Campylobacters helicobacters and related organisms chro s
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Campylobacters, Helicobacters and related organisms (CHRO’s). Veterinary pathogens. Ovine/Bovine abortion C. fetus ss fetus C. jejuni A. cryoaerophila Bovine infectious infertility C. fetus ss venerealis A. skirrowii. Campylobacter species. Gram negative ‘seagull’, spiral shaped

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Veterinary pathogens (CHRO’s)

  • Ovine/Bovine abortion

  • C. fetus ss fetus

  • C. jejuni

  • A. cryoaerophila

  • Bovine infectious infertility

  • C. fetus ss venerealis

  • A. skirrowii


Campylobacter species
Campylobacter (CHRO’s) species

  • Gram negative ‘seagull’, spiral shaped

  • Motile

  • Microaerophilic (reduced oxygen)

  • Like enriched medium

  • Non fermentative

  • Oxidase positive

  • Commensals of the intestinal tract of animals

  • Pathogens in reproductive and enteric tracts


Laboratory identification
Laboratory identification (CHRO’s)

  • Wet mount of faeces  corkscrew-like darting motility

  • Use of selective media containing antibiotic cocktail to suppress faecal commensals (Poly/Rif/Tri/Cyclo)

  • Grow at 37 or 42 degrees

  • Microaerophilic atmosphere

  • Colonies small (1-2 mm), round, smooth, mucoid, translucent, dewdrop-like appearance on blood agar (C.fetus)

  • Confirm by smear and Gram stain

  • Identify using API

  • Antimicrobial sensitivity testing


C jejuni and c coli in animals
C. jejuni (CHRO’s) and C. coli in animals

  • C. jejuni is part of normal intestinal flora in birds

  • No disease association in poultry

  • C. coli – normal intestinal flora in pigs.

  • C. jejuni and C. coli may cause acute diarrhoea in very young animals but not older animals

  • 1970’s it was discovered these organisms cause acute diarrhoea in humans


Intestinal campylobacteriosis in dogs
Intestinal Campylobacteriosis in dogs (CHRO’s)

  • C. jejuni causes acute diarrhoea in puppies

  • Typically develops diarrhoea after acquisition

  • Typical history of recently acquired puppy develops bloody or watery diarrhoea followed by owner or child in the household getting diarrhoea

  • Get isolates from both dog and owner to establish transmission!

  • Healthy animals may shed C. jejuni with no symptoms

  • May be part of mixed infection (+ enteric virus, Giardia, helminths etc)


CAMPYLOBACTERIOSIS - (CHRO’s)Campylobacter jejuni colitis, gross lesions of focal congestion and mucus production, dog.


Campylobacter fetus sub species fetus
Campylobacter fetus (CHRO’s) sub species fetus

  • Sporadic abortion in sheep often late in gestation

  • Transmitted by contaminated food or water

  • Bacteraemia ensues, organism spreads to distal sites including placenta

  • Abortion in the 3rd trimester of ovine gestation results from placentitis

  • Sporadic abortion in cattle, goats, pigs and horses

  • Bloodstream infection in man (usually but not always with underlying immunocompromise)


Campylobacters in sheep abortion
Campylobacters in sheep abortion (CHRO’s)

  • Present in intestine

  • Invades tissues

  • Invades uterus

  • Invades foetus

  • Kills foetus

  • Aborted mummified foetus

  • Campylobacter in foetal liver

  • Campylobacter in discharges



Pathogenesis ovine abortion
Pathogenesis (ovine abortion) (CHRO’s)

  • C. fetus ss fetus

  • High molecular weight protein S-layer on the surface of the bacterium

  • S-layer fails to bind C3b of complement and prevents phagocytosis by neutrophils

  • S-layer mutants are of reduced virulence in disease model

  • S-layer shields LPS as a means of decreasing immunogenicity


Campylobacter fetus sub species venerealis
Campylobacter fetus (CHRO’s) sub species venerealis

  • The cause of bovine venereal campylobacteriosis (BVC – sexually transmitted bovine infectious infertility)

  • Transmitted by infected bulls through normal breeding or artificial insemination

  • Organism recovered from glans penis and distal urethra of infected bulls

  • Ascending infection in cows from vagina to cervix to uterus then oviducts

  • Tempory infertility

  • Abortion in small proportion of infected cows (<10%)

  • Protective immunity eventually develops via IgA in vaginal mucous and IgG in uterus


Pathogenesis bvc
Pathogenesis (BVC) (CHRO’s)

  • C. fetus ss venerealis persists in the vagina of the cow due to antigenic shifts in the immunodominant antigens of the S layer proteins (sapA)

  • Genomic re-arrangements of this locus in weekly isolates

  • sapA promoter on invertible segment that can flip and allow change in expression from S-layer protein gene cassettes


Campylobacter (CHRO’s)enteritis in man

  • Incubation 3 days

  • Abdominal pain (severe)

  • Diarrhoea (small volume bloody diarrhoea, watery with blood, watery no blood)

  • Fever

  • Myalgia, malaise

  • (Rigors, high fever delirium)



Control in poultry production
Control in poultry production diarrhoea in man

  • Bio-security

    - Hygiene barriers, dedicated footwear, clothing, restriction on numbers entering, boot dipping, hand washing!

  • Thinning

  • Competitive exclusion

  • Inhibitory flora

  • Worse husbandry, more Campylobacter

  • Carcass freezing



Pathogenic mechanisms
Pathogenic mechanisms diarrhoea in man

  • Tissue invasion

  • (GI biopsies of infected patients, primates, animal models, tissue culture cells) –

  • pVir plasmid, type IV secretion system, invade cultured cells

  • Cia proteins secreted via flagella and translocate effector proteins into host cell

  • transcytosis

  • Reduced adhesion/invasion correlates with lack of diarrhoeal disease in ferret models

  • Glycosylation of flagella, LOS, OMP’s

  • Toxins (cytotoxins)

  • LPS – LOS (molecular mimicry, GBS)

  • Activation of host inflammatory mediators IL-8, LTB4, PGE2

  • Understanding advanced by Genome sequence of C. jejuni NCTC 11168



Arcobacters
Arcobacters diarrhoea in man

  • Arcobacters have Campylobacter like morphology

  • Aerotolerant

  • Grow at 30 degrees

  • A. cryoaerophilus, A. nitrofigilis (environmental), A. skirrowii and A. butzleri

  • Possible disease association only just being defined


Arcobacters disease association
Arcobacters – disease association diarrhoea in man

  • A. cryaerophilus – late term abortion in cattle, horses, sheep, and dogs -Mastitic milk, ovine faeces

  • A. butzleri – diarrhoeal disease in humans and animals – potentially zoonotic

  • A. skirrowii – diarrhoeal disease in man, lambs, calves, abortion in swine and cattle


Helicobacters in animals
Helicobacters diarrhoea in man in animals

  • Widely documented in mammals and birds due to frenzy generated by H. pylori! (18+ species)

  • Helicobacter hepaticus is a mouse pathogen and common in breeding colonies from commercial facilities

  • Focal hepatic necrosis leading to chronic disease and hepatocellular tumours

  • H. bilis causes hepatitis in mice, other helicobacters associated with gall bladder disease & gall stones


Helicobacter pylori
Helicobacter pylori diarrhoea in man

  • In 1983, Marshall and Warren described the bacterium now known as Helicobacter pylori

  • Suggested that it may be important in the pathophysiology of chronic active gastritis and peptic ulceration in man

  • They were proved correct (after much controversy) and it is now accepted that H. pylori infection:

    ■ causes chronic active gastritis;

    ■ is the main cause of duodenal and gastric ulceration; and

    ■ is an important risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoma.


H. pylori diarrhoea in man prevalence in Westernized versus developing countries. (Adapted from Marshall BJ (1994). , S116–118


20% diarrhoea in man

Superficial chronic gastritis

1%


Gastric cancer
Gastric cancer diarrhoea in man

  • The World Health Organization has classified H. pylori as a gastric carcinogen.

  • Infection is associated with an approximately eightfold increased risk of gastric cancer.

  • Eradication of H. pylori from Japanese patients with early gastric cancer greatly diminished the risk of recurrent cancer after endoscopic resection.

  • Whether to eradicate from individuals without ulcers—an issue which is currently unresolved.

  • USA treats anyone over 40 found to have H. pylori whether symptomatic or not in order to prevent gastric cancer


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