By surono cvghm geological agency memr
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MITIGATION POLICY OF GEOLOGICAL AGENCY IN DEALING WITH VOLCANIC ERUPTION IN INDONESIA A CASE STUDY OF 2010’s MERAPI ERUPTION. Oleh : Dr. Surono. IAVCEI S cientific Assembly-Forecasting Volcanic Activity Kagoshima , 2 0 - 24 July 2013. By : SURONO CVGHM, Geological Agency, MEMR.

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By : SURONO CVGHM, Geological Agency, MEMR

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By surono cvghm geological agency memr

MITIGATION POLICY OF GEOLOGICAL AGENCY IN DEALING WITH VOLCANIC ERUPTION IN INDONESIA

A CASE STUDY OF 2010’s MERAPI ERUPTION

Oleh:

Dr. Surono

IAVCEI Scientific Assembly-Forecasting Volcanic Activity

Kagoshima, 20-24 July 2013

By:

SURONO

CVGHM, Geological Agency, MEMR

CENTER FOR VOLCANOLOGY And GEOLOGICAL HAZARD MITIGATION

GEOLOGICAL AGENCY

MINISTRY Of ENERGY And MINERAL RESOURCES


Outline

OUTLINE

  • I. Introduction

  • II. Mitigation Policy

  • III. The 2010 Merapi Eruption

  • IV. Conclusion


By surono cvghm geological agency memr

  • Introduction

Tectonic Setting: Indonesia is located in collission between 3 major active plates (Eurasia, Indo-Australia, and Pacific plates)

South China Sea

Pacific Ocean

Eurasia

Pasifik

Indian Ocean

Indo-Australia

6.5 cm/yr

Positive Impact:

Hydrocarbon Basin

Mineralization Belt

Geothermal Belt

Fertile Lands

Negative Impact:

Potential Geological Hazards:

Earthquakes/Tsunami

Volcanic eruption

Landslide


By surono cvghm geological agency memr

Active Volcanoes Distribution in Indonesia

Indonesia has 127 active volcanoes, including A-type, B-type, and C-type. Type-A means volcano which is recorded to have experienced magmatic eruption at least one time after 1600. B and C-type are less active.

Until July 2013, there are 5 volcanoes in level III (A-type), and 17 in level II (A-type). Pyroclastic flow and destructive lahars pose the very high threat to life, property, the environment, in area more than few km from the mountains’s slope.


By surono cvghm geological agency memr

Indonesia has greatest population living and conducting activity at volcanic hazard zone

Volcanic hazard areas in Indonesia typically have fertile land, an abundant amount of water, and beautiful scenery. Consequently, people are attracted to live and conduct activities in volcanic hazard areas.


Eruption in 2007 2011 with large evacuations

Eruption in 2007-2011 with large evacuations

Merapi eruption, October-November 2010, about 1 million refugees due to eruption, but about 400,000 were taken care by the government with 367 casualties.

Kelud eruption, November 2007, about 15,000 refugees evacuated. (No casualties).

Lokon eruption, 14 July 2011, there were about 6,000 peoples evacuated (No casualties).

Sinabung eruption, August 2010, about 30,000 refugees.(No casualties)


By surono cvghm geological agency memr

VOLCANIC HAZARD IMPACTS:

  • Pyroclastic flow >600oC

    • Dangerous for lives

    • Forest fire

  • Volcanic Ash fall

    • Irritation

    • Respiration

    • Flight disaster

    • Environmental degradation

  • Lahar

    • Infrastructures damaged

    • Dangerous for people living close to rivers and valleys

Pyroclastic Flows

Lava Dome Collapse

Ash Falls

Lahar


By surono cvghm geological agency memr

Main Task and Function of CVGHM, Geological Agency, MEMR

  • To conduct research, investigate and service of volcanology and geological hazard mitigation (volcanic eruption, earthquake, tsunami, landslide).

  • To issue an early warning for volcanic activities and landslide.

  • To disseminate geological hazard knowledge to local government and communities who live in the geological hazard zone.

  • To produce the geological hazard map for spatial planning, geological hazard mitigation & education.

  • To give technical recommendation to the Local Government to do geological hazard mitigation efforts.

  • To evaluate research, investigate and service of volcanology and geological hazard mitigation.


By surono cvghm geological agency memr

Aims of Geological Hazard Mitigation:

To minimize/reduce fatalities and socio-economics impact caused by volcanic eruption, earthquake, tsunami, and landslide


By surono cvghm geological agency memr

II. Mitigation Policy in Dealing With The 2010 Eruption of Merapi

  • After 2004 Tsunami in Aceh, the Indonesian government made two important laws,

  • UU no. 24 Tahun 2007 on ”Disaster Management”

  • UU no. 26 Tahun 2007 on ”Spatial Planning”

  • Based on these laws, disaster management paradigm is changed, now the disaster management in Indonesia are focused on risk reduction in pre-disaster phase.

  • QUICK RESPONSE TEAM

  • MONITORING

  • EARLY WARNING

  • VOLCANIC HAZARD MAPPING

  • SOCIALIZATION/

    DISSEMINATION

  • OBSERVATION/

  • RESEARCH


Early warning volcanic activity alert level

EARLY WARNING :Volcanic Activity Alert Level

Normal (level I)

Volcanic activity stay in normal condition without any difference from its background levels.

Waspada (level II)

Volcanic activity begin to increase and have pass over its background levels.

Siaga (level III)

Volcanic activity have shown its precursor before eruption.

Awas (level IV)

Started with volcanic ash eruption, and then approaching the main eruption.


By surono cvghm geological agency memr

Early Warning System for Volcanic Eruption

Alert Level IV

AWAS

Volcano Alert Level and

Action of people living nearby the volcano

Indications of eruption

Alert Level III

SIAGA

Evacuation for

KRB II&III

Alert Level II

WASPADA

Prediction of volcanic activity increasing until the eruption

Alert Level I

NORMAL

No Activity in

KRB II, III

Increase in volcanic activity

Limited Activity in

KRB II, III

No Indication

Volcanic Hazard Zone (KRB)


By surono cvghm geological agency memr

INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION FOR INCREASING OF VOLCANIC ACTIVITY

VOLCANO OBSERVATORY POST

THE NEAREST AIRPORT &

STAKEHOLDERS

CHIEVE OF

SECTION

CHIEVE OF

DIVISION

REGENCY

(SATLAK)

COMMUNITY

AROUND THE

VOLCANO

CVGHM

GOVERNOR

(SATKORLAK)

GA

BAKORNAS

PB

EXPLANATION :

S-H. AIRPORT

MET. OFFICE

DIRECT OF

AVIATION SAFETY

LEVEL I (NORMAL)

LEVEL II/III (ACTIVE

ALERT AND AANTICIPATION)


By surono cvghm geological agency memr

Objective : determine the character and nature of volcano’s eruption (volcano’s geological properties) and

determine the precursor of a volcano eruption

Method : geophysical, geochemistry, and also geological mapping (volcanic deposit analysis and sampling, volcano stratigraphy)

Expectation of some research result is a better understanding of the volcanic eruption process and the volcanichazardzone map.

VOLCANIC RESEARCH


By surono cvghm geological agency memr

PROVIDING VOLCANIC HAZARD MAP


By surono cvghm geological agency memr

SOCIALIZATION

The purpose of socialization is to increase knowledge and awareness of the people living around the prone area to the volcanic eruption.

Coordination with the local governments and related agencies is carried out to improve the effectiveness of the volcanic hazard mitigation

Direct Socialization

Exhibition

Contingency Planning

Leaflet dan Booklet


Volcanic monitoring

VOLCANIC MONITORING

Objective : to observe, record, and analyze the active volcano condition

Method : seismic,

crater observation, geochemistry and deformation measurement


By surono cvghm geological agency memr

Volcano Monitoring

Integrated methods : seismology, geodesy, geophysics, geochemical, remote sensing, etc.

Volcano Observatory


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