MITIGATION POLICY OF GEOLOGICAL AGENCY IN DEALING WITH VOLCANIC ERUPTION IN INDONESIA A CASE STUDY OF 2010’s MERAPI ERUPTION. Oleh : Dr. Surono. IAVCEI S cientific Assembly-Forecasting Volcanic Activity Kagoshima , 2 0 - 24 July 2013. By : SURONO CVGHM, Geological Agency, MEMR.
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MITIGATION POLICY OF GEOLOGICAL AGENCY IN DEALING WITH VOLCANIC ERUPTION IN INDONESIA
A CASE STUDY OF 2010’s MERAPI ERUPTION
IAVCEI Scientific Assembly-Forecasting Volcanic Activity
Kagoshima, 20-24 July 2013
CVGHM, Geological Agency, MEMR
CENTER FOR VOLCANOLOGY And GEOLOGICAL HAZARD MITIGATION
MINISTRY Of ENERGY And MINERAL RESOURCES
Tectonic Setting: Indonesia is located in collission between 3 major active plates (Eurasia, Indo-Australia, and Pacific plates)
South China Sea
Potential Geological Hazards:
Active Volcanoes Distribution in Indonesia
Indonesia has 127 active volcanoes, including A-type, B-type, and C-type. Type-A means volcano which is recorded to have experienced magmatic eruption at least one time after 1600. B and C-type are less active.
Until July 2013, there are 5 volcanoes in level III (A-type), and 17 in level II (A-type). Pyroclastic flow and destructive lahars pose the very high threat to life, property, the environment, in area more than few km from the mountains’s slope.
Indonesia has greatest population living and conducting activity at volcanic hazard zone
Volcanic hazard areas in Indonesia typically have fertile land, an abundant amount of water, and beautiful scenery. Consequently, people are attracted to live and conduct activities in volcanic hazard areas.
Merapi eruption, October-November 2010, about 1 million refugees due to eruption, but about 400,000 were taken care by the government with 367 casualties.
Kelud eruption, November 2007, about 15,000 refugees evacuated. (No casualties).
Lokon eruption, 14 July 2011, there were about 6,000 peoples evacuated (No casualties).
Sinabung eruption, August 2010, about 30,000 refugees.(No casualties)
VOLCANIC HAZARD IMPACTS:
Lava Dome Collapse
Main Task and Function of CVGHM, Geological Agency, MEMR
Aims of Geological Hazard Mitigation:
To minimize/reduce fatalities and socio-economics impact caused by volcanic eruption, earthquake, tsunami, and landslide
II. Mitigation Policy in Dealing With The 2010 Eruption of Merapi
Normal (level I)
Volcanic activity stay in normal condition without any difference from its background levels.
Waspada (level II)
Volcanic activity begin to increase and have pass over its background levels.
Siaga (level III)
Volcanic activity have shown its precursor before eruption.
Awas (level IV)
Started with volcanic ash eruption, and then approaching the main eruption.
Early Warning System for Volcanic Eruption
Alert Level IV
Volcano Alert Level and
Action of people living nearby the volcano
Indications of eruption
Alert Level III
Alert Level II
Prediction of volcanic activity increasing until the eruption
Alert Level I
No Activity in
KRB II, III
Increase in volcanic activity
Limited Activity in
KRB II, III
Volcanic Hazard Zone (KRB)
INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION FOR INCREASING OF VOLCANIC ACTIVITY
VOLCANO OBSERVATORY POST
THE NEAREST AIRPORT &
LEVEL I (NORMAL)
LEVEL II/III (ACTIVE
ALERT AND AANTICIPATION)
Objective : determine the character and nature of volcano’s eruption (volcano’s geological properties) and
determine the precursor of a volcano eruption
Method : geophysical, geochemistry, and also geological mapping (volcanic deposit analysis and sampling, volcano stratigraphy)
Expectation of some research result is a better understanding of the volcanic eruption process and the volcanichazardzone map.
PROVIDING VOLCANIC HAZARD MAP
The purpose of socialization is to increase knowledge and awareness of the people living around the prone area to the volcanic eruption.
Coordination with the local governments and related agencies is carried out to improve the effectiveness of the volcanic hazard mitigation
Leaflet dan Booklet
Objective : to observe, record, and analyze the active volcano condition
Method : seismic,
crater observation, geochemistry and deformation measurement
Integrated methods : seismology, geodesy, geophysics, geochemical, remote sensing, etc.