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AP Style PPT. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The Cheater’s Guide To AP Style Capitals Proper nouns Capitals Proper nouns “Real” titles directly before names Capitals Proper nouns “Real” titles directly before names Regions Legislative bodies: Council, Assembly Capital Don’ts

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capitals
Capitals
  • Proper nouns
capitals4
Capitals
  • Proper nouns
  • “Real” titles directly before names
capitals5
Capitals
  • Proper nouns
  • “Real” titles directly before names
  • Regions
  • Legislative bodies: Council, Assembly
capital don ts
Capital Don’ts
  • Plurals: the departments of Labor and Justice; the Tennessee and Ohio rivers
  • Compass directions
  • Shorthand names on second reference, or generic references
numbers
Numbers
  • Figures or words?
numbers8
Numbers
  • Figures or words?
  • Generally follow the digit rule
  • Mix and match
  • Only years at the start of a sentence
numbers exceptions
Numbers: exceptions
  • Ages are always figures
  • Dimensions (inches, feet, yards)
  • Percent
abbreviations
Abbreviations
  • To abbreviate or not to abbreviate, that is the question.
abbreviations11
Abbreviations
  • To abbreviate or not to abbreviate, that is the question.
  • Some things are always abbreviated: FBI, CNN.
abbreviations12
Abbreviations
  • To abbreviate or not to abbreviate, that is the question.
  • Some things are always abbreviated: FBI, CNN.
  • Some are abbreviated in specific usages: doctor vs. Dr. Jones; Wis. Vs. Wisconsin.
abbreviations13
Abbreviations
  • Some are evolving: frequently asked questions (FAQ)
  • Some can be abbreviated on second reference (National Rifle Association = NRA).
titles
Titles
  • “Coach” is considered a job description, not a formal title: L/C.
  • Professor--lowercase and do not abbreviate before a name.
  • Plurals
  • Fire & police
addresses
Addresses
  • Abbreviate exact numbered address:
  • 801 Algoma Blvd. but Algoma Boulevard.
  • B-A-S
  • Everything else is spelled out: road, lane, drive, circle, court, etc.
time references
Time references
  • Use days of week within seven days of an event (not today or tonight). Otherwise specify the date.
time references17
Time references
  • Use days of week within seven days of an event (not today or tonight). Otherwise specify the date.
  • Abbreviate months only when a day is specified: February 2007 vs. Feb. 27, 2007.
time references18
Time references
  • Five months (five letters or fewer) are never abbreviated.
time references19
Time references
  • Five months (five letters or fewer) are never abbreviated.
  • There is neither a 12 a.m. or a 12 p.m.
  • Avoid redundancies: next Tuesday, 10 a.m. this morning.
word usage
Word usage
  • If you do not recognize a word, look it up.
word usage21
Word usage
  • If you do not recognize a word, look it up.
  • Be sensitive to distinctions: burglary, larceny, robbery, theft; homicide, murder, manslaughter; pedal, peddle.
word usage22
Word usage
  • If you do not recognize a word, look it up.
  • Be sensitive to distinctions: burglary, larceny, robbery, theft; homicide, murder, manslaughter; pedal, peddle.
  • Trademarks: photocopy sted Xerox.
punctuation
Punctuation
  • Commas.
  • Hyphens
  • Quotation marks.
  • Apostrohes.
  • Colons & semicolons.
commas
Commas
  • 10 simple rules.
  • In journalism: When in doubt, leave it out.
hyphens
Hyphens
  • Hyphens—use sparingly.
  • Distinguish between compound adjectives (hyphenated) and adverb-adjective combos (no hyphens).
hyphens26
Hyphens
  • Little-known athlete
  • Widely known author
hyphens27
Hyphens
  • Hyphen is not the same as a dash, which can work like a comma or parens to emphasize or set apart.
  • -
quotation marks
Quotation marks

He said, “I am shocked and horrified by the incident.

“I am so horrified, in fact, that I will ask for the death penalty.”

quotation marks29
Quotation marks

He said he was “shocked and horrified by the incident.”

“I am so horrified, in fact, that I will ask for the death penalty.”

quotation marks30
Quotation marks
  • Commas and periods always, always, always inside (in U.S. usage).
quotation marks31
Quotation marks
  • Commas and periods always, always always inside (in U.S. usage).
  • Question marks, exclamation points depend on the sense of the sentence.
apostrophes
Apostrophes
  • Special rules for possessives: plural nouns not ending in s, plural nouns ending in s, nouns plural in form singular in meaning, nouns the same in singular and plural, etc.
apostrophes33
Apostrophes
  • The ’20s.
  • Not the 20’s.
  • Four A’s and two B’s.
  • ABCs, VIPs.
colons semicolons
Colons & semicolons
  • Which is which?

; versus :

colons
Colons
  • He promised this: The company will make good on all the losses.
  • There were three considerations: expense, time and feasibility.
semicolons
Semicolons
  • He was survived by a son, John Smith, of Chicago; three daughters, Jane Smith of Wichita, Kan., Mary Smith, of Denver, and Susan of Boston; and a sister, Martha, of Omaha, Neb.
  • Can be used to link independent clauses but may signal complexity.
prefixes
Prefixes
  • Generally do not use a hyphen with a word starting with a consonant.
prefixes38
Prefixes
  • Generally do not use a hyphen with a word starting with a consonant.
  • Nonprofit, but non-nuclear.
prefixes39
Prefixes
  • Generally do not use a hyphen with a word starting with a consonant.
  • Nonprofit, but non-nuclear.
  • Cooperate and coordinate, otherwise hyphenate: re-elect.
prefixes40
Prefixes
  • Generally do not use a hyphen with a word starting with a consonant.
  • Nonprofit, but non-nuclear.
  • Cooperate and coordinate, otherwise hyphenate: re-elect.
  • Look it up!
suffixes
Suffixes
  • Two words for the verb form:
  • Stand out
  • Hyphenate noun or adjective
  • Standout (player)
suffixes42
Suffixes
  • Two words for the verb form:
  • Stand out
  • Hyphenate noun or adjective
  • Standout (player)
  • But there are many exceptions!
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