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Lesson Three. Michael Dell’s Two-Billion-Dollar Dream. Pre-class question:. What do you know about Michael Dell ?. Warming-up expressions.

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Lesson three

Lesson Three

Michael Dell’s

Two-Billion-Dollar Dream


Pre class question

Pre-class question:

  • What do you know about Michael Dell?


Warming up expressions

Warming-up expressions

  • oil tycoon/ business prospects/ a business order/ a competitive edge/ business license/ inventory and overhead/ custom-made computers/ surplus stock/a sales quota/ a retail price/ added value/ the opportunity of a lifetime/ direct marketing/ a law firm/ accounting basics/ on- site service/ wholly owned subsidiaries/ a civic center/ end users


Background michael dell

Background Michael Dell

  • Michael Saul Dell (born February 23, 1965 in Houston, Texas) is an Americanbusinessman. He attended the University of Texas at Austin intending to become a physician. While in university, he started a computer company called PC's Limited in his dormitory room.


Dell s experiences

Dell’s Experiences

  • Dell began the business manufacturing personal computers with some radical ideas, including maintaining no finished-goods inventories and practically no component inventories, building only to order, and selling and delivering the completed PC units direct to customers (direct sales).


Dell s experiences1

The company became successful enough that Dell dropped out of college at the age of 19 to run the business full-time. In 1987, PC's Limited changed its name to Dell Computer Corporation, and in 2003, Dell, Inc.

The company became the most profitable PC manufacturer in the world, with sales of $35 billion and profits of $2 billion in 2002.

Dell’s Experiences


Dell s experiences2

Dell’s Experiences

  • On March 4, 2004, Michael Dell stepped down as CEO of Dell but stayed as Chairman of the Board, while Kevin Rollins, then became President and CEO.

  • Chief Executive Officer 执行总裁


Accolades for dell

Accolades for Dell

  • Entrepreneur of the Year" from Inc. (Incorporated) magazine; "Man of the Year" from PC Magazine; "Top CEO in American Business" from Worth Magazine; "CEO of the Year" from Financial World and Industry Week magazines.


His fame and life

His fame and life

  • In the 2005 publication of the Forbes 400, Dell was listed as the 9th richest man in the United States and the 18th richest in the world with a net worth of around $16 billion. Dell resides in Austin, Texas with his wife Susan and their four children.

  • Forbes  <<财富(福布斯)>>杂志


Forbes 400

Forbes 400

  • The Forbes 400 is an annual list published by Forbes magazine of the wealthiest400 people in the United States. At the top of the list is Bill Gates, co-founder of Microsoft, with a net worth of 48 billion dollars. The 400th wealthiest person in the United States, Norman W Waitt, Jr., co-founder of Gateway, has a net worth of 750 million dollars. Other prominent names include Warren Buffett and Teresa Heinz Kerry, the wife of 2004 Democratic presidential candidate John Kerry.Henry Kravis ranked #283 in 2004.

  • Gateway 网关;网间连接器


The secret of dell s success

The secret of Dell’s success

  • A.To be the first:

  • He is the first one to hit upon a brilliant idea, commonsense though. Success usually belongs to the person who dares to be the first, to be creative and original.


The secret of dell s success1

The secret of Dell’s success

  • B.Ambitious and highly moltivated:

    Even when a teenager he already vows to compete with IBM. It is this goal that that gives him the strength and courage to strive so hard.

  • IBM (International Business Machines)商用机器公司


The secret of dell s success2

The secret of Dell’s success

  • CHis tenacity:

  • He works hard, and never gives up. His success is the result of his toil and sweat.


The secret of dell s success3

The secret of Dell’s success

  • D.His thirst for knowledge:

  • It is true that Dell did not finish school. But that does not mean that he has had no education or that he can succeed without education. He actually studies harder and with a clearer focus.


Text organization

Text Organization

Para 1-3: A childhood anecdote of Dell.

Para.4—9: Introduction to Dell, his peculiarities and pre-university success in business.

Para.10—28: Dell established his successful business when he was still in college.

Para.29—last: Dell’s present life and his emphasis on the will to success.


Painstaking p1

Painstaking(P1)

  • Marked by or requiring great pains; very careful and diligent

  • 她在刻苦学习中文。

  • She is making painstaking efforts to learn Chinese.

  • 哈里是个肯下苦功的学生。

  • Harry is a painstaking student.

  • 辛勤地工作

  • be painstaking with one's work


Cf meticulous painstaking

Cf. meticulous, painstaking

  • He had throughout been almost worryingly_____ in his business formalities.

  • The skillful repair of fine lace entails slow and _____ work.

  • “他一直对他的业务手续表现出几乎是担心一样的极度细心” meticulous

  • 对精致花边的熟练修补需要缓慢而极度细心的工作。 Painstaking

  • Meticulous stresses extreme, sometimes exaggerated care for small details:

  • Meticulous 强调极度的,有时是过分的对于小细节的关心:

  • Painstaking means extremely careful:

  • Painstaking 意味着极度细心:


Para 1 put together

Para 1 put together

  • ______ _____ a new bookcase;

  • _____ a friend _____ for the night.

  • _____ her views _____ during the hearing.

  • _____ _____ an idea.

  • _____ _____ a new plan.

  • He _____ _____ a good word for me.

  • _____ _____paying the bills.

  • _____ _____an English accent.

  • The operator _____ me _____ on the office line.

  • We had to _____ _____ _____ the inconvenience.

    1.put together :to construct; create:2. Put up: to provide lodgings for 3. Put across: to state so asto be understoodclearly or accepted readily 4. Put forth:to offer for consideration 5.put forward: to propose for consideration 6.put in: to introduce, as in conversation 7. Put off :to delay; postpone 8. put on:to assume affectedly 9: put through: to make a telephone connection for 10: put up with:to endure without complaint:


A maze of p1 confusing intricate network of passages

A maze of(p1.): confusing intricate network of passages

  • go through a maze of narrow streets

  • 穿过迂回的小街

  • He turned short into one of the mazes of the wood转入一座迷宫似的林中盘陀地带

  • be caught up in a maze of thoughts千思万绪

  • watch the mazes of the dance婆娑多姿的舞蹈

  • be in a maze 不知所措

  • a maze of government regulations大堆复杂的政府规章制度

  • a maze of bureaucratic divisions.混乱的官僚派系


Para 1 pull

Para 1 pull

  • We pulled in at midnight.

  • The train pulls out at noon.

  • After the crash, many Wall Street investors pulled out.

  • The state trooper pulledthe speeding motorist over.

  • He helped to pullme throughthe difficulty.

  • The driver pulled up at the gate.

  • pull (someone's) leg

  • a. To leave or depart:. bTo play a joke on; tease or deceive.c. To come or bring successfully through trouble or illness d. To bring or come to a halt. e. to arrive at a destination f. To instruct or force (a motorist) to bring his or her vehicle to a stop at a curb or at the side of a road: g. To withdraw, as from a situation or commitment

  • 1e; 2a; 3g; 4f; 5c; 6d; 7b


To call it a day p2

To call it a day(P2):

  • (infml) to decide to stop working because you have done enough or because you are tired

  • I don’t know about you guys, but I’m tired and hungry. Let’s call it a day.

  • At around half past five yesterday afternoon, the power suddenly went off. So we had to call it a day.


Plunge p 2

He ran down the steps to the pool terrace and plunged in.

A soldier plunged a bayonet into his body.

The government’s political and economic reforms threaten to plunge the country into chaos.

His sudden plunge into the field of international diplomacy is a major surprise.

Shares have plunged from $17 to $7.

If you have decided to buy shares, now could be the time to take the plunge.

(do sth. difficult or risky)

plunge(p.2)


Tease p3 ridicule mock laugh at

tease(p3);ridicule; mock; laugh at

  • tease—to laugh at sb and make jokes about them either in a friendly way or in order to annoy or embarrass them :

  • e.g. Don’t get upset. I’m just teasing.

  • Ridicule—suggests making unkind fun of sb. Or sth, not necessariy implying malice of hostility. 对某人或某事不客气地嘲弄取笑, 不一定怀有恶意或敌意.


Lesson three

  • Mock—implies a contemptuous ridiculing esp. by caricaturing another’s peculiarities. 意示以夸张滑稽的方式模仿某人的言行特征,以轻蔑地嘲弄.

  • Laugh at—suggests treating as foolish, worthless of an object of fun.指视为愚蠢,无价值,笑柄而嘲笑,取笑之.


Exercises

Exercises:

Ridiculed/mocked/laughed at

  • 1.When he first put forward the idea, he was ________.

  • 2.Galileo mounted the steps of the tower. By that time there was already a big crowd. They had come to ________ the crazy young scholar.

  • 3.They were just _______ you. They meant no harm.

  • 4.When they heard this, they all burst out ________. But this time they were not ________ at him, but ________ with him.

  • 5.He was very shy. We used to _______ him.

  • 6.He who ________ last _______ best.

  • 7.Many people ________the Old Foolish Man’s attempt to remove the mountains.

Mock/ridicule

/laugh at

teasing

laughing

laughing

laughing

tease

laughs

laughs

mocked


Fortune 500 p4

Fortune 500 (p4)

  • The 500 richest people in the world listed by Fortune Magazine on annual basis.


Be imbued with p 5 be filled with an idea feeling or quality

Be imbued with(p.5): be filled with an idea, feeling or quality

  • The Guards officer was imbued with a military sense of duty and loyalty.

  • Every single word is imbued with a breathless sense of wonder.

  • 一位总统应该充满对国家的责任感。

  • A President should be imbued with a sense of responsibility for the nation.

  • 充满革命精神的工作

  • work imbued with the revolutionary spirit.


Lesson three

Drive(p.5): energy and determination; a strong need or desire; a special effort made by a group of people for a particular purpose

  • John will be remembered for his drive and enthusiasm.

  • China still has a long way to go in its modernization drive.


Other uses of drive

other uses of “drive”

  • A.to operate a vehicle:

  • e.g. when did you learn to drive?

  • B.to travel or take somebody somewhere in a car:

  • e.g. Dad said that he would drive me to school.

  • C.to make someone feel of do something bad or unpleasant

  • e.g. They could do anything when they are driven by despair.

  • D.to force someone of something to go somewhere

  • e.g. Hitler drove millions of Jews into concentration camps.


Get sth out of the way p6 to settle or dispose

Get sth. out of the way (p6): to settle or dispose

  • He went abroad to get the issue of marriage out of the way.


Out of the way

out of the way

  • 1.The house wasn’t anything out of the way.

  • 房子没有什么奇特的。Of an unusual character; remarkable.

  • 2. An out-of-the-way cottage.

  • 偏远的农舍

  • 3. said nothing out of the way.

  • 不说任何不妥之辞; Improper;

  • 4.To leave before the guest of honor would be out of the way.

  • 先于贵宾离席是不礼貌的。

  • 5. some details to get out of the way first.

  • 一些首先要处理好的细节


Prospect possibility sth going to happen p8 chances to success

Prospect: possibility; sth going to happen; (p8.) chances to success

  • The prospects for peace in the country’s eight-year civil war are becoming brighter.

  • They now face the prospect of having to wear a helmet against the poisonous gas.

  • They turned in a detailed review of the company’s prospects.


Hefty p10

hefty (P10)

  • Infml. Of considerable size or amount:

  • a hefty serving of mashed potatoes

  • 堆得满满的一份土豆泥

  • received a hefty bonus.

  • 得到大量奖金


Markup p10

markup (P10)

  • An amount added to a cost price in calculating a selling price, especially an amount that takes into account overhead and profit.

  • 加值:在计算某种出售物的价格时计入成本价的一个数额,尤指计入了管理费用和利润的数额

  • They have marked up the price since the cost is increased.

  • The new tax made it necessary to mark up all the goods in the shop.

  • All our stock has been marked down for the sales.


Soup up p 11

soup up (P 11)

  • To modify (something) so as to increase its capacity to perform or satisfy, especially to add horsepower or greater speed potential to (an engine or a vehicle):

  • 改进1959年产的福特汽车;

  • souped up the 1959 Ford;

  • 提高旧的声音系统的效果

  • souping up old sound systems.


Surplus p 11 extra more than is needed

Surplus(p.11): extra, more than is needed

  • Japan’s annual trade surplus is in the region of 100 billion dollars.

  • Germany suffers from a surplus of teachers.

  • Trade surplus vs. deficit

  • 贸易顺差 vs. 逆差


Take on p 11

take on (P 11)

  • 1.To acquire (an appearance, for example) as or as if one's own:

  • The insect can take on the color of itssurroundings.

  • 这种昆虫能随环境而变色。

  • 2. To undertake or begin to handle:

  • He is unwilling to take on heavy responsibilities.

  • 他不愿承担重任。


With a vengeance p 13 to a much greater extent than was expected

With a vengeance(p.13): to a much greater extent than was expected

  • Once George had left the office, her doubts would return with a vengeance.

  • December has turned cold with a vengeance.

  • 十二月已经是透骨寒冷了

  • Vengeance: the act of killing, injuring, or harming sb because they have harmed you

  • He swore vengeance on everyone involved in the murder.

  • Heaven's vengeance is slow but sure.

  • 天网恢恢, 疏而不漏。

  • inflict/take/wreak vengeance (up) on sb.

  • 对... 报仇[雪恨]


Come to get be at grips with p14

Come to /get /be at grips with (P14)

  • 1 To attack; to be in close combat 肉搏;猛攻

  • At the end of the quarrel, they come to grips with each other.

  • 2To confront squarely and attempt to deal decisively with:

  • 他需要认真对待此建议.

  • He had to come to grips with the proposition.


Magnitude p14

magnitude (P14)

  • 1.Greatness in size or extent:

  • The magnitude of the flood was impossible to comprehend.

  • 这场水灾的危害性是无法了解的

  • The auditorium is a building of great ~.

  • 礼堂是一座巨大的建筑。

  • 2. Greatness in significance or influence:

  • To be shocked by the magnitude of the crisis.

  • 被这场危机的严重程度震惊了


Gross p 14 total top net

Gross(p.14):毛利 total; top; net;

  • So far the films have grossed more than 100 million dollars.

  • The oil tank is said to have a gross weight of 90,000 tons.

  • net weight vs. gross weight


Gross speech or behavior rude or unacceptable sth ugly and and lack good taste

Gross: (speech or behavior) rude or unacceptable; (sth) ugly and and lack good taste;

  • The manager was guilty of gross negligence.

  • He abused the major in the grossest terms.

  • They wear really gross holiday outfits.


Launch p 19 send into the air space or water

Launch(p.19): send into the air, space or water

  • NASA’s launch of the space shuttle Discovery has been triumphant.

  • Coastguards launched three lifeboats off the Gulf coast.(试水)

  • The police launched an investigation at the wake of the scandal. (开始)

  • Ferrari launched its new models for this year.(发布)

  • He launched himself into fatherhood with great enthusiasm.(积极投身于)


Lesson three

Grammar: come September(p.19)

subjunctive mood, inverted sentence.

Come you may, things would not change.

Cf. there,here,out,now,then,thus等副词放在句首时,句子全部倒装。

---Thus began my second life.

--- Now comes your turn.

如果句中的主语是代词,句子要用陈述句

--- Here she comes.

---Out he rushed.


Fast p19

Fast (P19)

  • 1.Don't drive so fast.

  • 2.Hold fastto this rope, and I will pull you up.

  • 3.fast asleep.


Frantic p 21 emotionally uncontrolled or in disordered anxious activity

frantic (P 21)emotionally uncontrolled or in disordered, anxious activity

  • made a frantic last-minute search for the lost key.

  • 对丢失的钥匙做最后的紧张万分的寻找

  • He had a franticrush to get his work done.

  • 他急急忙忙把工作做完。

  • Highly excited with strong emotion or frustration; frenzied:(+with)

  • The mother was frantic with grief at the loss of her child.

  • 母親因失去孩子悲痛欲絕。

  • frantic with worry.焦急得发狂


Frantic vs panic

Frantic vs Panic

  • Panic: a sudden overpowering fright

  • An earthquake hit the capital, causing damage to buildings and _____ among the population.

  • A busy night in the restaurant can be _____ in the kitchen.


Lease p21

lease (P21)

  • A contract granting use or occupation of property during a specified period in exchange for a specified rent.

  • The lease on this house expires at the end of the year.

  • 这房子的租约年底到期。

  • (Take/Hold)by [on] lease租用[借]

  • put out to lease出租


Sketch p 21 a rough drawing or outline

Sketch(p.21):a rough drawing or outline

  • draft: a preliminary sketch, the first version 起草

  • design 设计

  • outline 梗概

  • portray 肖像 painting 水彩画

  • delineation 描述 describe or define in detail

  • depiction: show in drawing,painting or writing

  • graffiti 涂鸦


Keep pace p 23 with keep up with

Keep pace(p.23)with: keep up with

  • Farmers are angry because the rise in sale fails to keep pace with inflation.

  • The computer will give students the opportunity to learn at their own pace.

  • 按照自己的进度

  • A group of the world’s best waterskiers will be going through their paces.

  • 展示技艺


Special especial particular specific

Special; especial; particular; specific;

  • Special / Especial : different from normal; relating to one particular person or group; make for particular purpose特别;专门;特殊

  • 这两个词都强调所描述的事物具有使其与同等或同类事物相区别的品质,外貌,用途等一般根据句子中声韵的和谐来选择用哪一个词,而especial通常宜用于书面语言中.


Lesson three

  • Particular: emphasizing one or one kind of thing instead of other similar ones; distinct and belonging only to one; (sb) not easily satisfied 特有;特定;细致;挑剔

  • Specific: a fixed area, problem or subject; precise and exact description; 具体;明确;特定


Exercises1

Exercises:

special

  • 1.He is a very _______friend of mine. We have gone through so many things together.

  • 2. He is very ________ about food. It’s hard to please him.

  • 3. I’m fond of history in general. But my ________ interest is in the history of Chinese religion.

  • 4. Come to dinner with us. We have prepared something _______for you.

  • 5. Do you have any _____ plan for your future?

particular

Special/

particular

special


Toll p 25

toll (P 25)

  • Anyone travelling across the bridge has to pay a toll.

  • 过这座桥的人都要付通行费。

  • The long-distance call tolls amount to quite a sum.

  • 长途电话费数目相当可观。

  • The death toll has risen to 200.

  • 死亡人数已经升到两百人。

  • Bells were tolled all over the country at the President's death.

  • 全国为总统逝世而鸣钟。


Worth p 27 worthy worthwhile

Worth: worth $5; six dollar worth of potato chips; a week’s worth of food; worth a visit

worth (doing) sth.

worth one’s while 值得努力

worthy of (doing) sth. worthy of consideration

A worthy person/thing: approved of by society and considered to morally respectable or correct 值得尊敬

worthwhile

Worth(p.27); worthy; worthwhile


Lesson three

  • It isn't worth waiting for him.

  • It is worth while visiting [to visit] the place.

  • a man worthy of praise [to be praised]

  • This book is worthy of being read.=This book is worth reading.


Subsidiary p 28

A subsidiary occupation 副业

A subsidiary stream

支流

A subsidiary factory

分厂

A subsidiary payment补贴费

Affiliate: as a member; officially connected;下属机构;成员;附属电台

The World Chess Foundation has ~s in around 120 nations.

Subsidiary(p.28):子公司; 辅助的,次要的


Pan out p28 to turn out to succeed

pan out p28 to turn out; to succeed

  • The plan panned out as they wished.

  • “If I don't pan out as an actor I can still go back to school”

  • “如果我不能胜任做一名医生,我仍能够回到学校”

  • 1.没人知道事情结果会怎样。

  • Nobody knew how the things would pan out.

  • 2.我连哈佛大学就读的计划没成功。

  • My plan to study at Harvard didn't pan out.

  • 3. 乔治叔叔的计划从来没有成功过。

  • Uncle George's plans never pan out.


Edge p 30 advantage

Edge(p.30):advantage;

  • The Democrats hold the edge in the Senate.

  • 民主党人在参议院中占优势。

  • He is edging ahead in the opinion polls.

  • (moving slowly to)

  • They have driven the rhino to the edge of extinction.

  • (the point sth bad is to happen)

  • Greene’s stories had an edge of realism.

  • (powerful quality)

  • There was a nervous edge to his voice.

  • (sharpness, bitterness or controlled emotion)


Credit p 31 praise

Credit(p.31): praise;归功于

  • We don’t mind who gets the credit so long as we don’t get the blame.

  • The mayor is credited with helping make the city prosperous.

  • (Credit sb with achievement/ credit achievement to sb/sth)

  • They are crediting science with power it doesn’t possess. 认为…具有;信赖


Lesson three

  • You are a nice girl, and your heart does you credit.因为你心肠好

  • Bruno had more ability than the media gives him credit for.认为某人有

  • She had managed to pull herself together and, to her credit, continued to look upon life as positive experience. 值得赞扬

  • You are a credit to the soccer team.增光的人


Aid v n line17

aid v.& n.(line17)

to aid sb. in

e.g He aids me in my work.

to aid sb to do sth

to give aid

to offer/provide aid

to come to sb’s aid

aid in…


Lesson three

  • cf;help/aid/assistant

  • help强调积,主动地帮助他人解决实际困难,使受帮助者从中得益.

  • She helped us move the furniture.

  • aid 指在对方处于困境,急需救助的情况下助以一臂之力.

  • I aided him with money and advice.

  • assist”帮助“”协助“,书面用语,表示以助手的地位提供协助.

  • He assists me in editing the paper.


Lesson three

  • I could finish the job faster if you would __ me.

  • The Red Cross____ flood victims.

  • The nurse ______ the doctor in the operating.

help

aided

assisted


Lesson three

Bridge Game The card game bridge has long been popular as a social activity. There are three main varieties of the game: auction bridge, contract bridge, and duplicate bridge. All are played by two teams of two players each.


Abbreviations

Abbreviations:

  • UN

    United Nations 联合国

  • UNESCO

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization联合国教科文组织

  • WHO

    World Health Organization 世界卫生组织

  • WTO

    World Trade Organization世界贸易组织

  • OPEC

    Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries 石油输出国组织


Abbreviations1

Abbreviations:

  • APEC

    The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

    亚太经贸合作组织

  • OECD

    Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 经济合作与发展组织[欧洲]

  • IMF

    International Monetary Fund 国际货币基金组织

  • NATO

    North Atlantic Treaty Organization

    北大西洋公约组织

  • EU

    European Union 欧洲同盟


Abbreviations2

Abbreviations:

  • UK

    United Kingdom 联合王国

  • PRC

    People‘s Republic of China中华人民共和国

  • GNP

    Gross National Product 国民生产总值

  • GDP

    Gross Domestic Product 国内生产总值

  • ITT

    International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation 国际电话电报公司[美]


Abbreviations3

Abbreviations:

  • GM

    General Motors Corporation 通用汽车公司[美]

  • FBI

    Federal Bureau of Investigation (美国)联邦调查局

  • CIA

    Central Intelligence Agency 中央情报局[美]

  • CCTV

    China Central Television中国中央电视台

  • VOA

    Voice of America ,美国之音


Abbreviations4

Abbreviations:

  • BBC

    British Broadcasting Corporation英国广播公司

  • CBS

    Columbia Broadcasting System哥仑比亚广播系统([美]

  • WW II

    World War Two 第二次世界大战

  • GMT

    Greenwich Mean Time 格林尼治标准时间

  • UFO

    unidentified flying object 不明飞行物


Abbreviations5

Abbreviations:

  • NAFTA

    North American Free Trade Agreement

    北美自由贸易协定

  • UPI

    United Press International合众国际社

  • JAL

    Japan Air Lines, 日本航空公司

  • MIT

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    马萨诸塞州理工学院, 麻省理工学院[美]

  • UCLA

    University of California at Los Angeles

    (美国)加利福尼亚大学洛杉矶分校


Abbreviations6

Abbreviations:

  • US

    United States 美国

  • HK

    Hong Kong 香港

  • AD

    公元 (Anno Domini)

  • BC

    Before Christ 公元前

  • NASA

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    (美国)国家航空和宇宙航行局


Paraphrase

Paraphrase

  • 1.And today, at 29, he has discovered the power of another good idea that has helped him rise in just a few years from teen to tycoon.(4)

  • And today, at 29, he has discovered the power of another good idea that has helped him become successful in just a few years from a teenager to a wealthy and powerful businessman.


2 he thought it might be a good idea to get high school out of the way 6

2.…he thought it might be a good idea to get high school out of the way. (6)

  • …he thought it might be a good idea to finish the education by getting a high school equivalency diploma.


3 newlyweds he figured were the best prospects 8

 3. Newlyweds, he figured, were the best prospects,…(8)

  • He guessed that newly-married people were the most likely to buy the subscriptions.


Lesson three

  4. He also knew that holding excess inventory was costly. So he bought dealers’ surplus stock at cost. (11)

  • He also knew that holding too many goods in stock cost too much money. So he bought dealers’surplus at the price paid for its production.


5 dell placed local advertisements offering his customized computers at 15 percent off retail price

 5. Dell placed local advertisements offering his customized computers at 15 percent off retail price.

  • Dell advertised on the local newspaper offering his computers designed particularly for customers at the price which was 15 percent lower than that of the retail.


6 it was time to come to grips with the magnitude of what he had created 14

6. It was time to come to grips with the magnitude of what he had created. (14)

  • It was time to deal with the great size of the things that he had created.


7 dell still specialized in direct marketingof ibm pcs to which he addecustom features 22

7. Dell still specialized in direct marketingof IBM PCs to which he addecustom features. (22)

  • Dell still spent much more time in selling directly IBM PCs to which he added qualities designed particularly for customers.


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