Capital de la Provincia de
In 711, los Moros, Arabs and Berbers from North Africa invaded Spain and had conquered almost the entire Peninsula from the Visigoths by 718. With them they brought Islam. Only some mountainous northern regions remained Cristianos.
The Moslems had a more advanced culture than most of Europe. They were advanced in Mathematics (Algebra), medicine, astronomy and preserved the writings of great classics from Greece and Rome. They built exquisite architecture of palaces and mosques and decorated with horseshoe arches, mosaic, lace carvings, Arabic writing from the Koran.
By the 11th century there were disputes among the leaders, and the power of los Moros was divided in weaker states. By the end of the 13th century the northern Christianos had reconquered the land and pushed los Moros back southward into the region of Granada (from the word, pomegranate).
Later los Reyes Católicos Fernando e Isabel defeated los Moros at their last stronghold in Granada. They took over the magnificent Moorish arquitectura and La Alhambra (the red fort) where we can still visit today El Patio de los Leones and the magnificent gardens: el Generalife.
Los Reyes Católicos who defeated the Moros are buried in the Holy Chapel of the Cathedral of Granada.
Later on el rey Carlos V de Habsburgo from the Netherlands had a Spanish Italian Renaissance palace built on the grounds de la Alhambra. He never moved in.
THE REUNIFICATION = LA RECONQUISTA
Isabel had inherited the kingdom of Castilla y León. She later married Fernando from Aragón y Navarra. Their union started la Reconquista. They wanted to reunify Spain under one single Catholic faith. The Spanish flag shows the emblems of Castilla y León on top of the emblems of Aragón y Navarra at the bottom.
They started the Inquisition to expulse the non Christians and used los Judios to defeat los Morosin their stronghold of Granada in 1492. They carried the extinction of the Jews through the infamous auto-da-fé, public burning of the Marranos (conversos who kept on practicing their Judaism in secret). For their desire to unify Spain under the banner of Christianity, the Pope bestowed upon them the title of Reyes Católicos.
They are buried in the Cathedral of Granada
That same year 1492, they sponsored the first trip of Cristobal Colón to the New World.
The Alhambra complex sits on a hill at the base of the Sierra Nevada mountain range in Granada, Spain. The Alhambra is made up of three distinct areas: a fortress known as the Alcazaba, extensive gardens called the Generalife, and the royal palace. The Alcazaba, parts of which date to the 11th century, is the oldest part of the complex. During the 13th and 14th centuries, Spain’s Moorish rulers built the Generalife and the royal palace in the Islamic architectural style. This photo faces the Alcazaba, with parts of the royal palace showing in the background.