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A 2009 Report on Technology Education in the United States International Conference on Technology Education in the Asia Pacific Region Taipei Taiwan - November 11, 2009 Overview of Presentation Nationally-developed educational standards in the U.S.

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A 2009 Report on Technology Education in the United States

International Conference on Technology Education in the Asia Pacific Region

Taipei Taiwan - November 11, 2009

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Overview of Presentation

  • Nationally-developed educational standards in the U.S.

  • Standards for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study of Technology (ITEA, 2000, 2002, 2007)

  • ITEA: Research and Curriculum Efforts

  • Technology and Engineering Education

  • National Assessment of Educational Progress for Technological Literacy (The Nation’s Report Card-2012)

  • Positioning of Technology Education

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  • A Decade of Standards for Technological Literacy

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Standards for Technological Literacy (STL)(ITEA, 2000,2002/2007) presents the content for what every student should know and be able to do in order to be technologically literate.


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So what is “Technological Literacy?”

Technological literacy is the

ability to:

use, manage, evaluate,

and understand technology.

Technology Literacy for All:

A Rationale and Study for the Study of Technology (ITEA,2006)

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Who is a technologically literate person?

One that understands:

  • What technology is

  • How technology is created

  • How the use of technology shapes society and in turn,

  • How society shapes the development of technology

  • A person who is comfortable with and objective about the use of technology – neither scared of it nor infatuated with it.

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Technological literacy involves:

Much more than a knowledge about computers and digital electronics.

Gaining a degree of knowledge about the nature, behavior, power, and consequences of technology from a real world perspective.

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  • STL Standards are 20 written statements about what is valued that can be used for making a judgment of quality.

  • Standards represent fundamental concepts.

  • The goal is to meet all of the standards from Grades K-12.

  • STL Standards were written around five major organizers or categories.

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The Five Major Organizers (Categories) in STL

  • The Nature of Technology (3 Standards)

  • Technology and Society (4 Standards)

  • Design (3 Standards)

  • Abilities for a Technological World (3 Standards)

  • The Designed World (7 Standards)

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Nature of Technology (3 Stds.)

  • Students will develop an understanding of the:

    • characteristics and scope of technology.

    • core concepts of technology.

    • relationships among technologies and the connection between technology and other fields of study.

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Technology and Society: (4 Stds.)

  • Students will develop an understanding of the:

    • cultural, social, economic, and political effects of technology.

    • effects of technology on the environment.

    • role of society in the development and use of technology.

    • influence of technology on history.

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Design (3 Stds.)

  • Students will develop an understanding of the:

    • attributes of design.

    • engineering design.

    • role of troubleshooting, research and development, invention and innovation, and experimentation in problem solving.

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Abilities for a Technological World: 3 Stds.)

  • Students will develop the abilities to:

    • apply the design process.

    • use and maintain technological products and systems.

    • assess the impact of products and systems.

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The Designed World (7 Stds.)

  • Students will develop an understanding of and be able to select and use:

    • medical technologies.

    • agricultural and related biotechnologies.

    • energy and power technologies.

    • information and communication technologies.

    • transportation technologies.

    • manufacturing technologies.

    • construction technologies.

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Advancing Excellence in Technological Literacy: Student Assessment, Professional Development, and Program Standards (AETL)(ITEA,2003)

  • AETL provides the means for

    implementing STL in K-12


  • AETL is based on STL.

  • AETL contains three separate but interrelated sets of standards.

    • Student Assessment

    • Professional Development

    • Program

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In 2001 and 2004, The International Technology Education Association (ITEA) conducted polls which were done by the Gallup Organization on how Americans think about technology. (http://www.iteaconnect.org/TAA/Publications/TAA_Publications.html)

ITEA Research and Curriculum Efforts:

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Most Americans (68% in 2004 & 67% in 2001) view technology very narrowly as being computers, electronics, and the internet.

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There was near total consensus (98% in 2004 & 97% in 2001) in the public sampled that schools should include the study of technology in the curriculum.

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When asked how important it is for high school students to understand the relationship between science and technology, 98% of the Americans stated that they thought that this was “very or somewhat important”.

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In both polls, a majority of Americans (62% in 2004 and 59% in 2001) responded that science and technology are basically one and the same thing.

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What is Science?

What is Technology?

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Science seeks to understand the natural world.

National Science Education Standards, National Research Council, 1996.

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What is Technology?

  • It is the innovation, change, or modification of the natural environment in order to satisfy perceived human wants and needs. (Standards for Technological Literacy, ITEA, 2000)

  • The goal of technology is to make modifications in the world to meet human needs. (National Science Education Standards, NRC, 1996)

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What is Technology ? (Continued)

  • In the broadest sense, technology extends our abilities to change the world: to cut, shape, or put together materials; to move things from one place to another; to reach farther with our hands, voices, and senses. (Benchmarks for Science Literacy, AAAS, 1993)

  • Technology is the process by which humans modify nature to meet their needs and wants. (Technically Speaking: Why All Americans Need to Know More About Technology, NAE/NRC, 2002)

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Deals with the natural world.

Is very concerned with what is(exists) in the natural world. (i.e.: Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Astronomy, Geology, etc.)

Deals with how humans modify, change, alter, or control the natural world.

Is very concerned with what can or should be designed, made, or developed from natural world materials and substances to satisfy human needs and wants

Science vs. Technology

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Is concerned with inquiries that seek out the meaning of the natural world by “inquiry”, “discovering what is”, “exploring”, and using“the Scientific Method”.

Is concerned with such processes that we use to alter/change the natural world such as “Invention”, Innovation”, Practical Problem Solving, and Design.

Science vs. Technology (Continued)

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While technology and science have a common denominator being the natural world, they are similar yet very different.

Technology is not any more “applied science” than science is “applied technology”.


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Technology Education

This is the school subject specifically designed to teach children about the broad field of technology.

To eliminate confusion … technology is the subject matter content while the study of technology formally in schools today is called technology education.

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Technology Education, which is the study of technology, should NOT be confused with Information Technology, Educational (or instructional) Technology, or Information and Computer Technology (ICT)!

In the U.S. today, there is much misunderstanding about …

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There is a growing movement in the U. S. to teach the integrative subjects of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM).


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A New Movement in The U.S. on Technology and Engineering Education

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Shocking data:

Only four percent of American college graduates in 2003 majored in engineering compared to 13 percent of European students and 20 percent of those in Asia.

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Some U. S. Efforts Now:

  • International Technology Education Association

  • National Academy of Engineering (NAE)

  • American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE)

  • Federal and State Efforts

    • No Child Left Behind

    • Engineering Education for the Innovation Economy Act (Pending)

    • States with engineering education:



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What Is

Engineering byDesign™?

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ITEA’s Curriculum Efforts: Engineering by Design (EbD)


  • Provide a standards-based K-12 program (curriculum) that ensures that all students are technologically literate.

  • Provide opportunities for all students without regard to gender or ethnic origin.

  • Provide clear standards and expectations for increasing student achievement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM).

  • Provide leadership and support that will produce continuous improvement and innovation in the program.

  • Restore America's status as the leader in innovation. Provide a program that constructs learning from a very early age and culminates in a capstone experience that leads students to become the next generation of technologists, innovators, designers, and engineers.

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Do We Teach engineering or Engineering?

engineering – little “e” – used as a verb

to teach all students to think or learn to engineer or use engineering concepts

Engineering – big “E” – used as a noun

prepare students to be Engineers – career oriented

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Standards-Based Model – Grades K-16

Endorsed by

* ProBase and I3 – NSF funded projects

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National Assessment of

Educational Progress (NAEP)

(“The Nation’s Report Card”)

2012 Technological Literacy Framework Project

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Overall Purposes

Develop the recommended framework and specifications for NAEP Technological Literacy 2012 in grades 4, 8, and 12.

The assessment will be entirely computer-based.

WestEd Project funded by the U.S. Department of Education (2009-2012)

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Technological Literacy

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Reporting NAEP Scores

  • The NAEP Technological Literacy Assessment is an assessment of overall achievement, not a tool for diagnosing the needs of individual students.

  • Results will be reported in terms of average scores for groups of students on the NAEP scale and as percentages of students who attain each of the three achievement levels: Basic, Proficient, and Advanced.

  • The probe for 2012 NAEP Technological Literacy Assessment

    • At one, perhaps two grades

    • Reports only at the national level

    • Recommend reporting separate subscales for the three areas first, followed by the overall composite score.

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NAEP Technological Literacy Project


For More Information:

National Assessment Governing Board




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Positioning Technology Education

  • Change is hard to do in education

  • Much of what we do in education is political

  • We need to market or sell the study of technology as an basic component of education that everyone needs

  • Key decision makers in our countries need to be informed and influenced about the importance of the study of technology

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  • Standards for Technological Literacy in the U.S.

  • Technological Literacy Defined

  • What Americans think about technology

  • Technology and Science

  • Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)

  • Technology and Engineering Education

  • National Assessment of Educational Progress

  • Positioning Technology Education

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In conclusion…

The power and promise of technology can be further enhanced through the study of technology to assure that all people are technologically literate in the future.

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Thank You!

William E. Dugger, Jr.

Senior Fellow and Former Director

Technology for All Americans Project

International Technology Education Association


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A copy of this presentation can be downloaded by going to:http://www.iteaconnect.org/Resources/PressRoom/2009Taiwanconferenceontechnology education.ppt

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Ariens Technology and Engineering Education Center Blueprint: Designing Wisconsin’s Future:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FCF3BZsCdsU

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