Computer basics l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 31

Computer Basics PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Computer Basics Which computer should I buy? What do I get for an extra $775 and do I even need it ? Desktop We need to understand several things before going out and buying a computer . What are the different components of a computer system and how do they work?

Download Presentation

Computer Basics

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Computer basics l.jpg

Computer Basics


Slide2 l.jpg

Which computer should I buy?

What do I get for an extra $775 and do I even need it?

Desktop


We need to understand several things before going out and buying a computer l.jpg

We need to understand several things before going out and buying a computer.

  • What are the different components of a computer system and how do they work?

  • What are the different options available for each of these components?

  • How will you be using your computer and therefore which components/options will you need?


Basic computer components l.jpg

Basic Computer Components

Tower Box: Central Processing Unit - CPU (motherboard), power supply, Main Memory (RAM), Auxiliary Memory devices: Hard drive, CD, DVD, etc.

CPU

Monitor

A Laptop – with CPU, monitor, keyboard, touch pad & speakers

keyboard

mouse

speakers

printer


How these components work together l.jpg

Output devices

How these Components Work Together

Main/Primary Memory (RAM)

Bus

  • CPU- Central Processing Unit

  • Control Unit

  • Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

Input devices

Keyboard, Mouse

Monitor,

Printer

Bus

Auxiliary (Secondary)

Memory

Hard drive CD R/W, DVD, floppy drive, ZIP drive, Flash memory


An inside view the motherboard l.jpg

An inside view – the Motherboard

Cards:

Video, Sound

Network, Modem


An inside view hard drive bus cables l.jpg

An inside view – Hard Drive & Bus cables

Hard Drive Bus


Cpu central processing unit works with memory to execute the arithmetic and logical processes l.jpg

User hits

the ‘2’ key then

Enter

MainMemory

ALU adds

2 + The

user

input

Program:

INPUT X

Y = X+2

OUTPUT Y

Y = 4

Output 4 on

the screen

CPU – Central Processing Unit works with memory to execute the arithmetic and logical processes

The performance of the CPU is dependent on both its speed and memory


1 66ghz vs 2 8ghz whats a ghz l.jpg

  • Clock Frequency: This is also sometimes called the clock rate or clock speed. It is simply the reciprocal of the cycle time, and is therefore the number of cycles that occur each second (as opposed to the number of seconds per cycle). It is usually measured in MHz or GHz, where "Hz" is the abbreviation for Hertz, the standard SI unit for measuring frequency. One Hertz is one cycle per second. So for example, if a clock's cycle time is 1.25 ns, its frequency is 1/(0.00000000125) = 800,000,000 Hertz, or 800 MHz.

  • Clock Frequency: This is also sometimes called the clock rate or clock speed. It is simply the reciprocal of the cycle time, and is therefore the number of cycles that occur each second (as opposed to the number of seconds per cycle). It is usually measured in MHz or GHz, where "Hz" is the abbreviation for Hertz, the standard SI unit for measuring frequency. One Hertz is one cycle per second. So for example, if a clock's cycle time is 1.25 ns, its frequency is 1/(0.00000000125) = 800,000,000 Hertz, or 800 MHz.

  • Clock Frequency: This is also sometimes called the clock rate or clock speed. It is simply the reciprocal of the cycle time, and is therefore the number of cycles that occur each second (as opposed to the number of seconds per cycle). It is usually measured in MHz or GHz, where "Hz" is the abbreviation for Hertz, the standard SI unit for measuring frequency. One Hertz is one cycle per second. So for example, if a clock's cycle time is 1.25 ns, its frequency is 1/(0.00000000125) = 800,000,000 Hertz, or 800 MHz.

  • Clock Frequency: This is also sometimes called the clock rate or clock speed. It is simply the reciprocal of the cycle time, and is therefore the number of cycles that occur each second (as opposed to the number of seconds per cycle). It is usually measured in MHz or GHz, where "Hz" is the abbreviation for Hertz, the standard SI unit for measuring frequency. One Hertz is one cycle per second. So for example, if a clock's cycle time is 1.25 ns, its frequency is 1/(0.00000000125) = 800,000,000 Hertz, or 800 MHz.

  • Clock Frequency: This is also sometimes called the clock rate or clock speed. It is simply the reciprocal of the cycle time, and is therefore the number of cycles that occur each second (as opposed to the number of seconds per cycle). It is usually measured in MHz or GHz, where "Hz" is the abbreviation for Hertz, the standard SI unit for measuring frequency. One Hertz is one cycle per second. So for example, if a clock's cycle time is 1.25 ns, its frequency is 1/(0.00000000125) = 800,000,000 Hertz, or 800 MHz.

1.66GHz vs 2.8GHz..whats a GHz?

Different Processors have different “clock” speeds and different memory “bus”speeds – A faster clock speed won’t necessarily speed up your processing if the bus speed is too slow!

GHz - a unit of frequency equal to one billion cycles per second


Slide10 l.jpg

What is RAM memory?

  • The performance of a computer is also dependent on the amount of Primary (Main) Memory – Random Access Memory (RAM) available.

  • This memory temporarily stores information so that it’s readily available to the CPU. This includes the program(s) being executed and required data.

  • If this memory is limited or slow – this will slow down the computer’s ability to process information.


Slide11 l.jpg

How does Memory Work?

  • Physically computer memory is made up of transistors & capacitors - the only information they store is a magnetic charges (high & low) represented by a 0 or 1.

  • Computer scientists combine a series of these transistor states to represent information - They turn information into a “binary” format so it can be easily stored as magnetic charges.


Slide12 l.jpg

How is Information Stored in Memory?

All data is represented by a string of 0’s and 1’s.

  • Integers, Real Numbers, and characters are stored this way. They all are converted to a string of 0’s and 1’s in different ways.

    • Integers are their base 2 equivalent

    • Characters are converted via some standard (ASCII, Unicode, etc)

All information is translated by a set of instructions into this format and then processed


Slide13 l.jpg

  • Measuring Memory

  • Each 0,1- is called a bit

  • 1 Byte is 8 bits

  • 1 Kilobyte (KB) = 210 bytes(1111111111)

  • ≈1000 bytes = 1x103 bytes

  • 1 Megabyte (MB) = 220 bytes

  • ≈1,000,000 bytes = 1x106 bytes

  • 1 Gigabyte (GB) = 230 bytes

  • ≈1,000,000,000 bytes = 1x109 bytes

  • 1 MB of memory can hold approximately 500 pages of text.


Sram dram sdram ddr rdram blam blam l.jpg

SRAM, DRAM, SDRAM, DDR,RDRAM, ..BLAM.. BLAM

SRAM

Static Random Access Memory

doesn’t need to be “refreshed” - but like all RAM, is erased when the power is OFF

CPU

5-10X slower

10 ns speed

DRAM (Dynamic RAM) is a type of memory that is constantly refreshed or will loose its contents.

SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic RAM) – designed to work with the CPU clock to work faster than DRAM

DDR SDRAM (Double Data Rate SDRAM) – works twice as fast as SDRAM


Slide15 l.jpg

So how much and what type of memory should you get?

  • It will depend on the type of computer you have/or are buying

    • Older systems are no always compatible with newer memory types

    • Sometimes too much memory can cause problems with Windows

  • It will depend on the applications you wish to run

    • Photoshop or other graphical applications require much more memory than simple word processing

    • Do you wish to have many applications running simultaneously?


Slide16 l.jpg

To save data for later use we can store data on Secondary (Auxiliary) Memory devices

Auxiliary Memory is cheaper/slower than Primary memory but is not erased when the Power Supply is OFF.

  • Hard drive – A non-removable device 20-250GB ranges

  • Floppy disk drive-1.44MB

  • CD’s & DVD’s – 600 MB. (Read vs. RW)

  • Removable Hard drives –Zip, Jazz

  • Memory Sticks


Hardware vs software l.jpg

Hardware vs. Software

  • For computer hardware to work it must follow a set of instructions that is supplied to it. These instructions or programs are referred to as software.

  • Some instructions are referred to as the Operating System Software, which control the basic input/output and memory operations of the computer.

  • Application Software are programs that work with the Operating system to perform specific tasks.


System software l.jpg

System Software

Programs to control computer operations are called Operating Systems (OS)

  • Instructions on loading and executing applications and transferring data loaded into main memory on startup (booting)

  • examples: DOS, Unix,, Windows XP, Vista

..and promised soon…. VISTA


Applications software l.jpg

Applications Software

Computer programs written to perform specified tasks. They work in tandem with specific Operating Systems

  • Word Processing

  • Spreadsheets

  • Database Management Systems

  • Web design software

  • Internet Access & E-mail

  • Graphics Packages


Slide20 l.jpg

What software you need will affect you decision of what hardware to buy…For example how much hard drive space will you need with the following requirements?

  • Windows XP Professional Operating System - *1.5 GB

  • Full install of MS Office 2003 - *450 MB

  • Dream Weaver - *800 MB

  • Adobe’s Photoshop - *280MB

  • Have room to store my photo album with 150 pictures - .. Average of 500KB each

In GB: 1.5+.45+.8+.28+150*.005=3.78


What doesn t this ad tell us l.jpg

What doesn’t this ad tell us?

  • Is any application software included?

  • What about a monitor, mouse, speakers etc.

  • What about getting on the internet?


The mouse l.jpg

The mouse

$10

  • Most standard “systems” come complete with a standard 2 button mouse

  • Frequently one can upgrade the mouse

    • 2 button with wheels

    • Optical Mouse.. no trackballs!

    • Wireless Mouse …no tail!

$200


Slide23 l.jpg

When buying peripherals such as a mouse consider the type of connections available on your system.. And the price!

PS2 Connection Newer Technology – faster than a Serial

Serial Connection Oldest Technology - slow

USB Connection Newest Technology - fastest


The monitor l.jpg

The monitor

$200 - $2000+

Most systems do not come standard with a monitor unless buying a “complete package”. Consider the following when selecting a computer:

  • Size 17", 19" or 21" screen sizes

  • Monitor type

    • CRT bigger but cheaper,

    • LCD Display - Smaller but more expensive

  • Dot/Stripe Pitch - The smaller the Dot Pitch the sharper the image

  • Resolution – number of pixels that can be displayed – usually higher resolution gives a clearer image

To go with your fancy new monitor you’ll need a video card that is compatible


Speakers l.jpg

Speakers

$20 - $200+

Your new computer system may or may not come with other peripheral devices including

Speakers and sound cards

  • Speakers vary based on Appearance, Subwoofer, 3D-sound

  • Sound Cards provide interface between the speakers & computer


Slide26 l.jpg

Black &

White

Color

Printers

$50 - $10,000+

Unless your purchasing a “complete package” your system will probably not come with a printer. The two most common printer types are:

  • Laser Jet - faster, quieter. Can be single or duplex (print both sides), different sizes, multiple trays etc.

  • Inkjet - cheaper

Its not always with printer that gets you.. It’s the price of the ink supplies!


A desktop a laptop a tablet pc l.jpg

Desktop

Easy to use at a desk – larger keyboard

Least expensive and available with greatest speeds & memory

Laptop

Portable

More expensive than a desktop

Keyboard, mouse -not quite as easy to use

A desktop, a laptop, a tablet PC?

Tablet

  • Great for taking notes & keeping ad-hoc records

  • Portable – able to take it with you

  • Most expensive & slower than std. computers

$300+ incl. monitor

$500+

$1800+


Getting on line l.jpg

Getting On-line

  • To get on-line you will need several items:

  • An Internet Service Provider (ISP)

  • Method of connecting

    • Telephone with modem (56K)

    • DSL – existing phone line but faster

    • ISDN – digital phone line

    • Cable – co-axial cable

  • Hardware

    • Modem – translate computer data to a “signal”

    • Communications/Network Card

    • Port

      • Ethernet Jack – use with cable modems

      • Phone Jack – use with telephone modems


Slide29 l.jpg

The simplest communication is transmission of data over a communication channel between two computers

  • A modem (modulator/demodulator) connects your computer to the Internet by modulating the digital signal from the computer to a carrier signal

Computer <--> Modem

  • Transmission Media

<--> Modem <--> Computer


Slide30 l.jpg

Networking - connecting a group of computers together

  • LAN - local area network

  • WAN - wide area network

  • Internet – network of networks


And what about security l.jpg

And what about security?

Virus Protection – get Anti-virus software and keep it up to date

Firewall – Software/Hardware that denies entry to all incoming traffic except those specifically requested or allowed

Spam Filters –

Available on most email packages or by providers and can be “customized”

http://www.racecomputers.com/images/security_attack.jpg


  • Login