children later can diminish the effectiveness of the acknowledgement (Conroy et al., 2009, p.19). Acknowledgement strategies should be teacher initiated, rather than asked for by the student. Waiting for a child to say, ?Look what I?ve done? is far less effective than the teacher catching the child demonstrating the appropriate behavior and acknowledging it immediately (Conroy et al, 2009, p.19). Acknowledgement strategies are most effective when they focus on improvement and effort. For example, ?Josh today you have 5 of your homework problems correct. Yesterday you only got 3 correct. I can see that you are working hard to improve.? Or, ?Terry, thanks for being on time today. I appreciate your effort in being a responsible student.? (Conroy et al, 2009). Although most teachers already use some type of acknowledgement in their classrooms, researchers have found these strategies may not be used frequently or effectively especially with students who demonstrate problem behavior (Conroy et al, 2009; Kern & Clemens, 2008). To effectively acknowledge student academic or social behavior consider the following guidelines? First, acknowledgement should include specific statements about the appropriate behavior children displayed. ?You did a great job counting numbers!? or ?I can see everyone is working very hard on this assignment.? Effective strategies avoid simple, repetitive phrases such as ?good job? or ?nice work?. These comments are not specific enough and when overused tend to become background noise which students cease to hear (Conroy et al, 2009). Effective acknowledgement should be provided dependent on students meeting classroom academic and/or behavioral expectations and should be provided immediately following the behavior. Praising children later can diminish the effectiveness of the acknowledgement (Conroy et al., 2009, p.19). Acknowledgement strategies should be teacher initiated, rather than asked for by the student. Waiting for a child to say, ?Look what I?ve done? is far less effective than the teacher catching the child demonstrating the appropriate behavior and acknowledging it immediately (Conroy et al, 2009, p.19). Acknowledgement strategies are most effective when they focus on improvement and effort. For example, ?Josh today you have 5 of your homework problems correct. Yesterday you only got 3 correct. I can see that you are working hard to improve.? Or, ?Terry, thanks for being on time today. I appreciate your effort in being a responsible student.? (Conroy et al, 2009).

77. Acknowledging Appropriate Behavior Effective strategies ?. Provided frequently during acquisition Fade as skill develops Avoid comparison/competition across children Sincere and appropriate for student?s age Includes hierarchy of alternatives To enhance effectiveness? provide acknowledgement more frequently when students are first learning a new skill. Gradually fade the acknowledgement strategy as the skill is mastered. Then refocus high rates of acknowledgement on new skills that need to be developed (Conroy et al, 2009). Effective acknowledgement strategies always compare children?s work with their previous work and skill level such as letting a students know their performance is better than it was during a previous lesson or day. Avoid statements such as, ?Nico you did a better job of staying in line than Amy did.? or ?Jerry did the best work today.? These types of acknowledgement compare students and may unintentionally create unwanted competition (Conroy et al, 2009). Finally, strategies of acknowledgement will only be effective IF they are meaningful to students. Children from different backgrounds, experiences and socio-economic status will respond differently to particular types of acknowledgement. This is why it is important to consider planning for a hierarchy of alternative acknowledgement strategies (Conroy et al, 2009 & Simonsen, 2008).To enhance effectiveness? provide acknowledgement more frequently when students are first learning a new skill. Gradually fade the acknowledgement strategy as the skill is mastered. Then refocus high rates of acknowledgement on new skills that need to be developed (Conroy et al, 2009). Effective acknowledgement strategies always compare children?s work with their previous work and skill level such as letting a students know their performance is better than it was during a previous lesson or day. Avoid statements such as, ?Nico you did a better job of staying in line than Amy did.? or ?Jerry did the best work today.? These types of acknowledgement compare students and may unintentionally create unwanted competition (Conroy et al, 2009). Finally, strategies of acknowledgement will only be effective IF they are meaningful to students. Children from different backgrounds, experiences and socio-economic status will respond differently to particular types of acknowledgement. This is why it is important to consider planning for a hierarchy of alternative acknowledgement strategies (Conroy et al, 2009 & Simonsen, 2008).

78. Acknowledging Appropriate Behavior Classroom Continuum: Level 1 = Free and Frequent Use everyday in the classroom Level 2 = Intermittent Awarded occasionally Level 3 = Strong and Long Term Quarterly or year long types of recognition ?A continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior refers to having a range of evidence-based strategies that focus on identifying and recognizing appropriate classroom behavior. The continuum should include the use of simple as well as more complex strategies to acknowledge displays of appropriate behavior? (Simonsen et. Al, 2008, p. 362) For example, consider a leveled system for acknowledging appropriate academic or social behavior in the classroom classroom? Level 1, Free and Frequent are the types of feedback teachers normally deliver easily and on a daily basis, such as thumbs up, praise or stickers. Level 2 types of acknowledgement are only delivered occasionally and are more powerful. These can include student of the week/month or special privileges (hat or pajama day, extra recess or computer time) or some type of token economy. Level 3 acknowledgement is considered as strong and long term. These are delivered on a quarterly, semester or year long basis. Examples may include a group contingency that allows all students in the class to work together toward earning something such as a field trip, party or celebration. ?A continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior refers to having a range of evidence-based strategies that focus on identifying and recognizing appropriate classroom behavior. The continuum should include the use of simple as well as more complex strategies to acknowledge displays of appropriate behavior? (Simonsen et. Al, 2008, p. 362) For example, consider a leveled system for acknowledging appropriate academic or social behavior in the classroom classroom? Level 1, Free and Frequent are the types of feedback teachers normally deliver easily and on a daily basis, such as thumbs up, praise or stickers. Level 2 types of acknowledgement are only delivered occasionally and are more powerful. These can include student of the week/month or special privileges (hat or pajama day, extra recess or computer time) or some type of token economy. Level 3 acknowledgement is considered as strong and long term. These are delivered on a quarterly, semester or year long basis. Examples may include a group contingency that allows all students in the class to work together toward earning something such as a field trip, party or celebration.

79. Classroom Continuum of Strategies Increasing the level of acknowledgement in the classroom seems like a simple intervention, but it takes some planning and effort. (Sprick, Knight, Reinke, McKale, 2006, p. 131.) Just as we develop a school wide system for recognizing appropriate behavior, a system of recognition must also be developed within each classroom. Acknowledgement should be easy and simple to administer, connected with school wide expectations AND clearly communicated. Students need to know why the feedback is being given. Consider this example of a classroom system. It includes free and frequent, intermittent and long term feedback. It also aligns with the schoolwide system of recognition. (Provide Example from a school experience you know)?. Increasing the level of acknowledgement in the classroom seems like a simple intervention, but it takes some planning and effort. (Sprick, Knight, Reinke, McKale, 2006, p. 131.) Just as we develop a school wide system for recognizing appropriate behavior, a system of recognition must also be developed within each classroom. Acknowledgement should be easy and simple to administer, connected with school wide expectations AND clearly communicated. Students need to know why the feedback is being given. Consider this example of a classroom system. It includes free and frequent, intermittent and long term feedback. It also aligns with the schoolwide system of recognition. (Provide Example from a school experience you know)?.

80. Handout 1 (Use Handout 1) Take some time to think through your classroom system for positive feedback. Do you have a plan that includes free and frequent feedback? If so, how is this systematically provided at the classroom level? Are you addressing feedback on an intermittent basis? And what type of feedback do you provide that is strong and long term? Also consider how your classroom plan for positive feedback aligns with the school wide system of recognition. Are there connect points? Is it cumbersome to implement a classroom and school wide plan for positive feedback? If so, what can be scaled back or tweaked to make implementation manageable for all faculty and staff? *Give participants time to think about and record their classroom system for positive feedback. Ask participants to share ideas with group.(Use Handout 1) Take some time to think through your classroom system for positive feedback. Do you have a plan that includes free and frequent feedback? If so, how is this systematically provided at the classroom level? Are you addressing feedback on an intermittent basis? And what type of feedback do you provide that is strong and long term? Also consider how your classroom plan for positive feedback aligns with the school wide system of recognition. Are there connect points? Is it cumbersome to implement a classroom and school wide plan for positive feedback? If so, what can be scaled back or tweaked to make implementation manageable for all faculty and staff? *Give participants time to think about and record their classroom system for positive feedback. Ask participants to share ideas with group.

81. What is your feedback ratio Establish a ?positive environment? Five instances of praise for every correction. Begin each class period with a celebration. Your first comment to a child establishes behavioral momentum. Engelmann, Mace, ?interspersed requests? Behavioral priming Provide multiple paths to success/praise. Group contingencies, personal contingencies, etc

82. Feedback Defined as: When the degree to which a teacher provides the class or an individual student specific feedback on an academic or social behavior that indicates approval or preference for a specific behavior exceeds by a 5 to 1 ratio how often the teacher similarly gives feedback that indicates inaccuracy or disapproval.

83. Examples Teacher is circulating around the room during independent seat work, and says, ?I have some good workers today!? Teacher is engaged in modeling of editing your own work through an example on the board during whole group instruction, she stops and says, ??I like the way everyone is listening so quietly?. Teacher is circulating through the class while students are writing and stops at one student and says:? Jamie, I like the way you are using your word list to check your spelling. ? Teacher continues with Jamie and says, ?Jamie, I do not see your name at the top where it needs to be.?

84. Non-Examples ?Ok, keep going? (prompt) ?Does ANYONE know what we are supposed to be doing right now?? (this is a prompt disguised as sarcasm).

85. Tally Sheet Classroom Observation Example Page 7 in Walkthrough (example on pg. 8)

86. Coach and Administrator How will you get baseline data? (Buy in) Buddy to observe for 10 Teacher records voice for 10 Teach mini module Use buddy system to get performance feedback Show outcomes (anecdotal too) CELEBRATE!!!

87. Classroom Continuum to Acknowledge Appropriate Behavior If a school wide system of recognition is already in place why is it important to also develop a classroom continuum of recognition? Give examples of how a classroom plan for acknowledging appropriate behavior might align with a school wide system of recognition. What response can you give to faculty who say it?s cumbersome or too much work to implement both a school wide system and a classroom system of recognition? After teams have been given time to think about and discuss their classroom systems of recognition, pose these questions to the group (Read Slide)?After teams have been given time to think about and discuss their classroom systems of recognition, pose these questions to the group (Read Slide)?

88. References Brophy, J. (1998). Motivating Students to Learn. Boston: McGraw Hill. Conroy, M. A., Sutherland, K. S., Snyder, A., Al-Hendawi, M. & Vo, A. (2009). Creating a positive classroom atmosphere: Teachers? use of effective praise and feedback. Beyond Behavior, 18(2), pp. 18-26. Evertson, C., & Emmer, E. (1982). Preventive classroom management. In D. Duke (Ed.), Helping teachers manage classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Evertson, C. M., Emmer, E. T. & Worsham, M.E. (2003). Classroom Management for Elementary Teachers. Boston: Pearson Education. Freiberg, J., Stein, T., & Huan, S. (1995). Effects of a classroom management intervention on student achievement in inner-city elementary schools. Educational Research and Evaluation, 1, 36-66. Good, T. & Brophy, J. (2000). Look Into Classrooms. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. IRIS Center, Research to Practice Instructional Strategies. Nashville: Vanderbilt University. Johnson, T.C., Stoner, G. & Green, S.K. (1996). Demonstrating the experimenting society model with classwide behavior management interventions. School Psychology Review, 25(2), 199-214. Kern, L., Clemens, N.H. (2007). Antecedent strategies to promote appropriate classroom behavior. Psychology in the Schools, 44(1), 65-75. Newcomer, L. (2007, 2008). Positive Behavior Support in the Classroom. Unpublished presentation. Shores, R., Gunter, P., & Jack, S. (1993). Classroom management strategies: Are they setting events for coercion? Behavioral Disorders, 18, 92-102. Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D. & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for Research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), pp. 351-380. To help you remember what we?ve discussed today a Fact Sheet about providing a classroom continuum of acknowledgement is available.To help you remember what we?ve discussed today a Fact Sheet about providing a classroom continuum of acknowledgement is available.

89. What are the Classroom Practices?

90. Classroom Response Strategies & Error Correction Identify, Teach, Practice, Reinforce The focus of this mini-module is using Classroom Response Strategies or Error Correction when students demonstrate a problem behavior.The focus of this mini-module is using Classroom Response Strategies or Error Correction when students demonstrate a problem behavior.

91. Classroom Response Strategies & Error Correction Providing effective error corrections. A continuum of response strategies. Consider the SW continuum of response. Enhancing classroom climate. Specifically we?ll talk about (Read Slide)?Specifically we?ll talk about (Read Slide)?

93. Why Focus on Response Strategies & Error Correction? Clearly stating expectations and consistently enforcing them lends credibility to a teacher?s authority (Good & Brophy, 2000) Teachers who respond consistently feel positive about their teaching and help students improve their performance (Freiberg, Stein & Huan, 1995) Research tells us?(read slide) Research tells us?(read slide)

94. Why Focus on Response Strategies & Error Correction? Teachers should focus on increasing positive behavior and interactions by consistently enforcing expectations (Shores, Gunter & Jack, 1993) When teachers are inconsistent in their enforcement of expectations, students become uncertain of what those expectations are and that the expectations apply to them (Evertson, Emmer & Worsham, 2003) And we also know?(read slide) Establishing, teaching and reinforcing expectations and rules is one of the hallmarks of an effective classroom (Sugai et al., 2002 from Kern & Clemens, 2007) Research consistently demonstrates that consistent implementation of classroom rules is associated with improved student behavior at both the building and at the classroom level (Kern & Clemens, 2007, p. 66) And we also know?(read slide) Establishing, teaching and reinforcing expectations and rules is one of the hallmarks of an effective classroom (Sugai et al., 2002 from Kern & Clemens, 2007) Research consistently demonstrates that consistent implementation of classroom rules is associated with improved student behavior at both the building and at the classroom level (Kern & Clemens, 2007, p. 66)

95. Why Focus on Response Strategies & Error Correction? Consider this? ?The single most commonly used but least effective method for addressing undesirable behavior is to verbally scold and berate a student? (Albetro & Troutman, 2006). Even when we have clearly defined rules and routines and give high rates of positive feedback we know some students will still demonstrate inappropriate or undesirable behavior. When misbehavior happens, correcting students is not bad or wrong- in fact, consistently responding to inappropriate behavior is essential. Correctives are a problem only if they exceed the rate of positives. However?.(Read Slide) The teacher who yells or berates is, in effect, saying to the student this is how an adult reacts and copes with undesirable behaviors in an environment (Alberto & Troutman, 2006). This is not the model we want to provide for students. Even when we have clearly defined rules and routines and give high rates of positive feedback we know some students will still demonstrate inappropriate or undesirable behavior. When misbehavior happens, correcting students is not bad or wrong- in fact, consistently responding to inappropriate behavior is essential. Correctives are a problem only if they exceed the rate of positives. However?.(Read Slide) The teacher who yells or berates is, in effect, saying to the student this is how an adult reacts and copes with undesirable behaviors in an environment (Alberto & Troutman, 2006). This is not the model we want to provide for students.

96. Error Correction Non-Examples? How many times do I have to tell you to work quietly? Didn?t I just tell you to get your work done? Why are you talking when I?m talking? Do you want me to send you to the office? What?s going to happen if I call your mother? What do you think you?re doing? Don?t you think you should be using your time better? How often have we heard or used these types of statements? (Read Slide) Although meant to deter misbehavior these types of statements are often very reinforcing to students? why do you think? (gives adult attention) Questioning students about their behavior is ineffective. You don?t want an answer, you want compliance. Questioning gives attention to the inappropriate behavior. Our goal instead is to increase the likelihood of appropriate behavior. We do this by teaching and acknowledging what we want students to do instead?and on occasion by providing consistent, respectful responses to misbehavior. (Newcomer, 2008) How often have we heard or used these types of statements? (Read Slide) Although meant to deter misbehavior these types of statements are often very reinforcing to students? why do you think? (gives adult attention) Questioning students about their behavior is ineffective. You don?t want an answer, you want compliance. Questioning gives attention to the inappropriate behavior. Our goal instead is to increase the likelihood of appropriate behavior. We do this by teaching and acknowledging what we want students to do instead?and on occasion by providing consistent, respectful responses to misbehavior. (Newcomer, 2008)

97. Response Strategies & Error Correction Should be?. Calm Consistent Brief Immediate Respectful When providing error corrections the goal is to be calm, consistent, brief, immediate and respectful. A fluent correction is a Calm correction. If a teacher is visibly upset with a student?s misbehavior, this is likely to lead other students off task. They will focus on the far more dramatic exchange between the teacher and the misbehaving student rather than instruction. When providing error corrections Consistency is essential. This means? if a Teacher chooses to correct a particular misbehavior, the correction should occur routinely among all students each time the same misbehavior is demonstrated. For example, if we correct one student for blurting out without raising a hand to speak, but respond to other students when they blurt out answers, this is inconsistent and unfair. It creates confusion for students about which rules really apply, to whom and when. Brevity is also important. When misbehavior occurs, our attempt to correct the problem should not make the situation worse. We should avoid talking too much. Instead, make the correction by telling the child what to do instead, then walk away. Assume the child will comply. Don?t wait for the situation to escalate into a power struggle. Immediate means? as soon after the misbehavior as possible Finally, a common thread through all fluent error corrections is Respect. Behavior corrections should never involve belittlement or ridicule of a student. Instead, the most effective corrections are matter of fact, specific statements that tell what the misbehavior was and what the student should do instead. (Sprick, Knight, Reinke & McKale, 2006, p. 55-56.) When providing error corrections the goal is to be calm, consistent, brief, immediate and respectful. A fluent correction is a Calm correction. If a teacher is visibly upset with a student?s misbehavior, this is likely to lead other students off task. They will focus on the far more dramatic exchange between the teacher and the misbehaving student rather than instruction. When providing error corrections Consistency is essential. This means? if a Teacher chooses to correct a particular misbehavior, the correction should occur routinely among all students each time the same misbehavior is demonstrated. For example, if we correct one student for blurting out without raising a hand to speak, but respond to other students when they blurt out answers, this is inconsistent and unfair. It creates confusion for students about which rules really apply, to whom and when. Brevity is also important. When misbehavior occurs, our attempt to correct the problem should not make the situation worse. We should avoid talking too much. Instead, make the correction by telling the child what to do instead, then walk away. Assume the child will comply. Don?t wait for the situation to escalate into a power struggle. Immediate means? as soon after the misbehavior as possible Finally, a common thread through all fluent error corrections is Respect. Behavior corrections should never involve belittlement or ridicule of a student. Instead, the most effective corrections are matter of fact, specific statements that tell what the misbehavior was and what the student should do instead. (Sprick, Knight, Reinke & McKale, 2006, p. 55-56.)

98. Should also? Apply consistently Immediate feedback (when possible) Plan consistent with school-wide plan Define the school-wide ?rule? for what is managed in the classroom and what is sent to the office Consequence linked to context Establish predictable consequences Establish individual consequences AND group consequences Goal: design environment to evoke appropriate behavior Tips for re-teaching rules -ask students?not just recite but come up with examples and non-examples -embed into curriculumGoal: design environment to evoke appropriate behavior Tips for re-teaching rules -ask students?not just recite but come up with examples and non-examples -embed into curriculum

99. Activity: Reasonable and Logical Strategies

100. Reasonable and Logical Strategies

101. Alpha vs. Beta COMMANDS Alpha commands are short and clear; neutral tone (e.g., ?Stay on topic -- Columbus Day?) Beta commands are wordy, vague and often convey a feeling of frustration (e.g., If you won?t listen, you won?t learn a darn thing. You aren?t trying. Pay attention and keep up?) (Annemieke Golly)

102. Response Strategies & Error Correction Classroom Continuum of Response Strategies . . . Prompt = visual or verbal cue Redirect = restate matrix behavior Re-teach = tell, show, practice, acknowledge Provide Choice = range of alternates Conference with Student A review of research provides this continuum of strategies as effective for responding to or correcting student misbehavior. First, when misbehavior occurs, provide students with a Prompt. Prompts are typically visual but can also be verbal. A prompt is a signal that alerts the child a misbehavior has occurred and helps him/her to comply with expected behavior. Prompts can be as simple as pointing to a posted expectation or giving a verbal cue to that expectation ( ?remember, rule 4?). Other examples include finger to lips indicating quiet or silence; raised hand to decrease blurt outs, an open palm to show stop or slow down and pointing out where students should go. Prompts can be provided whole group or individually. Next, correction of a misbehavior can come from a Redirect. Redirect means the teacher specifically states the matrix behavior the child is supposed to exhibit. ?Remember, being respectful means raising a hand and waiting to be called on.? or ?In this class, part of being responsible is to follow directions and do your work.? A review of research provides this continuum of strategies as effective for responding to or correcting student misbehavior. First, when misbehavior occurs, provide students with a Prompt. Prompts are typically visual but can also be verbal. A prompt is a signal that alerts the child a misbehavior has occurred and helps him/her to comply with expected behavior. Prompts can be as simple as pointing to a posted expectation or giving a verbal cue to that expectation ( ?remember, rule 4?). Other examples include finger to lips indicating quiet or silence; raised hand to decrease blurt outs, an open palm to show stop or slow down and pointing out where students should go. Prompts can be provided whole group or individually. Next, correction of a misbehavior can come from a Redirect. Redirect means the teacher specifically states the matrix behavior the child is supposed to exhibit. ?Remember, being respectful means raising a hand and waiting to be called on.? or ?In this class, part of being responsible is to follow directions and do your work.?

103. Response Strategies & Error Correction Classroom Continuum of Response Strategies . . . Prompt = visual or verbal cue Redirect = restate matrix behavior Re-teach = tell, show, practice, acknowledge Provide Choice = range of alternates Conference with Student A third in-class option is to Re-teach. Re-teach means state and demonstrate the appropriate behavior. Re-teach goes beyond a re-direct because it gives the child an opportunity to hear and then show the appropriate behavior with immediate feedback from the teacher. Next Providing Choice is frequently an effective strategy for managing inappropriate behavior. Choice can address location, order of completion, type of tool or variety in activity. For example, the teacher can provide choices to complete the task in another location, ?You are welcome to work at your desk, at a table or on the floor.? The teacher can provide choice on the order of task completion. The teacher can provide the choice of a different type of writing instrument. ?You may write in pen or pencil or you are welcome to type with a computer if you like.? Or the teacher can provide the choice of a different type of activity that accomplishes the same instructional objective. A third in-class option is to Re-teach. Re-teach means state and demonstrate the appropriate behavior. Re-teach goes beyond a re-direct because it gives the child an opportunity to hear and then show the appropriate behavior with immediate feedback from the teacher. Next Providing Choice is frequently an effective strategy for managing inappropriate behavior. Choice can address location, order of completion, type of tool or variety in activity. For example, the teacher can provide choices to complete the task in another location, ?You are welcome to work at your desk, at a table or on the floor.? The teacher can provide choice on the order of task completion. The teacher can provide the choice of a different type of writing instrument. ?You may write in pen or pencil or you are welcome to type with a computer if you like.? Or the teacher can provide the choice of a different type of activity that accomplishes the same instructional objective.

104. Response Strategies & Error Correction Classroom Continuum of Response Strategies . . . Prompt = visual or verbal cue Redirect = restate matrix behavior Re-teach = tell, show, practice, acknowledge Provide Choice = range of alternates Conference with Student Finally, Error Correction is sometimes best addressed by conferencing with a student. Just as we do with an academic error, our goal in responding to a social or behavior error is to teach students what we want them to do instead. Remember, scolding, berating, ridicule and yelling are the LEAST effective ways for addressing misbehavior. When students make a learning error on an academic task we don?t scold or berate them. We give encouragement, show where the error was made, tell how to make a correction, give opportunities for practice and then provide immediate feedback. Same things need to happen when responding to behavioral errors. In short?using a structured conference with a student may help meet this goal. Finally, Error Correction is sometimes best addressed by conferencing with a student. Just as we do with an academic error, our goal in responding to a social or behavior error is to teach students what we want them to do instead. Remember, scolding, berating, ridicule and yelling are the LEAST effective ways for addressing misbehavior. When students make a learning error on an academic task we don?t scold or berate them. We give encouragement, show where the error was made, tell how to make a correction, give opportunities for practice and then provide immediate feedback. Same things need to happen when responding to behavioral errors. In short?using a structured conference with a student may help meet this goal.

105. Response Strategies & Error Correction Conference Procedures: Positive, private, using quiet voice Describe the problem Describe the alternative (what the student should do instead) Tell why alternative is better Practice (student should tell and/or show) Provide feedback These are the procedures for having an instructional conference with a student about a behavioral error?. First?Say something positive, in private, using a quiet voice Next?Briefly describe the problem behavior Third?Describe the desired alternative (what you want the student to do instead)- refer to and use the language of your classroom rules. Fourth?State the reason why the alternative is more desirable- what outcome the student is likely to get if he/she chooses the alternate behavior Fifth?Give students an opportunity to practice the desired behavior- they can tell or show the replacement or alternative. Last?Provide positive feedback. This means as soon as the student demonstrates the desired behavior- or a reasonable approximation of the desired behavior- acknowledge this effort.These are the procedures for having an instructional conference with a student about a behavioral error?. First?Say something positive, in private, using a quiet voice Next?Briefly describe the problem behavior Third?Describe the desired alternative (what you want the student to do instead)- refer to and use the language of your classroom rules. Fourth?State the reason why the alternative is more desirable- what outcome the student is likely to get if he/she chooses the alternate behavior Fifth?Give students an opportunity to practice the desired behavior- they can tell or show the replacement or alternative. Last?Provide positive feedback. This means as soon as the student demonstrates the desired behavior- or a reasonable approximation of the desired behavior- acknowledge this effort.

106. Response Strategies & Error Correction Conference Example Max, I know you were upset because the group didn?t include you. But you responded by calling them names and trying to argue. A respectful/safe way to handle this is to walk away and talk to someone else. By walking away and not raising your voice, you won?t get in trouble and someone might be able to help you join a group. Your yelling won?t change the behavior of the other students. Consider the following example? (Read Slide) (Newcomer, 2008)Consider the following example? (Read Slide) (Newcomer, 2008)

107. Response Strategies & Error Correction Example cont?d? Max, the next time someone tells you that you can?t join their group, tell me how you should handle it. That?s great Max. Even though it might be hard, being respectful/safe by staying calm, not raising your voice, and talking to someone about the problem will show other kids you can be a good group member and will keep you out of trouble. (Read Slide) (Newcomer, 2008)(Read Slide) (Newcomer, 2008)

108. Classroom Continuum of Response 1. Calm 2. Consistent 3. Brief 4. Immediate 5. Respectful Handout 1 Handout 2 This is a summary of the strategies we?ve talked about. We are going to use these strategies to complete an activity. This page can be stapled with the student scenario page. Participants use this sheet as a reminder of possible options to use while they discuss what went wrong in each scenario. Handout 2 This is a summary of the strategies we?ve talked about. We are going to use these strategies to complete an activity. This page can be stapled with the student scenario page. Participants use this sheet as a reminder of possible options to use while they discuss what went wrong in each scenario.

109. Response Strategies & Error Correction Practice Student Scenarios? Consider the following examples of student misbehavior. With a partner discuss how the situation might have been avoided or ended differently if one or more of the Classroom Continuum of Response options were used. Using the Classroom Continuum of Response, identify options that might work best in each situation. Handout 2 Activity 1: Ask participants to locate the ?Student Scenarios? handout (#1). Read directions on the powerpoint slide? Give participants time to read and discuss the student scenarios. Provide time to share responses/thoughts and discuss questions as a whole group. Activity 1: Ask participants to locate the ?Student Scenarios? handout (#1). Read directions on the powerpoint slide? Give participants time to read and discuss the student scenarios. Provide time to share responses/thoughts and discuss questions as a whole group.

110. Scenario The class is working on an independent assignment. Students are working well except for two who are talking. The teacher says very firmly, ?You are supposed to be working by yourself; there shouldn?t be any talking.? One student mumbles under his breath, and the teacher writes his name on the board. The student then curses at the teacher.

111. Schoolwide Continuum of Response If problem behavior persists/escalates?. after classroom strategies are implemented OR if behavior fits classification of ?major? then move to SW continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior After participants have completed Activity 1 (discussion of the classroom continuum of response) return to the powerpoint presentation. (Read Slide) However, it is important to understand using consequences alone is not likely to change behavior! Remember, decreasing more resistant misbehavior can only be accomplished by teaching a replacement behavior. The replacement must be identified (clarified), taught, and reinforced. Negative consequences are designed to decrease or stop inappropriate behavior. BUT negative consequences- without a reteaching component- do nothing to prevent problem behavior from happening again. And in fact, for some students, may increase the likelihood of recurring problem behavior. Negative consequences should always be paired with error correction procedures that focus on appropriate behavior. After participants have completed Activity 1 (discussion of the classroom continuum of response) return to the powerpoint presentation. (Read Slide) However, it is important to understand using consequences alone is not likely to change behavior! Remember, decreasing more resistant misbehavior can only be accomplished by teaching a replacement behavior. The replacement must be identified (clarified), taught, and reinforced. Negative consequences are designed to decrease or stop inappropriate behavior. BUT negative consequences- without a reteaching component- do nothing to prevent problem behavior from happening again. And in fact, for some students, may increase the likelihood of recurring problem behavior. Negative consequences should always be paired with error correction procedures that focus on appropriate behavior.

112. Schoolwide System for Responding to Inappropriate Behavior List the consequences in your school?s system for responding to inappropriate behavior (i.e. safe seat, buddy room, detention, ISS, OSS) For each consequence consider whether systematic reteaching is included as part of the response process. If a reteaching component is not included for EVERY consequence, make plans to adjust this. Activity 2: You will use Handout 3 (see next slide) (Read Slide)Activity 2: You will use Handout 3 (see next slide) (Read Slide)

113. Schoolwide Continuum of Response 1. Decreases Misbehavior 2. Re-teaches Appropriate Behavior Handout 3 Handout 3 Note: This activity may be more appropriate for the PBS team to complete and then present/discuss with faculty rather than having the entire faculty complete. Handout 3 Note: This activity may be more appropriate for the PBS team to complete and then present/discuss with faculty rather than having the entire faculty complete.

114. Climate Killers Sharp or excessive criticism Sarcasm or humor at students? expense Reinforcers that are not meaningful to students Lecturing students about behavior Being inconsistent in rule enforcement and reinforcement Having no social interaction with students Showing little interest in students? lives Teaching lessons with no attention to student affect or stress levels during instruction Warning an angry student to ?calm down? without providing supports to achieve that goal. Finally, research tells us the way you speak with a child can affect how the child responds. It?s easier to avoid power struggles and get compliance from a child if you give directions in a clear, direct, and specific fashion, using as few words as possible, and provide a reasonable amount of time to comply.? By contrast, you may encourage power struggles and disrespectful behavior when the feedback is vague, sarcastic, or overly wordy . . . (Newcomer, 2008).Finally, research tells us the way you speak with a child can affect how the child responds. It?s easier to avoid power struggles and get compliance from a child if you give directions in a clear, direct, and specific fashion, using as few words as possible, and provide a reasonable amount of time to comply.? By contrast, you may encourage power struggles and disrespectful behavior when the feedback is vague, sarcastic, or overly wordy . . . (Newcomer, 2008).

115. Climate Enhancers Always model respectful and polite behavior Praise genuinely and frequently Set high, but reasonable and attainable expectations Know your students Spend time interacting with students Use effective listening skills Design classroom to be appealing to students Celebrate student success and achievement Use humor In addition, positive relationships make behavior management easier. Teacher-student relationships are the most basic element of classroom climate. Teacher?s have incredible potential to be a powerful influence on student?s lives. That potential extends beyond the school day. Meaningful relationships with teachers may influence positive long-term outcomes for students. (Newcomer, 2008) All students like to feel noticed and liked by their teacher. When the teacher makes an effort to engage with every student individually, students learn and believe they are valued. This reduces the likelihood students will misbehave in the classroom (Sprick, Knight, Reinke, & McKale, 2006, p. 129.) An article by Barbara L. McCombs, Understanding the keys to motivation to learn (1994) indicates? ?Knowing how to meet individual learner needs for competence and belonging in the classroom are key to student motivation to learn. One of the most effective tools of motivation is the provision of respectful feedback and support?.In addition, positive relationships make behavior management easier. Teacher-student relationships are the most basic element of classroom climate. Teacher?s have incredible potential to be a powerful influence on student?s lives. That potential extends beyond the school day. Meaningful relationships with teachers may influence positive long-term outcomes for students. (Newcomer, 2008) All students like to feel noticed and liked by their teacher. When the teacher makes an effort to engage with every student individually, students learn and believe they are valued. This reduces the likelihood students will misbehave in the classroom (Sprick, Knight, Reinke, & McKale, 2006, p. 129.) An article by Barbara L. McCombs, Understanding the keys to motivation to learn (1994) indicates? ?Knowing how to meet individual learner needs for competence and belonging in the classroom are key to student motivation to learn. One of the most effective tools of motivation is the provision of respectful feedback and support?.

116. References Alberto, P. A. & Troutman, A. C. (2006). Applied behavior analysis for teachers. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall. Kern, L., Clemens, N.H. (2007). Antecedent strategies to promote appropriate classroom behavior. Psychology in the Schools, 44(1), 65-75. McCombs, B. L. (1994). Strategies for assessing and enhancing motivation: Keys to promoting self-regulated learning and performance. In H. F. O'Neil, Jr., & M. Drillings (Eds.). Motivation: Theory and research (pp. 49-69). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Newcomer, L. (2007, 2008). Positive Behavior Support in the Classroom. Unpublished presentation. Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D. & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for Research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), pp. 351-380. Sprick, R., Knight, J., Reinke, W. & McKale, T. (2006). Coaching classroom management: Strategies and tools for administrators and coaches. Eugene, OR: Pacific Northwest Publishing. Walker, H. M., Ramsey, E. & Gresham, F. M. (2004). Antisocial behavior in school: Evidence-based practices (2nd ed.). NY: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. To help you remember what we?ve discussed today a Response Strategies and Error Correction Fact Sheet is available.To help you remember what we?ve discussed today a Response Strategies and Error Correction Fact Sheet is available.

117. What are the Classroom Practices?

118. Active Engagement of Students: Multiple Opportunities to Respond The practice we are focusing on today is giving students Multiple Opportunities to Respond (OTR). Using this technique is one way to keep students actively engaged with instruction. When students are productively engaged in their work there is less chance of problem behavior (Colvin, 2009, p. 48) On the other hand, when students are required to sit for long periods of time without the opportunity to respond or participate, it increase the likelihood that problems will occur- especially for at-risk and high-risk students (Colvin, 2009, p.48). One research based, effective practice for keeping students actively engaged is providing multiple opportunities for response.The practice we are focusing on today is giving students Multiple Opportunities to Respond (OTR). Using this technique is one way to keep students actively engaged with instruction. When students are productively engaged in their work there is less chance of problem behavior (Colvin, 2009, p. 48) On the other hand, when students are required to sit for long periods of time without the opportunity to respond or participate, it increase the likelihood that problems will occur- especially for at-risk and high-risk students (Colvin, 2009, p.48). One research based, effective practice for keeping students actively engaged is providing multiple opportunities for response.

119. Multiple Opportunities to Respond An instructional question, statement or gesture made by the teacher seeking an academic response from students (Sprick, Knight, Reinke & McKale 2006) A teacher behavior that prompts or solicits a student response (Simonsen et al, 2008) Reading aloud Writing answers to a problem Verbally answering a question Responding to a teacher?s cue Opportunities to Respond occur when a teacher seeks a response from students. Student?s can respond to teacher statements or questions in a variety of ways. Examples include? Reading aloud, writing answers to a problem, verbally answering a question or giving a motor response or gesture to a cue. Opportunities to Respond occur when a teacher seeks a response from students. Student?s can respond to teacher statements or questions in a variety of ways. Examples include? Reading aloud, writing answers to a problem, verbally answering a question or giving a motor response or gesture to a cue.

120. Opportunities to Respond We can think about OTR in terms of the traditional ABC model of behavior (antecedents, behavior and consequences). The teacher provides a question, prompt or cue that sets the occasion for students to respond (this is the antecedent). The student response may be written, choral, verbal or a motor (this is the behavior). If the teacher provides an antecedent or question that brings a correct response or answer, this allows a chance to provide specific, positive feedback as a consequence. Providing frequent opportunities to respond sets the occasion for students to receive high rates of feedback and experience high rates of success. This tends to increase academic engagement and decrease problem behavior. We can think about OTR in terms of the traditional ABC model of behavior (antecedents, behavior and consequences). The teacher provides a question, prompt or cue that sets the occasion for students to respond (this is the antecedent). The student response may be written, choral, verbal or a motor (this is the behavior). If the teacher provides an antecedent or question that brings a correct response or answer, this allows a chance to provide specific, positive feedback as a consequence. Providing frequent opportunities to respond sets the occasion for students to receive high rates of feedback and experience high rates of success. This tends to increase academic engagement and decrease problem behavior.

121. Opportunities to Respond: Example Consider this as an example. The antecedent is the teacher saying ?When I give the signal, everyone answer this question: What is 5 times 6?? The teacher waits and then gives the signal for students to answer. This sets the occasion for the desired behavior? all students responding in chorus, ?30?. Students responding with a correct answer gives the teacher a chance to say ?Yes! The correct answer is 30?. The process is then repeated with several other different questions. Consider this as an example. The antecedent is the teacher saying ?When I give the signal, everyone answer this question: What is 5 times 6?? The teacher waits and then gives the signal for students to answer. This sets the occasion for the desired behavior? all students responding in chorus, ?30?. Students responding with a correct answer gives the teacher a chance to say ?Yes! The correct answer is 30?. The process is then repeated with several other different questions.

122. Why Provide Multiple Opportunities to Respond? Behavioral Outcomes: Increases student engagement with instruction Allows for high rates of positive, specific feedback Limits student time for engaging in inappropriate behavior Is an efficient use of instructional time (Heward, 1994) Here are a few reasons why providing opportunities to respond is recommended. Opportunities to respond are associated with: Students who are more engaged in instruction. The more we ask students to respond, the more likely they are to be engaged in the academic material presented. High rates of feedback. If the teacher sets up the prompts or questions well, the students will respond with the correct answer. When students respond accurately the teacher can then give specific, positive feedback. Decreases in problem behavior. When students are engaged in academic responding, they have fewer opportunities to misbehave. Providing many opportunities for students to respond correctly sets a brisk pace during teacher led instruction and decreases time for problems to occur . Finally, allowing multiple opportunities for student response is an efficient use of instructional time. Setting up group or whole class responses allows more students to be involved compared with the traditional method of the teacher asking a question and allowing one student to respond. Here are a few reasons why providing opportunities to respond is recommended. Opportunities to respond are associated with: Students who are more engaged in instruction. The more we ask students to respond, the more likely they are to be engaged in the academic material presented. High rates of feedback. If the teacher sets up the prompts or questions well, the students will respond with the correct answer. When students respond accurately the teacher can then give specific, positive feedback. Decreases in problem behavior. When students are engaged in academic responding, they have fewer opportunities to misbehave. Providing many opportunities for students to respond correctly sets a brisk pace during teacher led instruction and decreases time for problems to occur . Finally, allowing multiple opportunities for student response is an efficient use of instructional time. Setting up group or whole class responses allows more students to be involved compared with the traditional method of the teacher asking a question and allowing one student to respond.

123. Why Provide Multiple Opportunities to Respond? Academic Outcomes: Improved Reading Performance: increased percentage of reading responses, mastery of reading words, rates of words read correctly and decreased rates of words read incorrectly. (Carnine, 1976; Skinner, Smith & McLean, 1994) Improved Math Performance: percentage of problems calculated correctly per minutes, number of problems completed and active correct responses. (Skinner, Belfior, Mace, Williams-Wilson, & Johns, 1997) In addition research has shown increasing the rate of student responses specifically led to improved reading and math performance. In addition research has shown increasing the rate of student responses specifically led to improved reading and math performance.

124. Rate of Opportunities to Respond New Material: 4 ? 6 student responses per minute with 80 % accuracy Practice Work: 9 ? 12 student responses per minute with 90% accuracy (CEC, 1987; Gunter, Hummel & Venn, 1998) These are the recommended rates of opportunities to respond. When introducing new material, the goal is the have students responding at a rate of 4-6 responses per minute with 80% accuracy. When reviewing previously learned material, a quicker pace of 9-12 responses per minute with 90% accuracy is the goal. These are the recommended rates of opportunities to respond. When introducing new material, the goal is the have students responding at a rate of 4-6 responses per minute with 80% accuracy. When reviewing previously learned material, a quicker pace of 9-12 responses per minute with 90% accuracy is the goal.

125. Strategies to Increase Student Opportunity for Response Track Students Called On Guided Notes Response Cards Computer Assisted Instruction Classwide Peer Tutoring Direct Instruction This is a list of strategies teachers can use to increase the opportunities for students to respond. The first three strategies require little preparation (tracking, guided notes and response cards). The last three strategies may be dependent on availability of equipment and/or require more information before implementing. (computer assisted instruction, classwide peer tutoring and direct instruction)This is a list of strategies teachers can use to increase the opportunities for students to respond. The first three strategies require little preparation (tracking, guided notes and response cards). The last three strategies may be dependent on availability of equipment and/or require more information before implementing. (computer assisted instruction, classwide peer tutoring and direct instruction)

126. A. Track Students Called On Are all students called on? Use a seating chart & mark off when a student is called on to answer an academic question. Draw students? names from a jar Other strategies you have used? The first strategy is to systematically keep track of which students have been called on. Using a tracking strategy may help a teacher consider whether students are being asked to respond equally. Using a strategy to track which students are called on also helps to monitor students who have not participated and increases the chance they will be called on. Two simple strategies are listed here: 1) The teacher can use a seating chart and check a name off each time a student a student responds. Or? 2) Consider drawing students? names from a jar. However, it is important that students experience high rates of success. Think about whether a student can correctly answer the question before calling on him or her. Are there other strategies you have used or can think of to keep track of which students are called on? The first strategy is to systematically keep track of which students have been called on. Using a tracking strategy may help a teacher consider whether students are being asked to respond equally. Using a strategy to track which students are called on also helps to monitor students who have not participated and increases the chance they will be called on. Two simple strategies are listed here: 1) The teacher can use a seating chart and check a name off each time a student a student responds. Or? 2) Consider drawing students? names from a jar. However, it is important that students experience high rates of success. Think about whether a student can correctly answer the question before calling on him or her. Are there other strategies you have used or can think of to keep track of which students are called on?

127. B. Guided Notes Opportunity to Respond is an instructional question, statement or gesture made by the teacher seeking _______________________. Rate of OTR for New Material: ____ responses from students per minute with __ % accuracy Rate of OTR for Practice Work: ___ opportunities with __ % accuracy Three common strategies to increase OTR are: Tracking students called on Guided __________ Response ________ Guided Notes are a second strategy to encourage student responding. Guided Notes are teacher-prepared hand-outs that outline lectures, but leave "blank" space for key concepts, facts or definitions. As the lecture progresses, the learner fills in the spaces with content information. Guided notes are a way of involving students during a lecture. Added benefits of guided notes include organizing and highlighting the important points of a lecture and guided notes provide students with an accurate summary of information they can use to study for tests. This strategy may be used with most grades, but may be more applicable in secondary grades where lectures are frequently used to share new material. This slide shows an example based on our ?lecture? today. Guided Notes are a second strategy to encourage student responding. Guided Notes are teacher-prepared hand-outs that outline lectures, but leave "blank" space for key concepts, facts or definitions. As the lecture progresses, the learner fills in the spaces with content information. Guided notes are a way of involving students during a lecture. Added benefits of guided notes include organizing and highlighting the important points of a lecture and guided notes provide students with an accurate summary of information they can use to study for tests. This strategy may be used with most grades, but may be more applicable in secondary grades where lectures are frequently used to share new material. This slide shows an example based on our ?lecture? today.

128. How To Develop Guided Notes Examine Existing Lecture Outlines Delete Key Facts, Concepts & Relationships Insert Concept Maps, Graphs, Charts, Diagrams & Other Resources Provide Formatting Cues (Blank Lines, Numbers, Bullets, etc) Do Not Require Students Write Too Much These are suggestions about how to develop guided notes.These are suggestions about how to develop guided notes.

129. C. Response Cards Cards, Signs, or Items Simultaneously Held up By All Students to Display Their Responses Types of Response Cards: Preprinted Cards: Yes/No, True/False, Agree/Disagree, Preprinted Cards with Multiple Answers: Letters, Numbers, Parts of Speech, Characters in a Story Write-On Cards: 9X12 Response Cards & Dry-Erase Markers Back side of recycled paper Easy to Manipulate, Display and See Response cards are another a powerful way to engage all students when asking questions. Response cards are signs, or items simultaneously held up by all students to display their responses. The types of response cards are as varied as a teacher?s imagination. Preprinted cards can be used, and reused, with yes/no or true/false printed on both side. Students raise the card on the side that is their response to a question. Preprinted cards with multiple answers may also be used when a student has more than two responses to choose from. With a paper clip or clothes pin a student can indicate their answer. Write-on cards can be made from 4 by 8 foot sheets of laminated bathroom board, cut into 9 X 12 inch response cards that each student can use. Dry-erase markers and paper towel can be used to write and erase answers. Many schools and classrooms have a recycle bin of paper that has been used only on one side. Reusing paper makes an inexpensive and recyclable way for students to record answers. Whatever is used, the response cards should be easy to manipulate, display and see by the teacher. Response cards are another a powerful way to engage all students when asking questions. Response cards are signs, or items simultaneously held up by all students to display their responses. The types of response cards are as varied as a teacher?s imagination. Preprinted cards can be used, and reused, with yes/no or true/false printed on both side. Students raise the card on the side that is their response to a question. Preprinted cards with multiple answers may also be used when a student has more than two responses to choose from. With a paper clip or clothes pin a student can indicate their answer. Write-on cards can be made from 4 by 8 foot sheets of laminated bathroom board, cut into 9 X 12 inch response cards that each student can use. Dry-erase markers and paper towel can be used to write and erase answers. Many schools and classrooms have a recycle bin of paper that has been used only on one side. Reusing paper makes an inexpensive and recyclable way for students to record answers. Whatever is used, the response cards should be easy to manipulate, display and see by the teacher.

130. Use of Response Cards Teach, Model and Practice the Routine 1. Question 5. Cue to Show 2. Think 6. Hold up Card 3. Decide Answer 7. Put Down Card 4. Wait 8. Prepare for Next Question. Maintain lively pace Short time between questions Give clear cues OK to look at classmates? cards Specific, positive feedback for correct answers and use of cards Using response cards takes a little planning. The teacher should identify and teach the routine she/he will have when asking students to use their response cards. Specific behavioral expectations about how to hold, respond, clean and prepare for the next question need to be planned, taught, modeled, and practiced so students are fluent in the use of the response cards. Maintaining a lively pace of questions, responses, and clean up with short periods of time between questions is important for keeping students on task. Teacher should use clear and consistent cues about holding up and putting down cards so students can keep up the brisk pace. Using response cards is not a test. Rather it is a way to review and relearn material. Encourage students to look at each others? cards to get the correct answer. And of course, it is critically important for the teacher to recognize students who give correct answers and use their cards appropriately. Specific, positive feedback will increase the likelihood the students will remember the answer and repeat the behavior in the future. Using response cards takes a little planning. The teacher should identify and teach the routine she/he will have when asking students to use their response cards. Specific behavioral expectations about how to hold, respond, clean and prepare for the next question need to be planned, taught, modeled, and practiced so students are fluent in the use of the response cards. Maintaining a lively pace of questions, responses, and clean up with short periods of time between questions is important for keeping students on task. Teacher should use clear and consistent cues about holding up and putting down cards so students can keep up the brisk pace. Using response cards is not a test. Rather it is a way to review and relearn material. Encourage students to look at each others? cards to get the correct answer. And of course, it is critically important for the teacher to recognize students who give correct answers and use their cards appropriately. Specific, positive feedback will increase the likelihood the students will remember the answer and repeat the behavior in the future.

131. Response Card Practice Distribute true/false cards to all participants. Routine: I will ask a question and give you time to think. I will say ?Answer? Show your card with your answer toward me. Hold card until I say ?Cards down?. Place card on table and put eyes on me. Practice Handout 5 Now we are going to demonstrate the use of response cards. (Use Handout 2: True/False Card) Everyone take out your true/false card. Here is the routine we will use today. I will ask a question and give you time to think. Then I will say ?Answer? as the cue to show your card. When I say, ?answer? hold your card with the response facing me. Keep the response card up until I say ?Cards down?. Then place your card on the table, put your eyes on me and listen for the next question. Any questions before we begin? Time to Practice: (Use the questions listed below or make up questions of your own. Don?t forget to give specific, positive feedback for answers and use of the cards.) Jefferson City is the capital of Missouri (true) Anchorage is the capital of Alaska (false, Juneau is the capital) 9 X 7 is 63 (true) When shooting a free throw, keep feet shoulder width apart and parallel to one another (true) One the periodic table of elements in chemistry, Co is the symbol for copper (false, Co is symbol for cobalt) Since many of you had difficulty answering question 5, it would be a good time to point out that response cards give the teacher good assessment information. Obviously this group is not ready for the test. As the teacher I might repeat that question a couple of times until students reach the 80-90% accuracy level. Now we are going to demonstrate the use of response cards. (Use Handout 2: True/False Card) Everyone take out your true/false card. Here is the routine we will use today. I will ask a question and give you time to think. Then I will say ?Answer? as the cue to show your card. When I say, ?answer? hold your card with the response facing me. Keep the response card up until I say ?Cards down?. Then place your card on the table, put your eyes on me and listen for the next question. Any questions before we begin? Time to Practice: (Use the questions listed below or make up questions of your own. Don?t forget to give specific, positive feedback for answers and use of the cards.) Jefferson City is the capital of Missouri (true) Anchorage is the capital of Alaska (false, Juneau is the capital) 9 X 7 is 63 (true) When shooting a free throw, keep feet shoulder width apart and parallel to one another (true) One the periodic table of elements in chemistry, Co is the symbol for copper (false, Co is symbol for cobalt) Since many of you had difficulty answering question 5, it would be a good time to point out that response cards give the teacher good assessment information. Obviously this group is not ready for the test. As the teacher I might repeat that question a couple of times until students reach the 80-90% accuracy level.

132. Response Card Activity Pair with another participant Discuss a lesson you teach that could include the use of response cards. Be sure each of you comes up with a plan! Use Handout 3 Handouts 4 & 5 are examples (one elementary and one secondary) Be prepared to share. Optional activity ? can be completed if time allows. I want to give you some time to create a plan to incorporate response cards within a lesson you are preparing to teach. I am going to have you pair up and help each other decide a lesson where response cards could be used to give students more opportunities to respond. We have provided a worksheet that may help you create a plan (Handout 3) We also have two examples to use as a guide to help you decide the procedures you want students to follow as they use response cards (Handouts 4 and 5). Handout 4 is an elementary example and Handout 5 is a secondary example. Provide handouts. After 10 minutes, give the attention signal and have some participants share their plans. Optional activity ? can be completed if time allows. I want to give you some time to create a plan to incorporate response cards within a lesson you are preparing to teach. I am going to have you pair up and help each other decide a lesson where response cards could be used to give students more opportunities to respond. We have provided a worksheet that may help you create a plan (Handout 3) We also have two examples to use as a guide to help you decide the procedures you want students to follow as they use response cards (Handouts 4 and 5). Handout 4 is an elementary example and Handout 5 is a secondary example. Provide handouts. After 10 minutes, give the attention signal and have some participants share their plans.

133. Strategies to Increase Student Opportunities to Respond Track Students Called On Guided Notes Response Cards Computer Assisted Instruction Classwide Peer Tutoring Direct Instruction Three additional strategies for increasing student opportunity to respond are computer assisted instruction, classwide peer tutoring and Direct Intsruction. These strategies may be dependent on availability of equipment and require more intensive learning before a teacher can implement. We will provide brief information on each of these strategies and give you resources for further research. Three additional strategies for increasing student opportunity to respond are computer assisted instruction, classwide peer tutoring and Direct Intsruction. These strategies may be dependent on availability of equipment and require more intensive learning before a teacher can implement. We will provide brief information on each of these strategies and give you resources for further research.

134. D. Computer Assisted Instruction Provides ? High levels of response opportunities Immediate feedback Enhanced motivation for learning Computer assisted instruction refers to instruction or remediation presented on a computer. Computer programs are interactive and can illustrate a concept through attractive animation, sound, and demonstration. They allow students to progress at their own pace and work individually or problem solve in a group. Computers provide immediate feedback, letting students know whether their answer is correct. If the answer is not correct, the program shows students how to correctly answer the question. Computers offer a different type of activity and a change of pace from teacher-led or group instruction. (The Access Center, retrieved February 10, 2009 from website http://www.k8accesscenter.org/index.php/category/computer-assisted-instruction/) Many educational computer programs are available online or from computer stores and textbook companies. The extent of use may depend on equipment availability in your school. Computer assisted instruction refers to instruction or remediation presented on a computer. Computer programs are interactive and can illustrate a concept through attractive animation, sound, and demonstration. They allow students to progress at their own pace and work individually or problem solve in a group. Computers provide immediate feedback, letting students know whether their answer is correct. If the answer is not correct, the program shows students how to correctly answer the question. Computers offer a different type of activity and a change of pace from teacher-led or group instruction. (The Access Center, retrieved February 10, 2009 from website http://www.k8accesscenter.org/index.php/category/computer-assisted-instruction/) Many educational computer programs are available online or from computer stores and textbook companies. The extent of use may depend on equipment availability in your school.

135. E. Class-wide Peer Tutoring Highly structured format Reciprocal peer tutoring so every student can tutor and be tutored. Promote high levels of on-task behavior Actively engages all students in the classroom simultaneously Another strategy to enhance response opportunities is classwide peer tutoring. Effective classwide peer tutoring programs are highly structured and include specific procedures for taking turns, presenting information, recording responses and providing feedback. A classwide peer tutoring program includes reciprocal peer tutoring so every student can tutor and be tutored. All classwide peer tutoring procedures must be directly taught and practiced to be successful. If the procedures have been identified and taught, high levels of on-task behavior and simultaneous active engagement of all students can be expected. Another strategy to enhance response opportunities is classwide peer tutoring. Effective classwide peer tutoring programs are highly structured and include specific procedures for taking turns, presenting information, recording responses and providing feedback. A classwide peer tutoring program includes reciprocal peer tutoring so every student can tutor and be tutored. All classwide peer tutoring procedures must be directly taught and practiced to be successful. If the procedures have been identified and taught, high levels of on-task behavior and simultaneous active engagement of all students can be expected.

136. E. Class-wide Peer Tutoring Common Characteristics Clearly Defined Learning Tasks/Responses Individualized Instruction High Rates of Active Student Responding Immediate Feedback and Praise for Correct Responses Systematic Error Correction Measurement of Student Progress Motivation for Students Newcomer, 2009 Here are some common features of class-wide peer tutoring programs: Clearly Defined Learning Tasks/Responses--Tutor roles and procedures are clearly defined, often scripted and standard procedures are expected to be used with little variation. Individualized Instruction?teachers give frequent pre- and post-tests to determine learning tasks that match the current needs of each student. High Rates of Active Student Responding?Well-designed class-wide peer tutoring programs provide each student with many opportunities to respond. Depending on the learning tasks, students make 100 or more responses during a 10-minute peer tutoring session. With each student serving as a tutor and a tutee, the opportunities to respond to the academic task is further increased. Immediate Feedback and Praise for Correct Responses--Peer tutors provide feedback and praise to their tutees, and the teacher provides feedback to the tutors as a means of providing high-quality peer teaching and learning during class-wide peer tutoring sessions. Formal point systems are used in many class-wide peer tutoring programs to motivate participation and make learning fun. Systematic Error Correction?Tutors immediately and systematically correct mistakes by their tutees by using the materials that show the correct response to the tutor. Measurement of Student Progress?All research-backed programs incorporate direct and frequent measurement of each student?s progress. These data are obtained in a variety of ways, such as daily end-of-session assessments given by tutors, regularly scheduled teacher-administered ?check outs? of students? performance, and weekly pre- and post-tests and curriculum-based measurements. Motivation for Students?Students have fun when class-wide peer tutoring programs include game-like formats, team goals, and charted progress. Here are some common features of class-wide peer tutoring programs: Clearly Defined Learning Tasks/Responses--Tutor roles and procedures are clearly defined, often scripted and standard procedures are expected to be used with little variation. Individualized Instruction?teachers give frequent pre- and post-tests to determine learning tasks that match the current needs of each student. High Rates of Active Student Responding?Well-designed class-wide peer tutoring programs provide each student with many opportunities to respond. Depending on the learning tasks, students make 100 or more responses during a 10-minute peer tutoring session. With each student serving as a tutor and a tutee, the opportunities to respond to the academic task is further increased. Immediate Feedback and Praise for Correct Responses--Peer tutors provide feedback and praise to their tutees, and the teacher provides feedback to the tutors as a means of providing high-quality peer teaching and learning during class-wide peer tutoring sessions. Formal point systems are used in many class-wide peer tutoring programs to motivate participation and make learning fun. Systematic Error Correction?Tutors immediately and systematically correct mistakes by their tutees by using the materials that show the correct response to the tutor. Measurement of Student Progress?All research-backed programs incorporate direct and frequent measurement of each student?s progress. These data are obtained in a variety of ways, such as daily end-of-session assessments given by tutors, regularly scheduled teacher-administered ?check outs? of students? performance, and weekly pre- and post-tests and curriculum-based measurements. Motivation for Students?Students have fun when class-wide peer tutoring programs include game-like formats, team goals, and charted progress.

137. F. Direct Instruction Direct Instruction (DI) is a teaching model that emphasizes carefully planned lessons designed around small learning increments with clearly defined and prescribed teaching tasks. It is based on the theory that clear instruction eliminates misinterpretations and can greatly improve and accelerate learning. (NIFDI website) Direct instruction is the next strategy to increase opportunities to respond. Direct Instruction (DI) is an instructional design and teaching methodology originally developed by Siegfried Engelmann and the late Wesley C. Becker from the University of Oregon. Examples: Distar Reading, Soar to Success Reading, SRA Reading Distar Math, Saxxon Math Direct instruction is the next strategy to increase opportunities to respond. Direct Instruction (DI) is an instructional design and teaching methodology originally developed by Siegfried Engelmann and the late Wesley C. Becker from the University of Oregon. Examples: Distar Reading, Soar to Success Reading, SRA Reading Distar Math, Saxxon Math

138. F. Direct Instruction Characteristics: Explicit, systematic instruction based on scripted lesson plans. Ability grouping. Emphasis on pace and efficiency of instruction. Frequent assessment. Quick pace helps keep students on task. New material is worked on in highly interactive format Features of direct instruction include: Direct Instruction is explicit, systematic and based on scripted lesson plans. Lessons are a sequence of short, quick-paced exercises. Students are ability grouped and re-grouped based on their rate of progress through the program. There is emphasis on pace and efficiency of instruction. DI programs are meant to accelerate the performance of students; therefore, lessons are designed to bring students to mastery as quickly as possible. Direct instruction involves frequent assessment. Curriculum-based assessments help place students in ability groups and identify students who require additional intervention. The fast pacing of DI instruction achieves the highest level of student responses within a finite amount of time. With a fast pace, students are actively engaged in the lesson, remain on task, and remain focused on the skills being taught. Also, because there is a short amount of time between when students learn information and when they have the opportunity to use it, their retention is higher. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direct_InstructionFeatures of direct instruction include: Direct Instruction is explicit, systematic and based on scripted lesson plans. Lessons are a sequence of short, quick-paced exercises. Students are ability grouped and re-grouped based on their rate of progress through the program. There is emphasis on pace and efficiency of instruction. DI programs are meant to accelerate the performance of students; therefore, lessons are designed to bring students to mastery as quickly as possible. Direct instruction involves frequent assessment. Curriculum-based assessments help place students in ability groups and identify students who require additional intervention. The fast pacing of DI instruction achieves the highest level of student responses within a finite amount of time. With a fast pace, students are actively engaged in the lesson, remain on task, and remain focused on the skills being taught. Also, because there is a short amount of time between when students learn information and when they have the opportunity to use it, their retention is higher. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direct_Instruction

139. Strategies to Increase Student Opportunities to Respond Track Students Called On Guided Notes Response Cards Computer Assisted Instruction Classwide Peer Tutoring Direct Instruction Providing students with multiple opportunities to respond during academic instruction is an effective practice for keeping students engaged with learning and decreasing problem behavior. These are strategies teachers can use for increasing the number of opportunities students have for engaging with instructional tasks.Providing students with multiple opportunities to respond during academic instruction is an effective practice for keeping students engaged with learning and decreasing problem behavior. These are strategies teachers can use for increasing the number of opportunities students have for engaging with instructional tasks.

140. Why Provide Multiple Opportunities to Respond ? Increases student engagement with instruction Allows for high rates of positive, specific feedback Limits student time for engaging in inappropriate behavior Is an efficient use of instructional time (Heward, 1994) We provide opportunities for response because it increases engagement with instruction, allows for high rates of feedback from the teacher, limits student problem behavior and is an efficient use of instructional time.We provide opportunities for response because it increases engagement with instruction, allows for high rates of feedback from the teacher, limits student problem behavior and is an efficient use of instructional time.

141. Opportunity to Respond Practice Read the classroom vignette (Handout 1). Determine how many opportunities to respond were provided to students during the instructional period. Identify whether each opportunity was an individual or group response. Handout 1 Read directions from slide. Provide Handout 1 to participants. Give 5 minutes to read the vignette and record answers. Discuss responses. Answer: 6 opportunities; 4 were group responses; 2 were individual methods of response. Read directions from slide. Provide Handout 1 to participants. Give 5 minutes to read the vignette and record answers. Discuss responses. Answer: 6 opportunities; 4 were group responses; 2 were individual methods of response.

142. Observing Opportunities to Respond Classroom: Frequency Observer tallies the number of instructional questions, statements or gestures made by the teacher seeking an academic response. Students: Rate of Academic Engagement Observer Records ?+? symbol for on-task/engaged behavior and ?-? indicates off-task behavior. To assess the rate of opportunities to respond, data can be collected during a classroom or student observation. To record the frequency of opportunities to respond in a particular classroom, an observer can tally the number of questions, statements or gestures made by the teacher to seek an academic response. In addition, students can be observed to record their rate of academic engagement. During an observation period the recorder marks ?+? for on-task or engaged student behavior and ?-? for off-task behavior observed during regular intervals, such as every 5 seconds. It is important to clarify teacher and recorder definitions of on-task versus off-task behavior before beginning the data collection process. To assess the rate of opportunities to respond, data can be collected during a classroom or student observation. To record the frequency of opportunities to respond in a particular classroom, an observer can tally the number of questions, statements or gestures made by the teacher to seek an academic response. In addition, students can be observed to record their rate of academic engagement. During an observation period the recorder marks ?+? for on-task or engaged student behavior and ?-? for off-task behavior observed during regular intervals, such as every 5 seconds. It is important to clarify teacher and recorder definitions of on-task versus off-task behavior before beginning the data collection process.

143. Discussion Activity With your colleagues at the table, consider/share how your school does (or could) provide information, modeling and feedback about use of OTR to increase student academic engagement. Prepare to share with the large group. 5 minutes to discuss. As a PBS team member or coach one of your responsibilities is to help create a system for getting information about research based practices to your faculty and staff. Besides providing information we know teachers are more likely to implement a particular practice if they also have opportunities to see the skill modeled and receive feedback about their performance of an instructional skill. With your school team, consider how your school either already does or could do observations to record opportunities to respond. If your school does not currently have a system, what system of observations could be put into place? As a PBS team member or coach one of your responsibilities is to help create a system for getting information about research based practices to your faculty and staff. Besides providing information we know teachers are more likely to implement a particular practice if they also have opportunities to see the skill modeled and receive feedback about their performance of an instructional skill. With your school team, consider how your school either already does or could do observations to record opportunities to respond. If your school does not currently have a system, what system of observations could be put into place?

144. Additional Information Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/pals/ National Institute for Direct Instruction http://www.nifdi.org/ Direct Instruction http://directinstruction.org/ These websites provide additional information about classwide peer tutoring and Direct Instruction.These websites provide additional information about classwide peer tutoring and Direct Instruction.

145. References Carnine, D.W. (1976). Effects of two teacher-presentation rates on off-task behavior, answering correctly, and participation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9, 199-206. Council for Exceptional Children, (1987). Academy for effective instruction: working with mildly handicapped students. Reston, VA: Author. Gunter, P., Hummel, J., & Venn, M. (1998). Are effective academic instructional practices used to teach students with behavior disorders? Beyond Behavior, 9, 5-11.

146. References Heward, W.L. (1994). Three low-tech strategies for increasing the frequency of active student response during group instruction (pp.283-320). In R. Garner, III, D.M. Sainato, J.O., Cooper, T. E., Heron W.L., Heward, J., Eshleman, & T.A. Grossi (Eds.) Behavior analysis in education: Focus on measurably superior instruction. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. ?Skinner, C.H., Smith, E.S., & McLean, J.E. (1994). The effects on intertribal interval duration on sight-word learning rates of children with behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 19, 98-107. Skinner, C.H., Belfior, P.J., Mace, H.W., Williams-Wilson, S., & Johns, G.A. (1997). Altering response topography to increase response efficiency and learning rates. School Psychology Quarterly, 12, 54-64. Sprick, R. S., Knight, J., Reinke, W.M., & McKale, T. (2006). Coaching Classroom Management: Strategies for Administrators and Coaches. Eugene, OR: Pacific Northwest.

147. What are the Classroom Practices?

148. Effective Classroom Practice ?The hallmark of a well-managed classroom is one in which students are (a) meeting the teacher?s procedural and behavioral expectations, (b) academically engaged in meaningful learning tasks, and (c) interacting respectfully with one another and with the teacher.? (Sprick, Knight, Reinke & McKale, 2006, p. 185) (Read Slide) Active Supervision is an important component of a well-managed classroom.(Read Slide) Active Supervision is an important component of a well-managed classroom.

149. Effective Classroom Practice ?Effective classroom management is a key component of effective instruction, regardless of grade level, subject, pedagogy or curriculum.? (Sprick, Knight, Reinke & McKale, 2006, p. 185) (Read Slide) Active Supervision is a management practice that is applicable to all classrooms regardless of grade level or content being taught. As students get older and are able to work more independently it is natural to think they may require less supervision. In fact, active supervision is just as important in middle, junior high and high school settings as it is in preschool or elementary level classrooms. (Read Slide) Active Supervision is a management practice that is applicable to all classrooms regardless of grade level or content being taught. As students get older and are able to work more independently it is natural to think they may require less supervision. In fact, active supervision is just as important in middle, junior high and high school settings as it is in preschool or elementary level classrooms.

150. Active Supervision Comprehensive Classroom Management Plan Expected behaviors/routines taught Acknowledge appropriate Respond to inappropriate High rates of engagement (OTR) Active Supervision Academic Success & Task Difficulty Activity Sequence & Offering Choice Active supervision is an important component of a comprehensive classroom behavior management plan. You have likely used active supervision in the cafeteria, hallways, playground or during arrival and dismissal times. Active supervision is especially useful in large area locations, with less structured activities that have lots of students and few adults. We know simply maintaining adult presence and responding to inappropriate behaviors is ineffective. Active supervision is an effective way for managing these types of situations. However, active supervision techniques also work well in classrooms. (Sprague & Golly, 2005, pp.73-74)Active supervision is an important component of a comprehensive classroom behavior management plan. You have likely used active supervision in the cafeteria, hallways, playground or during arrival and dismissal times. Active supervision is especially useful in large area locations, with less structured activities that have lots of students and few adults. We know simply maintaining adult presence and responding to inappropriate behaviors is ineffective. Active supervision is an effective way for managing these types of situations. However, active supervision techniques also work well in classrooms. (Sprague & Golly, 2005, pp.73-74)

151. What is Active Supervision? Monitoring procedure that uses 3 components Moving Scanning Interacting Frequently (DePry & Sugai, 2002) Active Supervision is a multi-element method of behavior support and management. It is a monitoring procedure in which the supervisor or teacher actively moves around the classroom space, continually scans the classroom, and frequently interacts with students. Active Supervision is a multi-element method of behavior support and management. It is a monitoring procedure in which the supervisor or teacher actively moves around the classroom space, continually scans the classroom, and frequently interacts with students.

152. Why Provide Active Supervision? There is a relationship between the number of supervisor - to - student interactions and the instances of problem behavior Active Supervision? Has a positive impact on student behavior in a variety of settings- including classroom May reduce incidents of minor problem behavior May lead to increases in student engagement (Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers & Sugai, 2008) (Read Slide)(Read Slide)

153. How? Active Supervision Moving Effectively Constant Make presence known and obvious Proximity to all students More frequent proximity to noncompliant students Randomized Targets Problem Areas ?Active supervision incorporates three important features. The first is movement. Movement is an important aspect of supervision because it provides: Greater visibility of the teacher and direct observation by the teacher across more students areas and activities An increased rate of proximity to more students Increased opportunities for teacher/student contact Increased opportunities for positive reinforcement and Increased likelihood of encountering covert inappropriate behaviors such as bullying and harassment Effective movement is constant, randomized and targets known problem areas. Constant movement means? give the impression you are everywhere at once ? this allows a teacher to stay in close proximity to students and provide higher rates of academic and behavioral support. Randomized means? move in unpredictable patterns. If teachers have a set or regular pattern of movement students will quickly learn the routine and take advantage of opportunities to misbehave. The goal is having patterns of movement that vary from period to period and day to day. Finally, effective movement targets known problem areas, activities or individual students as often as possible.? (Sprague & Golly, 2005, pp. 74-76) ?Active supervision incorporates three important features. The first is movement. Movement is an important aspect of supervision because it provides: Greater visibility of the teacher and direct observation by the teacher across more students areas and activities An increased rate of proximity to more students Increased opportunities for teacher/student contact Increased opportunities for positive reinforcement and Increased likelihood of encountering covert inappropriate behaviors such as bullying and harassment Effective movement is constant, randomized and targets known problem areas. Constant movement means? give the impression you are everywhere at once ? this allows a teacher to stay in close proximity to students and provide higher rates of academic and behavioral support. Randomized means? move in unpredictable patterns. If teachers have a set or regular pattern of movement students will quickly learn the routine and take advantage of opportunities to misbehave. The goal is having patterns of movement that vary from period to period and day to day. Finally, effective movement targets known problem areas, activities or individual students as often as possible.? (Sprague & Golly, 2005, pp. 74-76)

154. How? Active Supervision Scanning Effectively All students observed on a regular basis Make eye contact with students in more distant locations of the room Look and listen for signs of a problem The second aspect of active supervision is scanning. ?Too often teachers tend to focus on activities or individual students that are close by. Developing the ability to systematically scan more distant parts of a classroom and recognize signs or sounds that may indicate problem behavior is invaluable. Some useful scanning methods and techniques include: Maintain constant visual movement whether standing, walking or talking. Shift your field of view to make eye contact with students outside the immediate physical area. For example, smile and wave to students who are engaged in expected behavior. Train yourself to look at students? behavior. Pay attention to subtle physical or behavioral clues that may be signs of distress. Try to look at the ?big picture? ? not just one student or activity, but as much activity as possible. Try to also listen for behavior. Physical disposition is not the only indicator of what may be happening. Angry, whining, panicked, or bossy tones of voice may be signs of a problem. Try to keep eyes in one direction and ears in another while scanning. Finally, train yourself to recognize situations that may precede problem behavior. Teachers who understand what events may trigger outbreaks can often prevent problems from escalating.? (Sprague & Golly, 2005, pp. 76-78) The second aspect of active supervision is scanning. ?Too often teachers tend to focus on activities or individual students that are close by. Developing the ability to systematically scan more distant parts of a classroom and recognize signs or sounds that may indicate problem behavior is invaluable. Some useful scanning methods and techniques include: Maintain constant visual movement whether standing, walking or talking. Shift your field of view to make eye contact with students outside the immediate physical area. For example, smile and wave to students who are engaged in expected behavior. Train yourself to look at students? behavior. Pay attention to subtle physical or behavioral clues that may be signs of distress. Try to look at the ?big picture? ? not just one student or activity, but as much activity as possible. Try to also listen for behavior. Physical disposition is not the only indicator of what may be happening. Angry, whining, panicked, or bossy tones of voice may be signs of a problem. Try to keep eyes in one direction and ears in another while scanning. Finally, train yourself to recognize situations that may precede problem behavior. Teachers who understand what events may trigger outbreaks can often prevent problems from escalating.? (Sprague & Golly, 2005, pp. 76-78)

155. How? Active Supervision Interacting Frequently Positive contacts Friendly, helpful, open demeanor Proactive, noncontingent High rate of delivery Positive reinforcement Immediate and contingent on behavior Delivered at high rates and consistently The third aspect of active supervision is frequent interactions. Interactions include the following: Positive Contacts Positive Reinforcement Corrective Response and Delivering a consequence Positive contact should be free and frequent. This means it is NOT contingent on appropriate behavior. Greeting students at the door each time they enter a classroom is a way of providing active supervision with a positive contact. Positive contacts should be friendly, helpful and cultivate a personal touch. The goal is to establish yourself as a caring member of the school/classroom, while still maintaining an authoritative role. Frequent use of positive contact fosters trust and respect with students. Positive contact should be proactive ? meaning teachers should actively pursue opportunities to engage and interact with students in a positive manner. Deliberately engineering positive contact with at risk and high risk students in particular may prevent problems from occurring or escalating. In contrast to a positive contact, positive reinforcement is contingent upon specific behavior. For example, ?Good morning Betty it?s nice to see you!? is a positive contact, while ?Jimmy, I saw you helping Sally pick up the things that spilled from her backpack. That?s a good way to be kind and respectful to other members of the class. I?m going to give you a RRKS Ribbon? (SW reinforcer) is positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement should be delivered as soon after the desired behavior as possible and provided at high rates.The third aspect of active supervision is frequent interactions. Interactions include the following: Positive Contacts Positive Reinforcement Corrective Response and Delivering a consequence Positive contact should be free and frequent. This means it is NOT contingent on appropriate behavior. Greeting students at the door each time they enter a classroom is a way of providing active supervision with a positive contact. Positive contacts should be friendly, helpful and cultivate a personal touch. The goal is to establish yourself as a caring member of the school/classroom, while still maintaining an authoritative role. Frequent use of positive contact fosters trust and respect with students. Positive contact should be proactive ? meaning teachers should actively pursue opportunities to engage and interact with students in a positive manner. Deliberately engineering positive contact with at risk and high risk students in particular may prevent problems from occurring or escalating. In contrast to a positive contact, positive reinforcement is contingent upon specific behavior. For example, ?Good morning Betty it?s nice to see you!? is a positive contact, while ?Jimmy, I saw you helping Sally pick up the things that spilled from her backpack. That?s a good way to be kind and respectful to other members of the class. I?m going to give you a RRKS Ribbon? (SW reinforcer) is positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement should be delivered as soon after the desired behavior as possible and provided at high rates.

156. How? Active Supervision Interacting Frequently Corrective response Nonargumentative, noncritical Specific to behavior Systematic = correct, model, practice, reinforce Deliver consequence Neutral, businesslike demeanor Fair, nonarbitrary Interactions with students while providing active supervision will sometimes require a corrective response. The use of corrective strategies for inappropriate or low-level problem behaviors can be effective if the response is? a) Immediate, b) Nonpersonal, nonargumentative, and noncritical c) Specific to the behavior and provides an opportunity for reteaching and student practice. If it is necessary to deliver a consequence the following guidelines can make the interaction more effective? To the greatest extent possible, take the student aside ? never reprimand or potentially embarrass students in front of others if you can avoid it. Review what you saw with the student in a calm, impersonal manner. Don?t argue and don?t be drawn into an argument. Define the problem and establish a clear focus on the appropriate behavior. Give the student choices on how to correct the problem and accept the consequences. If the student is compliant when given a correction or consequence, the process should take no more than a couple of minutes to complete. *To follow up on a corrective or consequence interaction, actively look for the student to do the right thing and consistently reinforce the appropriate behavior as often as possible. Interactions with students while providing active supervision will sometimes require a corrective response. The use of corrective strategies for inappropriate or low-level problem behaviors can be effective if the response is? a) Immediate, b) Nonpersonal, nonargumentative, and noncritical c) Specific to the behavior and provides an opportunity for reteaching and student practice. If it is necessary to deliver a consequence the following guidelines can make the interaction more effective? To the greatest extent possible, take the student aside ? never reprimand or potentially embarrass students in front of others if you can avoid it. Review what you saw with the student in a calm, impersonal manner. Don?t argue and don?t be drawn into an argument. Define the problem and establish a clear focus on the appropriate behavior. Give the student choices on how to correct the problem and accept the consequences. If the student is compliant when given a correction or consequence, the process should take no more than a couple of minutes to complete. *To follow up on a corrective or consequence interaction, actively look for the student to do the right thing and consistently reinforce the appropriate behavior as often as possible.

157. Example: Active Supervision ?The teacher Ms. Hailey directed the class to finish writing a paragraph by themselves. She then moved slowly down the aisles looking from side to side quietly acknowledging the students for starting quickly. She stood beside Enrico for a moment, as he usually does not do well with independent work, and praised him for getting started. Ms. Hailey then stopped, turned around, and watched the front half of the class. She continued to loop around the class, checking students? work and making compliments here and there.? (Colvin, 2009, p.46) Read and discuss the following scenario. How much and what aspects of active supervision did the teacher provide in this example? 1. Moved slowly down the aisle = movement 2. Looking from side to side = scanning 3. Quietly acknowledging students for starting quickly = positive reinforcement 4. Stood beside Enrico for a moment = positive contact; targets a problem 5. Praised him for getting started = positive reinforcement 6. Stopped, turned around and watched the front half of the class = randomized movement; scanning 7. Continued to loop around the class = movement 8. Checking students work = frequent interaction 9. Making compliments = frequent interaction; positive reinforcementRead and discuss the following scenario. How much and what aspects of active supervision did the teacher provide in this example? 1. Moved slowly down the aisle = movement 2. Looking from side to side = scanning 3. Quietly acknowledging students for starting quickly = positive reinforcement 4. Stood beside Enrico for a moment = positive contact; targets a problem 5. Praised him for getting started = positive reinforcement 6. Stopped, turned around and watched the front half of the class = randomized movement; scanning 7. Continued to loop around the class = movement 8. Checking students work = frequent interaction 9. Making compliments = frequent interaction; positive reinforcement

158. Activity: Interacting Frequently Read the student scenarios Decide what type of interaction is most appropriate 1. Positive Contact 3. Corrective Response 2. Positive Reinforcement 4. Deliver consequence Use the example SW matrix to identify expectation and rule language Record a possible interaction statement Active Supervision Student Scenarios and Example Matrix Read directions on slide. Provide ?Active Supervision Student Scenario? handout and Example Matrix handout. Give participants time to read the scenarios and record interaction statements. This activity can be completed independently or with a partner. Ask volunteers to share responses with the whole group.Read directions on slide. Provide ?Active Supervision Student Scenario? handout and Example Matrix handout. Give participants time to read the scenarios and record interaction statements. This activity can be completed independently or with a partner. Ask volunteers to share responses with the whole group.

159. Activity: Active Supervision Think about what has been discussed in terms of moving, scanning and interacting. Consider and record your current practices during whole group instruction, small group instruction, independent work times and transition times. How could the use of movement, scanning and frequent interaction be enhanced in your classroom? Handout: Active Supervision Classroom Practices Provide the ?Active Supervision Classroom Practices? handout. Give participants time to work. This activity will be completed individually. Call on a few volunteers to share responses with the large group.Provide the ?Active Supervision Classroom Practices? handout. Give participants time to work. This activity will be completed individually. Call on a few volunteers to share responses with the large group.

160. Effective Classroom Practice ?Managing a classroom is part art and part science, conceptually simple enough to reduce to a handful of critical variables, yet so intricate and complex it is a lifelong learning task. Even the best and most experienced teachers must continually refine their classroom management plans.? (Sprick, Knight, Reinke & McKale, 2006, p. 185) (Read Slide)(Read Slide)

161. Effective Classroom Practice ?The goal of effective classroom management is not creating ?perfect? children, but providing the perfect environment for enhancing their growth, using research-based strategies that guide students toward increasingly responsible and motivated behavior.? (Sprick, Knight, Reinke & McKale, 2006, p. 185)

162. References Colvin, G. (2009). Managing noncompliance and defiance in the classroom: A road map for teachers, specialists, and behavior support teams. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. De Pry, R. L., & Sugai, G. (2002). The effect of active supervision and precorrection on minor behavioral incidents in a sixth grade general education classroom. Journal of Behavioral Education, 11, 255-267. Sprague, J. & Golly, A. (2005). Best behavior: Building positive behavior support in schools. Longmont, CO: Sopris West Educational Services. Sprick, R., Knight, J., Reinke, W. & McKale, T. (2006). Coaching classroom management: Strategies and tools for administrators and coaches. Eugene, OR: Pacific Northwest Publishing.

163. What are the Classroom Practices?

164. Academic Success & Task Difficulty The focus of this mini-module is use of a research-based effective classroom strategy: Modifying Task Difficulty The focus of this mini-module is use of a research-based effective classroom strategy: Modifying Task Difficulty

165. What is Modifying Task Difficulty? Modifying instruction or providing accommodations to ensure the student experiences higher levels of academic success. (Kern & Clemens, 2007) Have you ever had a student refuse to start a task? Listen to the following scenario: Jamie often stated that she hated math. One morning she refused to open her math book, get out her notebook and just sat there. The teacher reminded her to get started. She said that she hated math and folded her arms. Students who experience academic failure often engage in misbehavior to avoid engaging in tasks that they perceive as difficult. Modifying Task Difficulty is an antecedent strategy that we can use to address this misbehavior. Have you ever had a student refuse to start a task? Listen to the following scenario: Jamie often stated that she hated math. One morning she refused to open her math book, get out her notebook and just sat there. The teacher reminded her to get started. She said that she hated math and folded her arms. Students who experience academic failure often engage in misbehavior to avoid engaging in tasks that they perceive as difficult. Modifying Task Difficulty is an antecedent strategy that we can use to address this misbehavior.

166. Why Consider Task Difficulty? Task difficulty is one of the primary curricular variables that can set the occasion for problem behaviors in the classroom. Any mismatch between student ability and task difficulty is potentially problematic. (Gunter, Denny, Jack, Shores, & Nelson, 1993) Consider this? (read slide)Consider this? (read slide)

167. Why Consider Task Difficulty? Exposure to tasks that are too difficult result in lower rates of on-task behavior and increased rates of disruptive and other problem behaviors. (Gickling & Armstrong, 1978; Umbreit, Lane, & Dejud, 2004) (read slide)(read slide)

168. Proper Instructional Level Seatwork assignments that contain 70% - 85% known elements Reading assignments 93% - 97% known elements (Gickling & Armstrong, 1978; Umbreit, Lane, & Dejud, 2004 ) Ideally instructional tasks and assignments should follow this criteria: Independent seatwork tasks should contain questions, problems and activities that students can complete with 70-85% accuracy. While independent reading assignments should allow students to read fluently with 93-97% accuracy. Tasks that are too difficult may lead to problem behavior. Similarly problem behavior can also occur when students are presented with tasks that are too easy. (Gickling & Armstrong, 1978; Umbreit, Lane, & Dejud, 2004)Ideally instructional tasks and assignments should follow this criteria: Independent seatwork tasks should contain questions, problems and activities that students can complete with 70-85% accuracy. While independent reading assignments should allow students to read fluently with 93-97% accuracy. Tasks that are too difficult may lead to problem behavior. Similarly problem behavior can also occur when students are presented with tasks that are too easy. (Gickling & Armstrong, 1978; Umbreit, Lane, & Dejud, 2004)

169. Why Consider Modifying Task Difficulty? Increases & promotes? on-task behavior task completion task comprehension appropriate class-wide behavior (Gickling & Armstrong, 1978; Kern & Clemens, 2007) Providing academic material that is within the instructional level of the students (i.e., not too difficult while still providing a challenge) is an antecedent strategy that promotes appropriate class-wide behavior. Providing academic material that is within the instructional level of the students (i.e., not too difficult while still providing a challenge) is an antecedent strategy that promotes appropriate class-wide behavior.

170. Strategies for Modifying Task Difficulty Change Amount of Work Change Amount of Time Change Student Output Reduce Reading/Writing Demand Peer Support Scaffolding (Simmons & Kameenui, 1996; Vaughn, Duchnowski, Sheffield, & Kutash, 2005) This is a list of options teachers can use for thinking about and adjusting the difficulty of assignments they give. These strategies were generated by researchers the University of South Florida and National Center to Improve the Tools of Educators (NCITE). Use of these strategies comes from research in curriculum and instruction situated within the problem-solving framework of positive behavior support. This is a list of options teachers can use for thinking about and adjusting the difficulty of assignments they give. These strategies were generated by researchers the University of South Florida and National Center to Improve the Tools of Educators (NCITE). Use of these strategies comes from research in curriculum and instruction situated within the problem-solving framework of positive behavior support.

171. 1. Change Amount of Work Put fewer problems on a worksheet Highlight, in a color, the problems for the student to complete Have the student cover all tasks except the one she is working on at the time Break up assignment into smaller parts. Sometimes the adaptations needed to decrease the difficulty of a task may involve altering the expectations of the work. Teachers can decrease the difficulty of a task by adapting the number of problems that students must complete at one time. Consider these examples: ?Here are a few math problems to start with. Raise your hand for me to check on you as soon as you finish just these five? ?Pat, please complete only the math problems circled in blue.? ?Pat, choose 10 problems, circle them in blue and try to work just those questions first.? Although students may eventually be required to complete the entire assignment, the task feels less difficult because the amount of work is temporarily altered.Sometimes the adaptations needed to decrease the difficulty of a task may involve altering the expectations of the work. Teachers can decrease the difficulty of a task by adapting the number of problems that students must complete at one time. Consider these examples: ?Here are a few math problems to start with. Raise your hand for me to check on you as soon as you finish just these five? ?Pat, please complete only the math problems circled in blue.? ?Pat, choose 10 problems, circle them in blue and try to work just those questions first.? Although students may eventually be required to complete the entire assignment, the task feels less difficult because the amount of work is temporarily altered.

172. 2. Change Amount of Time Have shorter work periods with other assignments in between. Provide physical breaks between difficult tasks. Provide alternative times for students to complete their work. Teachers can also change the amount of time a student needs to work. When assigned tasks are long, students may benefit from having the task broken up into chunks or take breaks. When assignments are broken up during the day, or divided into blocks of time, students can have shorter work periods with other, easier, assignments in between. This may give them a break between the longer assignments that allows them to come back to it with a fresher attitude. If chunking the assignment up is not possible, then give students a break. Many adults frequently take short breaks from their work and then go back to it, but teachers don?t always remember to provide this option for students Or consider occasionally allowing 10 minutes at the end of a class period or 30-45 minutes at the end of the day periodically to use as a ?catch-up? time. Students with incomplete, missing or in progress tasks can use this time to work, while students who are ?caught up? can be given an option of free choice activities such as reading, writing in a journal or using a computer.Teachers can also change the amount of time a student needs to work. When assigned tasks are long, students may benefit from having the task broken up into chunks or take breaks. When assignments are broken up during the day, or divided into blocks of time, students can have shorter work periods with other, easier, assignments in between. This may give them a break between the longer assignments that allows them to come back to it with a fresher attitude. If chunking the assignment up is not possible, then give students a break. Many adults frequently take short breaks from their work and then go back to it, but teachers don?t always remember to provide this option for students Or consider occasionally allowing 10 minutes at the end of a class period or 30-45 minutes at the end of the day periodically to use as a ?catch-up? time. Students with incomplete, missing or in progress tasks can use this time to work, while students who are ?caught up? can be given an option of free choice activities such as reading, writing in a journal or using a computer.

173. 3. Change Student Output Provide students with a choice between oral or written answers. Allow students to dictate answers to a peer, teacher, or paraprofessional or tape record answers to tests or assignments. Allow students to video or take pictures to produce journals or compose essays. Some students may become frustrated by the mode they are required to use when demonstrating mastery (e.g., writing versus typing). This may lead to the refusal to begin or complete assignments or to other challenging behaviors. Students may benefit if teachers allow a less taxing mode for output. This also lets teachers know a students level of acquisition without interference from the mode of expression. Some students may become frustrated by the mode they are required to use when demonstrating mastery (e.g., writing versus typing). This may lead to the refusal to begin or complete assignments or to other challenging behaviors. Students may benefit if teachers allow a less taxing mode for output. This also lets teachers know a students level of acquisition without interference from the mode of expression.

174. 4. Reduce Reading/Writing Demand Include illustrations on worksheets describing how to complete tasks Highlight and underline important words in instructions and texts Create Guided Notes that highlight key points. Permit students to use outlining software to facilitate planning Modifying reading tasks is one of the most important strategies to compensate for a student?s skill deficits. Student?s ability or inability to fluently read and comprehend text is a major consideration related to success throughout their school day. In all cases, if children cannot read the task they are given the likelihood for off-task and problem behavior is increased. Several strategies for adjusting the reading or writing demands of an academic task include (Read Slide)? Mini-Module 5: Opportunities to Respond provides specific information about creating Guided Notes. More information about Guided Notes can be found at: http://www.specialconnections.ku.edu/cgi-bin/cgiwrap/specconn/main.php?cat=instruction§ion=main&subsection=udl/guidednotes Two examples of Outlining Software : Inspiration & Kidspiration - http://www.inspiration.com/ Modifying reading tasks is one of the most important strategies to compensate for a student?s skill deficits. Student?s ability or inability to fluently read and comprehend text is a major consideration related to success throughout their school day. In all cases, if children cannot read the task they are given the likelihood for off-task and problem behavior is increased. Several strategies for adjusting the reading or writing demands of an academic task include (Read Slide)? Mini-Module 5: Opportunities to Respond provides specific information about creating Guided Notes. More information about Guided Notes can be found at: http://www.specialconnections.ku.edu/cgi-bin/cgiwrap/specconn/main.php?cat=instruction§ion=main&subsection=udl/guidednotes Two examples of Outlining Software : Inspiration & Kidspiration - http://www.inspiration.com/

175. 5. Peer Support The academic tasks involved should be well-structured and the responses required should be simple rather than complex. Different students should be involved in the tutoring so that the student with problems is not always the one being tutored. Establish and teach the procedures for peer tutoring sessions. (Miller, 2005) Establishing a peer support strategy is more complex and requires more time than changing the amount of work or time, reducing reading requirement, or changing student output. There are several models of peer support that have been studied. These studies indicate that Peer Support helps students achieve at a higher level and rate. Any model of peer support that a teacher selects must address the following considerations: Academic tasks should be well-structured and the responses required should be simple rather than complex such as rapid solutions to math facts, reading sight words, fluent reading, learning vocabulary, definitions, content facts, and completing study guides. Involve different students - Involving many students means that the teacher must assess the competencies of all. Students with problems also have strengths which can be used to assist other students. Establish and teach the procedures for peer tutoring sessions. The teacher must teach each student how to act as the tutor (how to teach) and how to act as the tutee (how to respond to the teaching.) Establishing a peer support strategy is more complex and requires more time than changing the amount of work or time, reducing reading requirement, or changing student output. There are several models of peer support that have been studied. These studies indicate that Peer Support helps students achieve at a higher level and rate. Any model of peer support that a teacher selects must address the following considerations: Academic tasks should be well-structured and the responses required should be simple rather than complex such as rapid solutions to math facts, reading sight words, fluent reading, learning vocabulary, definitions, content facts, and completing study guides. Involve different students - Involving many students means that the teacher must assess the competencies of all. Students with problems also have strengths which can be used to assist other students. Establish and teach the procedures for peer tutoring sessions. The teacher must teach each student how to act as the tutor (how to teach) and how to act as the tutee (how to respond to the teaching.)

176. 5. Peer Support Classwide Peer Tutoring http://www.specialconnections.ku.edu Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) http://www.cec.sped.org Two models of peer support have been shown to be especially effective are: Classwide Peer Tutoring ? You can get information about this strategy at: http://www.specialconnections.ku.edu/cgi-bin/cgiwrap/specconn/main.php?cat=instruction§ion=cwpt/main And Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies ? You can get information about this strategy at: http://www.cec.sped.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Home&TEMPLATE=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm&CONTENTID=5445 Two models of peer support have been shown to be especially effective are: Classwide Peer Tutoring ? You can get information about this strategy at: http://www.specialconnections.ku.edu/cgi-bin/cgiwrap/specconn/main.php?cat=instruction§ion=cwpt/main And Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies ? You can get information about this strategy at: http://www.cec.sped.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Home&TEMPLATE=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm&CONTENTID=5445

177. 6. Scaffolding What is scaffolding? Personal guidance, assistance, and support that a teacher, peer, materials, or task provides a learner until he or she can apply new skills and strategies independently. (Simmons & Kameenui, 1996) The teacher offers assistance with only those skills that are beyond the student?s capability. Of great importance is allowing the student to complete as much of the task as possible, unassisted. The teacher only attempts to help the student with tasks that are just beyond his current capability. The teacher offers assistance with only those skills that are beyond the student?s capability. Of great importance is allowing the student to complete as much of the task as possible, unassisted. The teacher only attempts to help the student with tasks that are just beyond his current capability.

178. How Do We Scaffold Instruction? First, the teacher models how to perform a new or difficult task. Second, the teacher and students work together to perform the task. Third, students work with a partner or a small cooperative group to complete the task. Fourth, the student independently completes the task. (Ellis & Larkin, 1998) First, the teacher models how to perform a new or difficult task, such as how to use a graphic organizer. For example, the teacher may have a partially completed graphic organizer on an overhead transparency and "think aloud" as he or she describes how the graphic organizer illustrates the relationships among the information contained on it. Second, the class does it. The teacher and students work together to perform the task. For example, the students may suggest information to be added to the graphic organizer. As the teacher writes the suggestions on the transparency, students fill in their own copies of the organizer. Third, the group does it. Students work with a partner or a small cooperative group to complete a graphic organizer (i.e., either a partially completed or a blank one). Fourth, the individual does it. This is the independent practice stage where individual students can demonstrate their task mastery (e.g., successfully completing a graphic organizer to demonstrate appropriate relationships among information) and receive the necessary practice to help them to perform the task automatically and quickly. The teacher must determine the level and pace of scaffolding based on the learner?s abilities and the complexity of the task.First, the teacher models how to perform a new or difficult task, such as how to use a graphic organizer. For example, the teacher may have a partially completed graphic organizer on an overhead transparency and "think aloud" as he or she describes how the graphic organizer illustrates the relationships among the information contained on it. Second, the class does it. The teacher and students work together to perform the task. For example, the students may suggest information to be added to the graphic organizer. As the teacher writes the suggestions on the transparency, students fill in their own copies of the organizer. Third, the group does it. Students work with a partner or a small cooperative group to complete a graphic organizer (i.e., either a partially completed or a blank one). Fourth, the individual does it. This is the independent practice stage where individual students can demonstrate their task mastery (e.g., successfully completing a graphic organizer to demonstrate appropriate relationships among information) and receive the necessary practice to help them to perform the task automatically and quickly. The teacher must determine the level and pace of scaffolding based on the learner?s abilities and the complexity of the task.

179. Practice Addressing Task Difficulty Read the classroom vignettes (Handout). Determine which strategy would be most effective and efficient for each vignette. (Use Addressing Task Difficulty Strategies.) Share your responses with a shoulder partner. Read directions from slide. Provide Modifying Task Difficulty Vignette Handout and Modifying Task Difficulty Strategies Handout to participants. Give 5 minutes to read the vignette and record answers. Discuss responses. Answer: Vignette 1 ? Reduce the Demand of the Task ? Guided Notes Vignette 2 ? Scaffolding ? Tracy requires more time at steps 2 (Teacher and Student work together to perform the task) and 3 (Students work with a partner or small cooperative group) before moving to independent completion of the task. Vignette 3 ? Change Student Output ? Allow Dalton to dictate answers to a peer or teacher, or tape record responses Read directions from slide. Provide Modifying Task Difficulty Vignette Handout and Modifying Task Difficulty Strategies Handout to participants. Give 5 minutes to read the vignette and record answers. Discuss responses. Answer: Vignette 1 ? Reduce the Demand of the Task ? Guided Notes Vignette 2 ? Scaffolding ? Tracy requires more time at steps 2 (Teacher and Student work together to perform the task) and 3 (Students work with a partner or small cooperative group) before moving to independent completion of the task. Vignette 3 ? Change Student Output ? Allow Dalton to dictate answers to a peer or teacher, or tape record responses

180. Addressing Task Difficulty in Your Classroom Participant Activity 2 (5- 8 min)? Now, consider how you might modify task difficulty in your classroom. First, list some of the activities or instructional tasks you ask students to complete. Then with a partner, discuss and identify ways you could reorganize the sequence of those tasks to better support learning and appropriate behavior. Participant Activity 2 (5- 8 min)? Now, consider how you might modify task difficulty in your classroom. First, list some of the activities or instructional tasks you ask students to complete. Then with a partner, discuss and identify ways you could reorganize the sequence of those tasks to better support learning and appropriate behavior.

181. References Ellis, E. S., & Larkin, M. J. (1998). Strategic instruction for adolescents with learning disabilities. In B. Y. L. Wong (Ed.), Learning about learning disabilities (2nd ed., pp. 585-656). San Diego, CA: Academic Press Gickling, E. E., & Armstrong, D. L. (1978). Levels of instructional difficulty as related to on-task behavior, task completion, and comprehension. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 11, 559-566. Gunter, P. L., Denny, R. K., Jack, S. L., Shores, R. E., & Nelson, C. M. (1993). Aversive stimuli in academic interactions between students with serious emotional disturbance and their teachers. Behavioral Disorders, 19, 265-274.

182. References Kern, L. and Clemens, N.H. (2007). Antecedent strategies to promote appropriate classroom behavior. Psychology in the Schools, 44(1), 65-75. Miller, M. (2005). Using peer tutoring in the classroom: Applications for students with emotional/behavioral disorders. Beyond Behavior, 15(1), pp. 25-30. Simmons, D. & Kameenui, E. J. (1996). A focus on curriculum design: When children fail. Focus on Exceptional Children, 28(7), pp. 1-16. Umbreit, J. Lane, K. L., & Dejud, C. (2004). Improving classroom behavior by modifying task difficulty: Effects of increasing the difficulty of too-easy tasks. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6(1): 13 - 20.

183. What are the Classroom Practices?

184. Activity Sequence Task Interspersal Behavioral Momentum The focus of this mini-module is use of two effective classroom strategies: activity sequencing and offering choice. First we will look at the activity sequencing strategy. Then we will talk about offering choice.The focus of this mini-module is use of two effective classroom strategies: activity sequencing and offering choice. First we will look at the activity sequencing strategy. Then we will talk about offering choice.

185. What is Activity Sequencing? Thinking about and altering the manner in which instructional tasks, activities or requests are ordered in such a way that promotes learning and encourages appropriate behavior. (Kern & Clemens, 2007) Have you ever encountered a student who may get started with an academic task or activity, but then quits or becomes noncompliant when they run into difficulty? When teachers consider the sequence of activities they provide, students are more likely to be successful and keep on task. (Colvin, 2009, pp. 52-53) Activity sequencing means thinking about and altering the manner in which learning tasks, activities or requests are ordered (Kern & Clemens, 2007).Have you ever encountered a student who may get started with an academic task or activity, but then quits or becomes noncompliant when they run into difficulty? When teachers consider the sequence of activities they provide, students are more likely to be successful and keep on task. (Colvin, 2009, pp. 52-53) Activity sequencing means thinking about and altering the manner in which learning tasks, activities or requests are ordered (Kern & Clemens, 2007).

186. Why Consider Activity Sequence? Increases task performance Decreases disruptive behavior Improves student perception of and preference for assignments they consider difficult (Kern & Clemens, 2007) Considering how learning tasks and activities are ordered may lead to increases in performance, decreases in problem behavior and improves student perceptions of and feelings about an assignment. Considering how learning tasks and activities are ordered may lead to increases in performance, decreases in problem behavior and improves student perceptions of and feelings about an assignment.

187. Why Consider Activity Sequence? For some students presenting difficult tasks back-to-back often sets the occasion for frustration, failure and problem behavior. Varying the sequence of tasks may not be necessary for average students, but can be very important for students who are at-risk for learning or behavior concerns (Darch & Kame?enui, 2004). Consider this? (read slide)Consider this? (read slide)

188. Strategies for Effective Activity Sequencing Intermingle easy/brief problems among longer or more difficult tasks (task interspersal) (Kern & Clemens, 2007) Research has shown two ways to order activities that encourage learning and appropriate behavior (Kern & Clemens, 2007). First, interspersing easier tasks with more difficult ones is likely to increase a student?s success and help keep them on task and engaged. Research has shown two ways to order activities that encourage learning and appropriate behavior (Kern & Clemens, 2007). First, interspersing easier tasks with more difficult ones is likely to increase a student?s success and help keep them on task and engaged.

189. Research for Activity Sequencing Task Interspersal Interspersing difficult tasks with easier problems Cates and Skinner (2000) examined assignment perception among remedial math students in grades 9-12. Students perceived the interspersed assignments as taking less time to complete, being less difficult and requiring less effort Consider the following research examples for use of task interspersal? Results from a study conducted with remedial math students in grades 9-12 showed assignments that included easier problems interspersed with more difficult calculations were rated more favorably. Students perceived the interspersed assignments as taking less time to complete, being less difficult and requiring less effort even though the assignment actually included more problems. (Cates and Skinner, 2000; Kern and Clemens, 2007) Consider the following research examples for use of task interspersal? Results from a study conducted with remedial math students in grades 9-12 showed assignments that included easier problems interspersed with more difficult calculations were rated more favorably. Students perceived the interspersed assignments as taking less time to complete, being less difficult and requiring less effort even though the assignment actually included more problems. (Cates and Skinner, 2000; Kern and Clemens, 2007)

190. Strategies for Effective Activity Sequencing Deliver 3 to 4 simple requests prior to a difficult assignment (behavioral momentum) (Kern & Clemens, 2007) Second, a similar technique of delivering 3 or 4 simple requests before a more difficult one has been shown to increase compliance and decrease problem behavior. This technique is sometimes referred to as behavioral momentum. The theory behind the strategy is once a student is cooperating and engaged in one task (the simple requests), there is more chance of the student cooperating and engaging in the task that immediately follows (the more difficult activity) (Colvin, p.46, 2009) Second, a similar technique of delivering 3 or 4 simple requests before a more difficult one has been shown to increase compliance and decrease problem behavior. This technique is sometimes referred to as behavioral momentum. The theory behind the strategy is once a student is cooperating and engaged in one task (the simple requests), there is more chance of the student cooperating and engaging in the task that immediately follows (the more difficult activity) (Colvin, p.46, 2009)

191. Research for Activity Sequencing Behavioral Momentum Deliver simple requests before a more difficult task? Improved behavior among 2nd graders during transition times when teacher provided a series of simple requests prior to the transition directions (Ardoin, Martens & Wolfe, 1999). Increased writing performance among 10-11 year olds when teacher asked them to write 3 simple words each time they stopped writing (Lee & Laspe, 2003). Related to behavioral momentum, a study from 1999 showed improved behavior among second grade students during a difficult transition time when the teacher provided a series of 5 simple requests before giving directions for the transition (Ardoin, Martens & Wolf, 1999). And a study conducted in 2003 showed the journal writing and task persistence of 10-11 year old students who had history of non-compliance and limited work completion was improved by having the students write a series of 3 easy words each time they stopped writing. This simple strategy increased student writing over time (Kern & Clemens, 2007). Each of the activity sequencing techniques- task interspersal or behavioral momentum- can be applied to individual students as needed or incorporated into lessons as a classwide strategy. Related to behavioral momentum, a study from 1999 showed improved behavior among second grade students during a difficult transition time when the teacher provided a series of 5 simple requests before giving directions for the transition (Ardoin, Martens & Wolf, 1999). And a study conducted in 2003 showed the journal writing and task persistence of 10-11 year old students who had history of non-compliance and limited work completion was improved by having the students write a series of 3 easy words each time they stopped writing. This simple strategy increased student writing over time (Kern & Clemens, 2007). Each of the activity sequencing techniques- task interspersal or behavioral momentum- can be applied to individual students as needed or incorporated into lessons as a classwide strategy.

192. Activity Sequencing Examples With a partner read two student examples (Use Activity Sequencing Examples Handout) Next, identify the activity sequencing strategy used in each example? task interspersal or behavioral momentum HO1: Activity Sequencing Examples Thinking about the way in which learning activities are sequenced is a fairly simple strategy to implement. Participant Activity 1: Find the Handout titled: Effective Classroom Practice: Activity Sequencing Examples With a partner read the two student examples. Then try to determine which type of sequencing was used, task interspersal or behavioral momentum. Note: Give participants 3- 5 minutes to read and talk about the examples with a partner. After participants look at the examples lead the following discussion?. Ask: What type of activity sequencning did you find in the first example? (behavioral momentum) Ask: What types of easier tasks did the teacher give before asking the student to demonstrate the more difficult task of reading independently? (follow along with the reading, read with teacher, read every other sentence) Ask: What type of activity sequencing did you find in the second example? (task interspersal) Ask: Why do you think this strategy was successful for Emily? (allows student to experience success and access high rates of teacher feedback, which increases her confidence and persistence for the more difficult task) Thinking about the way in which learning activities are sequenced is a fairly simple strategy to implement. Participant Activity 1: Find the Handout titled: Effective Classroom Practice: Activity Sequencing Examples With a partner read the two student examples. Then try to determine which type of sequencing was used, task interspersal or behavioral momentum. Note: Give participants 3- 5 minutes to read and talk about the examples with a partner. After participants look at the examples lead the following discussion?. Ask: What type of activity sequencning did you find in the first example? (behavioral momentum) Ask: What types of easier tasks did the teacher give before asking the student to demonstrate the more difficult task of reading independently? (follow along with the reading, read with teacher, read every other sentence) Ask: What type of activity sequencing did you find in the second example? (task interspersal) Ask: Why do you think this strategy was successful for Emily? (allows student to experience success and access high rates of teacher feedback, which increases her confidence and persistence for the more difficult task)

193. Using Sequence in Your Classroom HO2: Using Sequence in Your Classroom Participant Activity 2 (Optional; 5- 8 min)? Now, consider how you might incorporate task interspersal or behavioral momentum in your environment. First, list some of the activities or instructional tasks you ask students to complete. Then with a partner, discuss and identify ways you could reorganize the sequence of those tasks to better support learning and appropriate behavior. Possible Answers: White out some of the numbers on a multi-digit math worksheet. Add a few fun, easy words or most frequently misspelled words to a spelling list. Add fun, easy words to a vocabulary list or assignment.Participant Activity 2 (Optional; 5- 8 min)? Now, consider how you might incorporate task interspersal or behavioral momentum in your environment. First, list some of the activities or instructional tasks you ask students to complete. Then with a partner, discuss and identify ways you could reorganize the sequence of those tasks to better support learning and appropriate behavior. Possible Answers: White out some of the numbers on a multi-digit math worksheet. Add a few fun, easy words or most frequently misspelled words to a spelling list. Add fun, easy words to a vocabulary list or assignment.

194. Offering Choice Type, Order, Materials, Whom, Place &Time In addition to thinking about the sequencing of tasks, a similar and also effective strategy is allowing students to make choices about their learning activities.In addition to thinking about the sequencing of tasks, a similar and also effective strategy is allowing students to make choices about their learning activities.

195. Why Provide Choice? ?Providing opportunities for students to make choices has been demonstrated to be an effective intervention in preventing problem behavior and increasing engagement? (Kern and Clemens, 2007, p. 70) Providing students with the opportunity to make choices may not sound like an instructional practice. However, research indicates offering choices, especially during academic tasks, not only increases student engagement and reduces disruptive behavior, but can also improve response accuracy (Scheuermann & Hall, 2008, p. 294). Providing students with the opportunity to make choices may not sound like an instructional practice. However, research indicates offering choices, especially during academic tasks, not only increases student engagement and reduces disruptive behavior, but can also improve response accuracy (Scheuermann & Hall, 2008, p. 294).

196. Why Provide Choice? Feasible and easy intervention to implement Effective for students in general or special education Does not require significant modification to existing instruction (Kern and State, 2009) In addition, teachers consider offering choice a feasible and easy intervention to implement (Morgan, 2006) Offering choice can be effective for students in general or special education and does not require significant modification to existing structure or instruction (Powell & Nelson, 1997) An important understanding though? the content you teach is NOT negotiable, but the type of assignment or ways of completing it can be negotiated and is likely to enhance student participation! In addition, teachers consider offering choice a feasible and easy intervention to implement (Morgan, 2006) Offering choice can be effective for students in general or special education and does not require significant modification to existing structure or instruction (Powell & Nelson, 1997) An important understanding though? the content you teach is NOT negotiable, but the type of assignment or ways of completing it can be negotiated and is likely to enhance student participation!

197. Why Provide Choice? Teach students to become self-determined individuals Enables them to better control their environment Can lead to more predictable student-teacher interactions Allows opportunity for more frequent positive attention and feedback from teachers May foster improvements in student ? teacher relationships (Jolivette, Wehby, Canale & Massey, 2001; Kern and State, 2009, p. 10) (Kern and State, 2009, p. 3) In addition to preventing problem behavior, providing opportunities for choice helps Teach students to become self-determined individuals Enables them to better control their environment Can lead to more predictable student-teacher interactions Allows opportunity for more frequent positive attention and feedback from teachers and May foster improvements in student ? teacher relationships Many have argued that such opportunities are essential for providing the experiences necessary to guide an individual?s later performance when they encounter important life choices. Furthermore, the opportunity for choice making is one dimension of a good quality of life? (Kern and State, 2009, p. 3)In addition to preventing problem behavior, providing opportunities for choice helps Teach students to become self-determined individuals Enables them to better control their environment Can lead to more predictable student-teacher interactions Allows opportunity for more frequent positive attention and feedback from teachers and May foster improvements in student ? teacher relationships Many have argued that such opportunities are essential for providing the experiences necessary to guide an individual?s later performance when they encounter important life choices. Furthermore, the opportunity for choice making is one dimension of a good quality of life? (Kern and State, 2009, p. 3)

198. Strategies for Offering Choice Examples of classwide choice: Type of task or activity Order or sequence of tasks Kinds of materials that will be used Whom to work with Place to work Choice of how to use time This is a list of the kinds of choices teachers can easily give to students. Teachers can allow choice for? The type of activity or task to be completed The order in which tasks will be completed The kinds of materials students will use to complete an assignment Who students will work with Place students will work and Choices for how to use time before, during or after an activity or assignment Once some initial thought has been given for the range of opportunities a teacher will allow and provide, a standard set of choices can be offered to students during many different instructional periods. For example, some teachers may regularly allow students the choice to work with a partner, with a teacher or to complete an assignment independently. Another example could be allowing students to work at their desk, on the floor, in the hall or at a table. This is a list of the kinds of choices teachers can easily give to students. Teachers can allow choice for? The type of activity or task to be completed The order in which tasks will be completed The kinds of materials students will use to complete an assignment Who students will work with Place students will work and Choices for how to use time before, during or after an activity or assignment Once some initial thought has been given for the range of opportunities a teacher will allow and provide, a standard set of choices can be offered to students during many different instructional periods. For example, some teachers may regularly allow students the choice to work with a partner, with a teacher or to complete an assignment independently. Another example could be allowing students to work at their desk, on the floor, in the hall or at a table.

199. Offering Choice Example With a partner read the example. (Use Offering Choice Example Handout) Next, identify the types of choices offered to students in the example. Be prepared to share your answers with the large group. HO3: Offering Choice Example Let?s look at an example? Participant Activity 3: Find the Handout titled: Effective Classroom Practice: Offering Choice Example This is an example of how one teacher included choice making opportunities for students within a science lesson. (Mr. Franklin?s recycling lesson example) With a partner read the example and identify ways this teacher provided choices for his students. After a few minutes, be prepared to share your responses. Give participants 5-7 minutes to read and discuss the example. Let?s look at an example? Participant Activity 3: Find the Handout titled: Effective Classroom Practice: Offering Choice Example This is an example of how one teacher included choice making opportunities for students within a science lesson. (Mr. Franklin?s recycling lesson example) With a partner read the example and identify ways this teacher provided choices for his students. After a few minutes, be prepared to share your responses. Give participants 5-7 minutes to read and discuss the example.

200. Steps for Using Choice in the Classroom Create a menu of choices you would be willing to provide to students. Look through your choice menu before planning each lesson. Decide what types of choice are appropriate for the lesson and where they fit best in the lesson. Provide choices as planned while teaching the lesson. Solicit student feedback and input. (Kern and State, 2009, p. 5) There are many ways a teacher can provide choice. ?Nearly every opportunity in which teachers make decisions about how, when or where an activity will take place can be translated into a student choice? (Kern and State, 2009, p. 4). The steps for incorporating opportunities for choice making are simple. First, we think about, identify and list each type of choice we are wiling to offer. Then as we plan each lesson, we can refer to our list of possible choices. Next, we determine which choices are appropriate and convenient for the type of lesson being taught. Then, we provide a range of choice for students to select from during each lesson. Finally, offering students an opportunity to give feedback about their choices and allowing them to provide input about future choices is also helpful. There are many ways a teacher can provide choice. ?Nearly every opportunity in which teachers make decisions about how, when or where an activity will take place can be translated into a student choice? (Kern and State, 2009, p. 4). The steps for incorporating opportunities for choice making are simple. First, we think about, identify and list each type of choice we are wiling to offer. Then as we plan each lesson, we can refer to our list of possible choices. Next, we determine which choices are appropriate and convenient for the type of lesson being taught. Then, we provide a range of choice for students to select from during each lesson. Finally, offering students an opportunity to give feedback about their choices and allowing them to provide input about future choices is also helpful.

201. Create a Menu of Choice Options HO4: A Menu of Choice Options Participant Activity 4: Now you will have an opportunity to think about the kinds of choices you might be willing to offer students in your classroom. As you think about ways in which you might be able to offer choice it is important to remember?Allowing students to make choices does not change the amount of work students are expected to complete and does not change the essential components of the task. (Scheuermann & Hall, 2008, p.295) Instead, offering choices simply gives students some input and decision making about how they would like to accomplish the assignment you?ve given. Find the Handout titled: Effective Classroom Practice: A Menu of Choice Options With a partner use 10 minutes to brainstorm a list of choice options. Consider each of the categories we?ve discussed (type of task, order of tasks, materials, whom to work with, place to work, and choice of how to use time). On your paper write down choices you personally are willing to give. Don?t worry if you and your partner each end up with a different list. When I give the signal, find a different partner and share the ideas you have listed on your paper. If your partner has a new choice that you?d be willing to offer to your students, add it to your list. When I give the signal again ? you will share lists with one more partner. Give participants time to work on their list and share responses with at least 2 different partners. (8-10 minutes)Participant Activity 4: Now you will have an opportunity to think about the kinds of choices you might be willing to offer students in your classroom. As you think about ways in which you might be able to offer choice it is important to remember?Allowing students to make choices does not change the amount of work students are expected to complete and does not change the essential components of the task. (Scheuermann & Hall, 2008, p.295) Instead, offering choices simply gives students some input and decision making about how they would like to accomplish the assignment you?ve given. Find the Handout titled: Effective Classroom Practice: A Menu of Choice Options With a partner use 10 minutes to brainstorm a list of choice options. Consider each of the categories we?ve discussed (type of task, order of tasks, materials, whom to work with, place to work, and choice of how to use time). On your paper write down choices you personally are willing to give. Don?t worry if you and your partner each end up with a different list. When I give the signal, find a different partner and share the ideas you have listed on your paper. If your partner has a new choice that you?d be willing to offer to your students, add it to your list. When I give the signal again ? you will share lists with one more partner. Give participants time to work on their list and share responses with at least 2 different partners. (8-10 minutes)

202. What Options Did You Think Of?? HO4: Creating a Menu of Choice Options After participants have time to work and discuss with partners, lead the following discussion with the whole group. Call on participants to share ideas they thought of for each category. If ideas were not identified for all categories some possible answers are listed below. Possible Answers: Type of task = written document, oral presentation, video display Order of task = complete odd numbered problems first, then even numbered questions Materials = type or handwritten; pencil, marker or ink; Whom to work with = peer, teacher, partner, group, independent Place to work = desk, floor, table, hall, library Choice of how to use time = (several possibilities) When to complete task = current period, next period, free period, homework What to do after task = read quietly, use a computer, work on other assignments How long to work before a break = 10 min, 20 problems, 2 chapters After participants have time to work and discuss with partners, lead the following discussion with the whole group. Call on participants to share ideas they thought of for each category. If ideas were not identified for all categories some possible answers are listed below. Possible Answers: Type of task = written document, oral presentation, video display Order of task = complete odd numbered problems first, then even numbered questions Materials = type or handwritten; pencil, marker or ink; Whom to work with = peer, teacher, partner, group, independent Place to work = desk, floor, table, hall, library Choice of how to use time = (several possibilities) When to complete task = current period, next period, free period, homework What to do after task = read quietly, use a computer, work on other assignments How long to work before a break = 10 min, 20 problems, 2 chapters

203. Offering Choice Remember . . . Every lesson does not have to include all of the choices on your list, but if each lesson you teach provides at least one opportunity for choice, students are likely to benefit. REMEMBER: When you incorporate choice, start small. Offer 1 or 2 choices. As you become more comfortable with this skill, you can expand the number and type of choice options you will incorporate into your lessons. REMEMBER: When you incorporate choice, start small. Offer 1 or 2 choices. As you become more comfortable with this skill, you can expand the number and type of choice options you will incorporate into your lessons.

204. Effective Classroom Practice Activity Sequence task interspersal behavioral momentum Offering Choice type, order, materials who, place and choice of time Today we have talked about two simple strategies that you can use in your classroom ? Activity Sequencing and Offering Choice. Each of these is a research based practice that can improve student behavior and academic performance. These strategies require limited effort to implement, may help students be more engaged with learning and have a more positive outlook about assignments and tasks and will particularly address the needs of at-risk learners. Please think about how you can share this information with other faculty in your building.Today we have talked about two simple strategies that you can use in your classroom ? Activity Sequencing and Offering Choice. Each of these is a research based practice that can improve student behavior and academic performance. These strategies require limited effort to implement, may help students be more engaged with learning and have a more positive outlook about assignments and tasks and will particularly address the needs of at-risk learners. Please think about how you can share this information with other faculty in your building.

205. References Colvin, G. (2009). Managing noncompliance and defiance in the classroom: A road map for teachers, specialists, and behavior support teams. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Darch, C. B. & Kame?enui, E. J. (2004). Instructional classroom management: A proactive approach to behavior management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Jolivette, K., Wehby, J. H., Canale, J., & Massey, N. G. (2001). Effects of choice-making opportunities on the behavior of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 26, 131-145. Kern, L. and Clemens, N.H. (2007). Antecedent strategies to promote appropriate classroom behavior. Psychology in the Schools, 44(1), 65-75. Kern, L. and State, T. M. (2009). Incorporating choice and preferred activities into classwide instruction. Beyond Behavior, 18(2), 3-11.

206. References Morgan, P. L. (2006). Increasing task engagement using preference or choice-making: Some behavioral and methodological factors affecting their efficacy as classroom interventions. Remedial and Special Education, 27, 176-187. Powell, S. & Nelson, B. (1997). Effects of choosing academic assignments on a student with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 181-183. Scheuermann, B. K. and Hall, J. A. (2008). Positive behavioral supports for the classroom. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.

207. What are the Classroom Practices?

208. Building Systems to Support Best Practices in the Classroom How will staff get skills? How will staff get feedback? build ongoing structure- buddy system, assigned core master teachers Develop Training Calendar of PD-orientation, annual staff development days, staff meetings Develop Access for Teacher Support- Request for Assistance Communication to Staff Support ?Team? Can District/Admin deliver Time and Resources?

209. Develop system to present best practice and encourage teacher engagement and implementation Weekly skill and/or feature mini-lessons for ALL Time for grade level collaboration related to the lesson, data collection, feedback (ADMINISTRATOR) Time and resources for after school work sessions (voluntary) Created timelines for implementation of each feature Periodic self-assessment for progress monitoring and fidelity check- performance feedback Planned booster session

210. ADMINISTRATOR and COACH Each of these practices could be used as a mini module that could be taught in 10 minutes during a staff meeting!! ***Don?t overwhelm the teachers! ?Practice? of the month Take Data-Pre/Post ** need performance feedback How will you set that up? Buddy system, grade level teams?


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